Consolidated Index: A

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth)
    gas pipelines, implications where, YB95.239
Aboriginal cultural heritage
    accreditation regime, YB04.493–4
    cultural heritage management plans, YB04.508–9, YB04.510
    declarations of preservation, YB04.484–5
            authorised officers, YB04.486
            duty to those affected, YB04.487–93
            ministerial power to make, YB04.485–7, YB04.502–4
            procedure, YB04.486
    duty of care, YB04.505–6
            activities causing additional surface disturbance, YB04.507–8
            activities causing no additional surface disturbance, YB04.507
            activities involving no surface disturbance, YB04.506–7
            areas previously subject to significant ground disturbance, YB04.507
            developed areas, YB04.507
    future acts, YB04.483, YB04.510
    Indigenous Land Use Agreements (ILUAs), registered, YB04.483
    information, restrictions on, YB04.492
    “injury or desecration”, meaning of, YB04.485–6
    interim protection orders, YB04.504–5
    knowledge, YB04.503
    legislation, YB04.484
            Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth), YB04.484–8
            Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Bill 1998 (Cth), YB04.493–4
            Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 (Qld), YB04.505–9
            Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 (WA), YB04.496–9
            Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988 (SA), YB04.501–2
            Aboriginal Relics Act 1975 (Tas), YB04.509
            Aboriginal Sacred Sites Act 1989 (NT), YB04.499–501
    Archaeological and Aboriginal Relics Preservation Act 1972 (Vic), YB04.489–91, YB04.495–6
            Commonwealth and State, conflict between, YB04.491
            Heritage Conservation Act 1991 (NT), YB04.500–1
            National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (NSW), YB04.502–5
            predictability, YB04.492
            reform proposals, YB04.491–3
    Mabo decisions, YB04.481, YB04.482
    ministerial discretion, YB04.492–3, YB04.498–9
    Native Title, YB04.481–3
    negotiation and mediation, YB04.509–11
    “normative system”, YB04.482
    offences, YB04.495, YB04.503, YB04.505–6
    registration of sites
            Northern Territory, YB04.500
            onus of proof, YB04.497
            South Australia, YB04.502
            Victoria, YB04.495–6
            Western Australia, YB04.497–8
    “relic”, definition, YB04.509
    reporting processes, YB04.492
    sacred sites, YB04.499–501
    “significance”, meaning of, YB-04.485
    Ward cases, YB04.481
    Yorta Yorta case, YB04.482
Aboriginal customs
    native title
            ceremonial purposes, for, YB02.136
            determination, YB02.144
        establishment of, YB02.144, YB02.148, YB02.149, YB02.152, YB02.154, YB02.156-157, YB02.171, YB02.172, YB02.192-193, YB02.196
    recognition of, YB02.103, YB02.105-106
Aboriginal heritage
    cultural heritage legislation (Qld), J03.413-415, J04.130-131    
    grant of injunction, J02.126-127
injunction, J01.224
    protection of, YB02.154, YB02.193
refusal of injunction, J02.119-123, J02.125-126
    relevance to application, J01.130
Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 (WA)
amendment regarding administrative structure, B95.241
Aboriginal interests—see also Native title; Queensland Land Tribunal
Cultural Record (Landscapes Queensland and Queensland Estate) Act 1987, B94.169
Aboriginal issues
    Jabiluka uranium mine, YB00.197, YB00.203, YB00.204-205, YB00.208, YB00.212, YB00.218
    native title agreements, see Native title agreements
    objections to natural resource projects, see Objections to natural resource projects
    water rights, YB00.322
Aboriginal land see Indigenous Land Use Agreements (ILUAs)
Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 (Cth)
native title under, YB02.132
Aboriginal lands
    acquisition of, YB02.98
    Canada, in, YB02.210
        governmental authority for, YB02.210
        title to, YB02.213-214, YB02.217-220, YB02.239
    common law, at, see Native title
    enjoyment of, YB02.132
    indigenous owners, YB02.132
    minerals, right to YB02.132
    native title, see Native title
    occupation of, YB02.108, YB02.111, YB02.132
    possession of, YB02.132
    rights, YB02.96, YB02.102
        recognition of, YB02.105
    sovereignty over, YB02.220
    title to, YB02.213
    traditional owners, YB02.102, YB02.132
    use of, YB02.132
Aboriginal law
    community, YB02.112
    recognition of, YB02.98, YB02.103, YB02.124, YB02.154
Aboriginal relics
    liability for damage to, J99.7-8
Aboriginal rights
    agreement on, YB02.112
    airspace, YB02.120
    Canada, in, see Canadian aboriginal rights
    characterisation of, YB02.126
    co-existing, see Native title
    common law, at, YB02.95, YB02.96, YB02.99, YB02.102, YB02.105-106, YB02.112, YB02.123-124
    exclusive possession, see Native title
    existence of, YB02.95, YB02.216
        proof of, YB02.216
    extent of, YB02.95
    extinguishment of, see Native title
    fishing, YB02.117, YB02.120
    hunting, YB02.126
    identification of, YB02.112
    infringement of, YB02.215, YB02.216
    land, see Aboriginal land
    legislation, see Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
    native title, see Native title
    nature of, YB02.95
    proof of, YB02.216
    recognition of, YB02.98, YB02.105-106, YB02.123-124
    self-government, YB02.123-124
        recognition of, YB02.124
    special, YB02.112
    test for, YB02.126
    transfer of, YB02.95
    waterways, YB02.117, YB02.120
Aboriginal sacred site—see Sacred site
Aboriginal spiritual material
    native title claims, evidence in, J00.134-136
        privilege, J00.134-135
        public interest immunity, J00.136
        relevance, J00.135
        waiver of privilege, J00.135-136
Aboriginal sovereignty
    recognition of, YB02.123
Aboriginal traditions
    change of, YB02.123-124
    community, YB02.112
    enforcement of, YB02.124
    evidence of, YB02.163
    native title
    determination of, YB02.144, YB02.148, YB02.149, YB02.152, YB02.154, YB02.156-157, YB02.163, YB02.168, YB02.171, YB02.172
establishment of, YB02.136, YB02.139, YB02.141, YB02.144, YB02.148, YB02.149, YB02.152, YB02.154, YB02.156-157, YB02.192-193, YB02.195-196
    proof of, YB02.143-145, YB02.147, YB02.154
    recognition of, YB02.105-106, YB02.124
        ceremonial purposes, YB02.136
Aborigines—see also Indigenous rights
Aboriginal Legal Rights Movement, YB98.20, YB98.562
beliefs in land, YB96.114-115, YB96.121
constitutional law and, YB98.521, YB98.522, YB98.525, YB98.529
cultural heritage—see Cultural heritage
customary law, YB98.502, YB98.515-517, YB98.536, YB98.542, YB98.557
hierarchical form, YB94.144
failure of common law to recognise, YB98.499, YB98.514-516
joint venture agreements, YB96.118
land rights, YB94.135
legislation, YB96.171
law and customs, administrative systems under, YB94.145
native title—see Native title
non-Aboriginal Australia, attitude to, YB94.138
reconciliation, YB96.122
relationship with mining industry, YB96.119-120
representative bodies, YB96.116-117
right to negotiate, YB98.517, see also Mining; Native title
Mining Act (SA), effect, YB98.24-26
Native Title Act 1993, under, YB98.21
sacred site, legal definition, YB98.558
sea tenure, YB98.533-536
social justice for, YB94.134
special institutions and laws, YB98.517
Stolen Generations case, YB98.523
tradition, what is, YB94.141
Abuse of process, B95.18–19
Acceptable risks, YB93.2–4—see also Environmental risks
ACCC determination, YB97.17-19
airports, YB97.45
application for, process of, YB97.17-20, YB97.43
arbitration, J97.220-221, J97.226
arrangements, YB04.182
    arbitration and negotiation, YB04.208–9
competition principles agreement, J97.229-230
competition, promotion of, YB04.194
contractual rights, YB04.224
    criteria, YB97.5-17
existing regime, no effective, YB97.12
health and safety, YB97.12
        national significance, YB97.11-12
            trade and commerce power, YB97.11
        promotion of competition, YB97.5-9
            extent required, YB97.7
        public interest, not contrary to, YB97.16
        uneconomical to duplicate, YB97.9-11
declaration, J97.217-220
    declaration of service, criteria for, YB04.184
        application procedure, YB04.207–8
declaration of services, YB99.540
    disputes, arbitration of, YB04.185–6
electricity, YB97.35-36
National Electricity Market Code of Conduct, YB97.36
    essential facilities doctrine, YB04.201–2
        pre-requisites, YB04.202–6
        tests, YB04.204
    extension of facilities, YB04.210–11
fee, YB97.7-8, YB97.20-25, YB97.44
pricing models, YB97.22-24
purpose of, YB97.21
    free trade agreements, YB04.577–8
gas, YB97.36-41
Cooper Basin Ratification Act 1975, YB97.39
ACCC’s recommendations for review, YB97.40
national access arrangements, YB97.25-31, YB97.37
Code adopted by States, YB97.26, YB97.37
important elements of Code, YB97.26-29
reference tariffs, setting, YB97.29
ring-fencing obligations, YB97.27, YB97.38
    gas, see Access to upstream facilities
    gas industry, risk of coverage, YB04.390–2
    information asymmetry, YB04.210
infrastructure, J97.212-230
investment certainty, impact on, YB04.206–8
    legitimate business interests of service providers, YB04.196–7
    mining infrastructure, YB04.205
monopoly characteristics, YB97.10
National Competition Council, view of, YB97.4, YB97.10
National Gas Access Code (NGAC) principles, YB04.219–20
        MCE recommendations, YB04.417
natural monopolies and bottlenecks, YB04.182–3, YB04.201–2
open, YB97.32-48
pipelines, J97.196
practical aspects of, YB97.1-31
pricing, J97.226-227
pricing, determination of, YB04.213–14
        Competition Principles Agreement, YB04.214–15
        electricity industry, YB04.216–19
        gas industry, YB04.219–22
        individual access regimes, YB04.216
        Productivity Commission, recommendations of, YB04.215
        Trade Practices Act, YB04.215
    production process, YB04.189–90, YB04.193–4
    Productivity Commission Review, YB04.198–9
    “provider”, definition, YB04.186
    provider has no excess capacity, YB04.208–11
    public interest, assessment of, YB04.197–8
rail, YB97.46-47
current applications, YB97.46
rail see Rail access
regime in Pt IIIA Trade Practices Act, YB99.539, YB99.540
resources sector, YB04.186–7
        Fortescue Metals application, YB04.192–5
        Hamersley Iron case, YB04.187–92
“service”, meaning of, YB04.188
service, to a, YB97.2-5, YB97.34, YB97.42
State agreements YB04.223–5
        priority of, YB04.223
        Trade Practices Act, under, YB04.223
State and Territory regimes, YB97.12-16, YB97.34, J97.222-223
telecommunications, YB97.41-44
access pricing, YB97.44
industry self-regulation, YB97.43
terms and conditions, YB04.196–7
Trade Practices Act
Pt IIIA, YB97.2-25
arbitrations under, YB97.35
introduction of, YB97.33
State regimes, relationship with, YB97.12-16, YB97.34
Pt XIC, YB97.42
transport infrastructure, YB04.183
undertakings, YB04.195-6, J97.219-217
    vertical integration, YB04.206
Access regimes
    ACCC, regulation by, YB01.183
access holidays, YB01.209-211
administrative decisions, see Administrative decisions
    appeals, YB01.216-217
    application of, YB01.197
    asset valuation, YB01.211-213
    Australian, YB01.197-199
    competition, promotion of, YB01.231, YB01.232, YB01.311, YB01.318-321
    concept of access, YB01.230
    coverage of, YB01.213-216
    distribution networks, to, independent state regulators, YB01.183
    duplication of facility not economical, YB01.23, YB01.311, YB01.322-323
    economics of regulation, YB01.199-203
    error costs
        access and, YB01.200
        access prices and, YB01.200-202
        definition, YB01.200
        implications for access policy, YB01.202-203
    gas, see Gas access regime
    Hilmer Report recommendation, YB01.197, YB01.230
    history of regulation, YB01.230
    introduction, YB01.197
    judicial review of decisions, see Judicial review
    legislative scheme, YB01.198, YB01.233
        overview, YB01.310-313
    merits reviews, YB01.216-217
    Productivity Commission review of, YB01.197, YB01.207-219, YB01.225, YB01.301-303
    regulators, YB01.233-236
        ACCC, YB01.183, YB01.233
        criticism of, YB01.229
        discretionary powers, YB01.235
        separate regulatory bodies, YB01.217-219
        State and Territory, YB01.233
Access to services,  see National access regime
Access to upstream facilities, YB99.165-215
    access agreement
        delivery/supply obligations, YB99.185-186
        force majeure provisions, YB99.185, YB99.188
        forecast demands for use, YB99.185
        guaranteed minimum payment, YB99.188
        inability to provide service, provision for, YB99.185
        interruption of services, YB99.187
        liability for non-performance, YB99.187
        measurement and testing of product, YB99.188
        priority, YB99.187
        product specification, YB99.186
        risk, YB99.186
        service provider's obligations, YB99.186
        stock losses, provision for, YB99.186
        tariff arrangements, YB99.187
        terms of, YB99.185-188
        title in product, YB99.186
    APPEA principles, YB99.203-204, YB99.209, YB99.215
    areas of concern, YB99.204-206
        automatic right of access, YB99.204
        dispute resolution, YB99.204-205
        tariff-setting, YB99.206
        timeliness, YB99.205-206
    available capacity
        defining, YB99.183-184
        expansion, YB99.184
    best practice principles, YB99.203-204, YB99.209, YB99.215
        areas of concern, YB99.204-206
    Carnarvon Basin, YB99.212, YB99.214
    commercial negotiation, YB99.200-201, YB99.214-215
    competition policy, YB99.196-198, YB99.208-211
    Cooper Basin, YB99.200-201, YB99.202
    criteria for declaration of services, YB99.175-178
        national significance, YB99.177
        no health or safety risk, YB99.177
        not contrary to public interest, YB99.178
        not under effective access regime, YB99.177
        criteria for, YB99.175-178
    definition of service, YB99.183
    dispute resolution, YB99.204-205
        agreement provisions, YB99.188
        UK code of practice, YB99.193-194
    distribution of gas reserves and pipelines, YB99.212
    essential facilities, YB99.168-169
    Gas Pipelines Access Law, YB99.178
    Gulf of Mexico, YB99.212
    Hilmer Report, YB99.168-170
    InterGovernmental Natural Gas Pipelines Access Agreement, YB99.196, YB99.197
    joint venture facilities, YB99.184-185
    matters to be addressed, YB99.182
    National Third Party Access Code for Natural Gas Pipeline
        Systems, YB99.178-179, YB99.197, YB99.208
    need for regulated access, YB99.199-200, YB99.209-210
    nominations by access seeker, YB99.185
    North America, YB99.211-212
    Part IIIA, Trade Practices Act, YB99.170, YB99.199
        criteria for declaration under, YB99.175-178
        service, meaning of, YB99.170-171
    price reduction possibilities, YB99.212-214
    producer's perspective, YB99.208-215
    production process, use of, YB99.172-175
    rationale for regulation, YB99.198-203, YB99.209-210
    regulator's perspective, YB99.195-207
    s 46, Trade Practices Act, YB99.165-167, YB99.200
        suitability, YB99.201-202
    scheduling for use, YB99.185
    service, meaning of, YB99.170-171
    service provider's entitlement to offer access, YB99.184
    stock losses, YB99.186
    tariff-setting principles, YB99.206
    UK Offshore Infrastructure Code of Practice
        Australian code based on, YB99.180
        summary, YB99.189-194
    Upstream Issues Working Group, YB99.179-182, YB99.202-203
    Varanus Island access agreement, YB99.214-215
    GST on remote housing, YB00.454-455
        `fly in and fly out' accommodation, YB00.454-455
Account of profits
    breach of contract, for, YB04.123
    equitable remedy, YB04.123
    compliance, YB02.346
        confidence, YB02.342
        credibility, YB02.342-344
        failure of, YB02.342
        self-regulatory, YB02.345
        standards, YB02.343, YB02.345
    international standards, see International Accounting Standards    
    processes, YB02.342
    standards, compliance with, YB02.346
    project accounts, YB03.98–99
Acid rain program, YB00.368-369
    see also Greenhouse gas emissions
acquisition and disposition of mining interests
    uniform capital allowance, J02.62, J02.76
Acquisition of property, YB98.75-99
Commonwealth v Western Australia, YB98.94-96
Commonwealth v WMC Resources Ltd, YB98.49, YB98.50, YB98.54-55, YB98.59-60, YB98.61-63, YB98.72, YB98.74
Commonwealth laws effecting, YB98.50, YB98.56-63, YB98.85, YB98.88
exceptions, YB98.64-67
Constitution, s 51(xxxi), YB98.49-99
power, YB98.77-81
Coronation Hill, J97.184-187
definition, YB98.53-56, YB98.85-89
extinguishment or modification constituting, statutory rights, see Statutory rights infra
for any purpose, YB98.90
intellectual property rights, YB98.60
just terms, on, YB94.555, YB98.49, YB98.50, YB98.71-74, YB98.75-77, YB98.78, YB98.81-82, YB98.90-93, YB98.96
compensation, YB98.71-73, YB98.90-93
exceptions, YB98.64-67, YB98.79-80
fair procedures, YB98.92-93
justiciability and, YB98.72-73
Northern Territory, recent claim by, YB94.565
native title, and, YB98.96-98, YB98.552
Newcrest Mining (WA) Ltd v Commonwealth, YB98.49-50, YB98.54, YB98.61, YB98.62, YB98.67, YB98.68, YB98.70, YB98.74, YB98.81, YB98.87-88, YB98.96-97
Northern Territory, J97.184-187
property not formally acquired
mining tenements, extinguishment, YB98.54, YB98.61-62
petroleum exploration permits, extinguishment, YB98.54-55
statutory rights, withdrawal, YB98.57-63
court's treatment of, YB98.61-63
inherent defeasibility, YB98.57-61
mere extinguishment, YB98.86-88
Teori Tau v Commonwealth, YB98.68-69, YB98.81, YB98.96-97
Territories power, YB98.67-71, YB98.81
what is, YB94.553
Acts Amendment and Repeal (Native Title) Bill 1995 (WA)
background, B95.242
compensation, B95.245
compliance with Racial Discrimination Act 1975, B95.243
objectives, B95.244
procedural requirements, B95.244–245
purpose, B95.242–243
Acts Interpretation (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA), B94.146
    administrative law remedies, YB04.178–9
    application, YB04.171–2
    challenges, YB04.178–9
    conference, YB04.174
    costs, YB04.175
    determination, YB04.174
        consequences, YB04.175–6
        responses, YB04.176–7
    injunctions, YB04.179
    inspection, YB04.174
    process, YB04.173–4
    response, YB04.172–3
Adjustment agreement—see Futures, types
Admissions,  J00.219-222
Administrative appeals—see also Judicial review
“interpretation summons” (in Supreme Court Queensland), B94.53
Minerals and Energy Department Queensland
error in law, B94.2
merits review, B94.1
Queensland Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, B94.1
Administrative decisions
    adverse, YB01.248
    concerns about, whether to withhold, YB01.246
    draft, YB01.247-248
    judicial review, see Judicial review
    prior representations, effect of, YB01.245
    procedural fairness, YB01.245
    reasons for, YB01.257-260
    right of persons affected to be heard, YB01.244-245
Administrative law adjudication, remedies to, YB04.178–9
    contractual obligation, YB02.34
        good faith, of, YB02.34
fiduciary duties, YB04.116    
relational contract, YB02.34
    under Mineral Resources Act (Qld), J02. 21
acting for the Crown, YB93.152
Agreement to negotiate
    binding, YB02.15
    breach of, YB02.16
        damages for, YB02.16
    enforcement of, YB02.15-16
    fair dealing, in, YB02.17
    good faith, in, YB02.15-18
    injunction, YB02.15-16
    terms of, YB02.17
        binding, whether, YB02.17
        modification of, YB02.18
    agree, to, YB01.382, YB01.402-411
    contract, see Contract
    dual listed companies, implementing, see Dual listed companies (DLC)
    natural gas industry, in see Natural gas
Airports, access tosee Access
    native title, determination of, YB02.136
    rights to, grant of, YB02.120
Alcohol—see Drugs in the workplace
Alinta Gas Corporation (WA)
accountability, B95.14
establishment, B95.14
Alliances, project, YB97.127-146—see also Contracts, construction
agreements, alliance, YB97.141
aligned objectives groups, YB97.147, YB97.151-152, YB97.158
commercial drivers, YB97.144
contractual structures, YB97.138
multiple-contract model, YB97.140
single-contract model, YB97.140
two-contract model, YB97.139
definition, YB97.134, YB97.150
development contracts, YB97.142
contractual checklist, YB97.143
East Spar project, YB97.139
facilitators, YB97.145
history of, YB97.135
Ampolex, YB97.136, YB97.152-157
BHP, YB97.137
BP, YB97.135
WMC, YB97.137
lawyers involved in, YB97.145
participant selection, YB97.151-152
Port Hedland Construction project, YB97.141
principles of, YB97.138
risk management, YB97.148-149
risk/reward curve, YB97.144
sub-alliancing, YB97.145
terminology, YB97.128
traditional contract model, YB97.129-131
Wandoo project, YB97.140, YB97.144, YB97.152-157
Alliancing, B96.202–214
Alternative dispute resolution
    increasing popularity, YB03.38
    multi-tier clauses, YB03.38
Alternative risk transfer
    environmental impairment, for, YB02.398-404
        arrangements, YB02.399, YB02.402
        ‘cat’ bond, YB02.400, YB02.401
        costs, YB02.398
        definition, YB02.399
        derivatives, YB02.403
        facilities, YB02.400-403
        products, YB02.398
        ‘pur parametric trigger', YB02.401
        risk management, YB02.400
        structures, YB02.402-403
Aluminium industry
    natural gas requirements, YB01.285
joint ventures, of, see Joint ventures
AMPLA News, B96.121
annual conference, B96.88, B96.121
appointment of Executive Director, B95.260
conference, B94.95
life membership award, B96.121
National Board, B96.161
new Bulletin format, B96.161
appointment of Editor, B96.161
office bearers for 1996, B95.228
office bearers for 1997, B96.121
President’s page, B94.50, B94.94, B94.135–136
representation on committee
Land Access and Legislation Committee (SA), B94.146
Petroleum Industry Liaison Committee (SA), B94.146
Research Grant, B95.86, B95.159
submission on Native Title Bill 1993, B94.41–49
determination of native title, B94.47
future grants, B94.44–45
National Native Title Tribunal, B94.46, B94.47–48
“past acts”, B94.42–43
potential for ambit claims, B94.45
potential for compensation, B94.43
validation of existing titles, B94.42
validity of grants, B94.43–44
survey of members, B96.89
Western Australian Branch annual general meeting, B95.250–260
Ampol/Caltex merger, YB96.355, YB96.371
Anaconda arbitration, YB03.28–32
    hearing, YB03.29–30
    lessons learnt, YB03.30–32
    preliminary conference, YB03.28
expert evidence, in native title cases, YB94.22, YB94.25
    admission of guilt, as, J00.218-219
        context, importance of, J00.226
        legal issues for, J00.220-222
    confidential statements, J00.227-228
definition, J00.219
    compensation under Mineral Resources Act (Qld), J99.82-89
        conduct of appeal, J99.88
        outcome, J99.88-89
    from tribunal (Qld), J03.15-16,  (Vic), J03.419-421
    refusal of leave (Qld), J03.407-408
    right of
        domestic arbitration, YB03.26–27
        international arbitration, YB03.27–28
    Warden’s Court (WA) decision, J99.122-125
        stay of execution pending, J99.124-125
        Supreme Court, to, J99.123-124
access arrangement, YB93.429
access disputes, YB04.185–6
advantage of, YB03.17
amount in issue, YB94.211
Anaconda arbitration, YB03.28-32
appeal from, YB94.212
appeal, rights of, YB03.24-26
appropriate procedure, whether, YB94.210
body, YB02.122
broad clauses, YB94.218
clauses, see contract    
compulsory, YB02.122
confidentiality, YB94.215
concept of, YB03.1
cost of, YB94.212, YB03.28
criticism of, YB94.209
    domestic, YB02.655, YB02.660, YB02.662-665
hearings, YB03.23-24
innovations, YB03.15
international, see International arbitration
international law disputes, YB00.68
issues of principle, YB94.212
    National Native Title Tribunal, by, see National
        Native Title Tribunal
    native title, of see Native title
People’s Republic of China, in, YB03.191–195
privacy of, YB94.215
    procedural advantages, YB03.17
    procedural law, YB02.655
        CAA, YB02.655, YB02.660, YB02.662-665
        domestic, YB02.655, YB02.660, YB02.662-665
        Model Law, application of, YB02.655
reasons for using, YB03.5–9
recent developments, YB94.207
royalty disputes, YB93.254–255
scope of arbitration agreement, YB94.218
settlement, promotion of, YB03.15
    stay of proceedings J03.26-28
    subpoenas, use of, YB04.100
technical arbitrations, YB03.16
technical issues, YB94.211
urgency, YB94.211
    what is, YB03.1
Arbitration agreement
    drafting, YB03.14, YB03.33–39
    promotion of efficient dispute resolution, YB03.27
    choice of, YB03.15–17
        relevant factors, YB03.16
        timing for, YB03.17
    control of procedure by, YB03.17
    discovery, approach to, YB03.22
    lump sum payment, YB03.27
    objectives of speed and efficiency, YB03.28
    technical qualifications, YB03.16
Area of interest provisions—see Mutual interest provisions
foreign investment in minerals, YB94.280
Argyle mining project
    native title issues, J00.90-92
Arrangement, schemes of—see Mergers and acquisitions
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
application of laws of Northern Territory, B95.176–179
Federal Court proceedings, in—see Federal Court
    joint venture agreement, J99.174-175 
joint venture agreements
        damages where breach of assignment restriction, YB01.121
        injunction to prevent sale in breach of restriction, YB01.121
mining lease (Qld), J99.109-110
    operation of clause, YB01.142
    personal performance required, YB01.120
    prohibition under, YB01.118-122
    requirements, YB01.118
    restrictions void as restraint on alienation of private property, YB01.118
ASX Listing Rules
    disclosure obligations, YB00.495-496, YB00.497, YB00.512-513
    mining companies, YB00.511-515
        disclosure obligations, YB00.512-513
        eligibility for listing, YB00.512
        restricted securities, YB00.513-515
administration, based on European concepts of, YB94.146
    firms, of, rotation of, YB02.344
    process, YB02.344
        control of, YB02.345
    standards, YB02.344
    independence of, YB02.344
    non-audit services, YB02.344
    reporting obligations, YB02.345
Australasian Code for Reporting of Identified Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves, YB95.5
Australia-Indonesia Zone of Co-operation
    cancellation of exploration permits without compensation, YB04.10
Australian Code for Reporting of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves, see JORC Code
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC)

access to electricity and gas transmission networks, YB01.183
    administration of TPA by, YB01.14
    coal asset acquisitions, YB01.137-138
customer lists, YB04.81
    electricity industry regulation, YB04.362, YB04.370–1, YB04.376–9
        National Electricity Code, authorisation of, YB04.383
        Western Australia, YB04.381
    electricity wholesale market, regulation of, YB01.189
    recent criticism about, YB01.189
establishment of, YB95.254
fishing expeditions, YB04.87
    funding, YB04.377
    gas industry regulation, YB04.364–5, YB04.370–1, YB04.376–9, YB04.387–8
        GasNet System (GNS), YB04.398–9
        Moomba-Adelaide Pipeline System (MAPS), YB04.396–8
        Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System (MSP), YB04.390–2, YB04.400–3
        Western Australia, YB04.381
    information, power to demand, YB04.81
inquiry into petrol industry, YB96.351, YB96.360, YB96.375-376, YB96.379-380
investigative powers, YB04.82
        limitations, YB04.87
    Memorandum of Understanding (AER, AEMC, ACCC), YB04.377
        Alcoa Inc and Reynolds Metal Company, YB01.7
        injunctions to restrain, YB01.15
        offshore mergers affecting Australian market, YB01.7
    proposed acquisition of Ashton Mining Limited, YB01.7-8
Mobil purchase of Amgas, YB96.355-357
pricing guidelines
        electricity industry, YB04.216–17
        case law, YB04.217–18
proper purpose, exercise of powers for, YB04.87–8
role in Caltex/Ampol merger, YB96.355
    strategy documents, YB04.81
    supply contracts, YB04.81
Australian competition law
    authorisation of conduct, YB01.21-22, YB01.371-372
        grounds for, YB01.22-23
        concept of, YB01.367
        gas industry, in, YB01.368
        major elements, YB01.367-368
        substantially lessening see substantially lessening competition below
    gas industry
        authorisation of conduct, YB01.371-372
        competition, concept of, YB01.367-368
        joint marketing, YB01.369-370
        joint venture monopolies restricting, YB01.181
        market, definition, YB01.366-367
        past restrictions on, YB01.181
        price fixing, YB01.368-369
    global context, in, YB01.3-8
    Hilmer Committee, YB01.23
    market, definition, YB01.366-367
        ACCC, role of, YB01.14
        barriers to entry, YB01.19
        concentration thresholds, YB01.17-18
        countervailing power, YB01.19
        divestiture orders, YB01.15
        import competition, YB01.18
        informal authorisation by ACCC, YB01.20-21
        key TPA provisions, YB01.14, YB01.15
        market dynamics, YB01.20
        penalties for contravention, YB01.15
        prohibition under TPA, YB01.15
        substantial lessening of competition, YB01.16-17
        transactions to which s 50 applies, YB01.15-16
        vertical integration, YB01.20
        vigorous and effective competitor, YB01.20
    National Competition Policy, YB01.197
    overview, YB01.14
    price fixing, joint venture exception, YB01.368-369
    resources industry, relating to, YB01.1-27
    substantially lessening competition
        coal assets, sale and purchase, YB01.137-138
        gas industry, YB01.367
        mergers, YB01.16-17
Australian Constructors Association,  J99.97
Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC)
    code change process, YB04.373–4, YB04.384–5
    energy market regulation, YB04.370, YB04.416
    functions, YB04.372
    funding, YB04.377
    members, YB04.372
    Memorandum of Understanding (AER, AEMC, ACCC), YB04.377
    processes, YB04.373–4
    progress, YB04.378
    review of decisions, YB04.377
Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
    ACCC, relationship with, YB04.376
    energy market regulation, YB04.370, YB04.416
    functions, YB04.375–6
    funding, YB04.377
    members, YB04.375
    Memorandum of Understanding (AER, AEMC, ACCC), YB04.377
    progress, YB04.378
    reviews of decisions, YB04.383–4
Australian Financial Services (AFS) licence
    application for, YB03.276
    Corporations Act, under, YB03.275
    disclosure and other obligations, YB03.276
    electricity market, corporate entities in, YB03.275
Australian foreign investment law
    application of, YB01.9-10
    coal asset acquisitions, YB01.136-138
    Foreign Investment Review Board, YB01.10
    national interest
        ground for rejecting applications, as, YB01.9
        what constitutes, YB01.10-11
    overview, YB01.9
    primary legislation, YB01.9
    Shell/Woodside decision, YB01.11-14, YB01.137
Australian Gas Light Company (AGL)
New South Wales, supply of gas to—see Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline
Australian Greenhouse Office
    establishment, YB03.301
Australian Heritage Commission v Mount Isa Mines Ltd, YB97.453-458
commission’s authority, YB97.454
decision, YB97.455
implications of, YB97.457
issue to be determined, YB97.454
reasons of High Court, YB97.456
Australian Minerals Council Voluntary Code for Environmental
        Management, YB00.58-59, YB00.62
Australian Oceans Policy, J99.1-3
Australian Offshore Petroleum Strategy, J99.99-100
Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA)
    investigative powers, YB04.83–4
    role, YB04.82
Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC)
    cross border 
        links, YB02.350
        markets, regulation of, YB02.349
        recognition principles, YB02.349
    examinations, power to conduct, YB04.85
    foreign collective investment schemes policy, YB02.349
    funding, YB02.129
    initiatives, YB02.348-349
    investigative powers, YB04.84–5
    IOSCO representative, YB02.348
    memorandum of understanding, YB02.507
    premises, power to enter, YB04.85
    production of documents, power to compel, YB04.85
    regulator, YB02.346
        corporations, YB02.346
        securities, YB02.346
    role of, YB02.280-281
Australian Stock Exchange (ASX)
arm’s length transactions, YB96.421-422
Listing Rule 3.1, YB96.387, YB96.395-396
role in continuous disclosure, YB96.396-397
Australian Takeovers Panel see Takeovers Panel
Australian Taxation Office (ATO)

    investigative powers, YB04.85
        limitations, YB04.88
    premises, power to enter, YB04.85
Authorised Nominating Authorities (ANAs), YB04.171–2

Consolidated Index: B

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Bank guarantees
    construction contractors, from, YB03.117
    gas and electricity supply contracts, YB03.97–91
    project bankability, YB03.85–91, YB03.144–149
Banks—see Financial risk management, Lenders’ liability
Basel Capital Accord, YB03.164
Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of
    Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1989, YB00.77-78
    dispute settlement provisions, YB00.68, YB00.78
    enforcement, YB00.78
    obligations of parties, YB00.77
Protocol, YB00.78
Bayu-Undan project, YB00.138, YB00.140, YB00.141-150
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.250
Best and reasonable efforts
    duty of, YB02.9, YB02.44
        determination of, YB02.44
        explicit term, YB02.9
        imposition of, YB02.9
        particular circumstance, YB02.9
        requirement for, YB02.9-10
        scope of, YB02.9
BHP—see Disclosure of discoveries; Alliances, project
Biala Pty Ltd v Mallina Holdings Ltd, YB94.569
appeal, YB94.586
background, YB94.569
claims for breaches of fiduciary duty, YB94.572
basis of, YB94.572
derivative actions, YB94.578
directors, action against, YB94.585
facts, YB94.570
findings of fact, YB94.573
practical significance of, YB94.587
remedy, equitable compensation, YB94.583
amount of, YB94.584
principles of assessment, YB94.584
actual or apparent, B95.4
adviser to tribunal, B95.5
apparent bias, B95.4–6
application of well settled tests to facts, B95.4
involvement of judge as partisan, B95.5
leave to appeal refused, B95.170
political appointment, B95.4
“reasonable observer”, B95.5–6
“reasonable suspicion”, B95.4
lacks jurisdiction, B95.4
“principle of necessity”, B95.5
quashing of decision, B95.4–6
views of member, B95.5
Bias of decision-maker, YB01.250-252
Bidder, see Takeovers
Biodiversity conservation, see also Environment protection
    EPBC Act, YB01.77
        Acts replaced by, YB01.75
        benefits delivered by, YB01.80-81
        experience to date, YB01.79-80
        fundamental reform under, YB01.74
        key changes under, YB01.75
        national scheme, YB01.74
        penalties under, YB01.79
Biomass-based power generation, YB00.300-302, YB00.305
    biomass resources, YB00.300
    capital costs, YB00.301-302
    environmental incentive to use, YB00.291
    examples of projects, YB00.301
    predictions as to use of, YB00.288
multi site franchising, YB96.368
Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
    native title, proposed amendments in determination of, YB95.472
Breach of confidence
    remedies, YB04.124
Breach of contract
    account of profits, YB04.123
    compensatory damages, YB04.123
    debt recovery, YB04.170
    suspension of work, YB04.170–1
Breach of duty
    damages for, see Damages
    fair dealing, of, YB02.2, YB02.4
    good faith, of, YB02.2, YB02.4, YB02.11, YB02.13, YB02.14, YB02.17, YB02.35, YB02.46
    liability for, YB02.13
    negotiate, of, YB02.18
Breach of statutory duty, YB02.424, YB02.429-430
    cause of action, YB02.429
    damages, YB02.424, YB02.429
Break fee
    breach of directors’ duties, YB01.50
    declaration of unacceptable circumstances, YB01.50
    definition, YB01.47
    legal issues, YB01.49-51
    “lock-up” characteristics, YB01.48
    oppression of minority, YB01.50
    prevention of transaction being completed, YB01.47
    resource company agreements, YB01.48
    trigger events, YB01.47
    foreign officials, see International bribery and corruption
Bribery of foreign officials, J99.177-183
    Criminal Code amendments, J99.177-183
    defences, J99.179-182
    nationality requirements, J99.182-183
    OECD Convention, J99.178
    territorial requirements, J99.182-183
    what constitutes an offence, J99.178-179
British Gas
British Gas Transportation, YB95.295
competition in market, YB95.295, YB95.326-327
contracts for supply, YB95.294, YB95.295
structure, YB95.296–297
power generation, lifting of prohibition on gas for, YB95.295
price of gas
negotiation, YB95.296–297
schedules, publication of, YB95.294
privatisation, process of, YB95.294
regulator, effect, YB95.296
take-or-pay arrangements, YB95.297
transportation charges
capacity charge, YB95.295
commodity charge, YB95.295
publication of, YB95.294, YB95.295
Building and construction
    duty of care, see Duty of care
Building and Construction Industry Payments Act 2004 (Qld), YB04.159
Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act 1999 (NSW), YB04.158
    construction work, definition, YB04.160–1
    related goods and services, definition, YB04.161–2
Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act 2002 (Vic), YB04.158–9
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.250

Consolidated Index: C

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Californian electricity market
    difficulties in, YB01.266-267
    inability to hedge risk, YB01.272-273
    lessons of, YB01.275-277
    natural phenomena, effect of, YB01.269-270
    politics of energy supply, YB01.274-275
        history of, YB01.267-268
        outcome of, YB01.273-274
        plan, YB01.268-269
    rising prices, YB01.269-270
    supply/demand imbalance, YB01.270-272
    triggers of energy crisis, YB01.269
native title in—see Native title: the North American experience
Canadian aboriginal rights
    affirmation of, YB02.209, YB02.214-215
        statute, by, YB02.214-215
    agreements, YB02.231-233
        impact and benefit, YB02.237-238
        private, YB02.237-238
    case law, YB02.209, YB02.211, YB02.224
    consultation, YB02.220-223
    content of, YB02.216
    Crown's fiduciary duty, YB02.214-216, YB02.220-221, YB02.224
    existence of, YB02.216
        proof of, YB02.216
    government, YB02.209, YB02.238
    India Act, see India Act
    infringement of, YB02.215, YB02.216
        justification for, YB02.216
    interpretation of, YB02.215-217
    justification for, YB02.216
    land title, YB02.213-214, YB02.217-220, YB02.239
    litigation, YB02.217-220
    nature of, YB02.215
    negotiation of, YB02.237-239
    post-Confederation treaties, YB02.213-215
    pre-Confederation treaties, YB02.212-213
    protection of, YB02.238
    recognition of, YB02.209, YB02.217, YB02.238
    reconciliation, YB02.216-217
    referendum, YB02.230-231
    regulation of, YB02.209-210
        case law, by, YB02.209, YB02.211, YB02.224
        statute, by, YB02.209, YB02.211, YB02.214-215, YB02.223-226, YB02.238
    reservation system, YB02.213
    Royal proclamation, YB02.211-212
    statutes, YB02.209, YB02.211, YB02.214-215, YB02.223-226, YB02.238
        application of, YB02.225
        British Columbia Treaty Process, YB02.228-230
        Federal Comprehensive Claims Policy, YB02.226-227
        infringement of, YB02.224-225
        interpretation of, YB02.223-226
        principles of, YB02.230-231
Cape York Land Council
centralism of mining laws, YB96.167-168, YB96.169-170
mine closure experience, YB96.442-443
native title, response to proposed changes
acceptance procedures, YB95.481
preliminary vetting, YB95.481, YB95.482-483
mediation process, YB95.481–482
procedural improvements, recommendations for, YB95.483–485
Capital gains tax (CGT)
    compensation payments, J99.86-87, J99.88, J99.89
    scrip for scrip rollover relief, YB01.39-40
Capital reduction,  see Reduction of capital
Caps, YB93.107, YB93.123–125
Carbon credits, see Greenhouse gas emissions
carbon rights
    trading, J02.137-138
Carbon rights (NSW)
    amendment of legislation, J99.3
    electricity and energy services, J99.3
    forestry, J99.3
    sequestration rights, J99.3
    Civil Liability Act 2002, YB04.136–7, YB04.154–5
    equitable compensation, YB04.126–130
    factual, YB04.136
    misleading and deceptive conduct and, YB04.150–2
    negligence and, YB04.149–50
    principles of, YB04.149
    scope of liability, YB04.136
non-consent caveat on mining lease, extension of, J00.106-107
royalty agreements, YB93.253
CERD Committee
    establishment, YB00.69
    functions, YB00.69
    members, YB00.69
    Native Title Act, consideration of, YB00.69-73
    power to enforce views, YB00.73
    report to General Assembly, YB00.73
    commercial contracts, in, YB03.604
Certiorari, YB96.544-545, YB96.548-549
foreign investment in minerals, YB94.280
foreign investment in minerals, YB94.281
    large emerging economy, YB04.60
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Association (CIETAC), YB03.35, YB03.193–194
China, People’s Republic of,  see People’s Republic of China
Choice of law
    project rating, risk in relation to, YB99.21-22
Choice of law rules, YB00.36, YB00.47-50
    double actionability rule, YB00.48-49, YB00.50
    Esmerelda case, YB00.49-50
    international torts, YB00.36, YB00.47-50
    Ok Tedi case, YB00.48-49
Civil jurisdiction
    offshore units, J99.24
Civil Liability Act 2002
    causation, YB04.136–7, YB04154–5
    contracting out of requirements, YB04.135
    impact of, YB04.134, YB04.154
    Ipp Report, YB04.135
    liability for harm, YB04.135–6
Civil penalties
    exposure of answerer to, YB04.92
    proprietary and personal, YB04.124
    remedies, distinguished, YB04.124
Class actions, see Representative proceedings
Clean up
defined, YB93.44
vendor’s undertaking, YB93.49–50
Clearing house, YB93.102
Climate change
    Australian legislative regime, YB02.71-73
        conflict of interest, YB02.84-86
        emission scheme design, YB02.84-94
        emission taxes, YB02.80-84
        external affairs powers, YB02.79
        generator efficiency standards, YB02.78
        impediments, YB02.73
        implementation of emission scheme design, YB02.89-94
        industry regulation, YB02.74, YB02.78-79
        international treaties, ratification of, YB02.79
        limitations on government powers, YB02.71, YB02.73, YB02.79-84
        mandatory renewable energy, YB02.74
        mandatory schemes, YB02.75-78
        transitional arrangements, YB02.86-87
    Australian policy, YB03.300–302
    Emissions, see Emissions
    EU policy, YB03.304–305    
    global approach, YB02.69
    greenhouse gas, YB02.49
    multilateral action, YB02.71-73
        Kyoto Protocol, see Kyoto Protocol
        United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
        see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    response, YB02.71
        constitutional limitations, YB02.71
        government powers, restrictions, YB02.71, YB02.73, YB02.79-84
        legislative, see Australian legislative regime above
    United States policy, YB03.306–307    
    US/Australian partnership, YB02.68-69
        effectiveness of, YB02.68
        projects, YB02.68-69
Closed court
    confidentiality regime, YB04.94
Closure of mines,  see Decommissioning and rehabilitation
COAG Energy Markets Review
    abuse of monopoly power, YB04.358
    background, YB04.365–6
    energy market regulation, YB04.357, YB04.387
        efficiency, promotion of, YB04.358
        existing regime, YB04.359
        quality and reliability, YB04.358
        successful, YB04.358–9
    findings, YB04.366–7
    impact of report, YB04.368
    members, YB04.366
    National Competition Policy, YB04.359–61
    recommendations, YB04.367–8, YB04.416

    Australia as world’s largest exporter, YB01.3
    coal gas seam regime (Qld), J03.18-20, J03.410-412
        just and equitable (NSW), J04.15, J04.220-222
    mine safety, J03.9-12
        long-term, YB01.136
        spot, YB01.136
royalty system, J04.222-223        
top four export producers, YB01.3
Coal assets, sale and purchase
    ACCC, review by, YB01.137-138
    bid, structure of, YB01.130-131
    coal sales contracts
        assignment to purchaser, YB01.135
        continued operation of, YB01.135
        high volume and long term, YB01.136
    competition, lessening, YB01.137-138
    confidentiality obligations, YB01.126-128
    consents, obtaining, YB01.143
    continued operation of, YB01.134
    due diligence
        detailed, YB01.129-130
        initial, YB01.126
        inquiries by purchaser, YB01.143-153
        packaging the assets, in, YB01.128
        process, YB01.133
        targeting the purchaser, YB01.129
    foreign investment law, YB01.136-138
    government approvals of, YB01.136-138
    identification of coal asset, YB01.138-139
    joint ventures, YB01.116-125
        assignment, YB01.118-122, YB01.142
        change of control clauses, YB01.124-125, YB01.142
        consents, YB01.143
        corporate restructure, YB01.125
            assignment restriction, to prevent sale in breach of, YB01.121
            pre-emptive rights, to stop sales breaching, YB01.124
        ownership by, YB01.116, YB01.139
            proof, YB01.140
        pre-emptive rights, YB01.122-124, YB01.141-142
        right of first refusal of participants, YB01.122
        tag-along rights, YB01.125
        unincorporated, YB01.139
        waivers, YB01.143
    legal role, YB01.115-116
    misleading or deceptive conduct, YB01.130
        continuation of, YB01.134
        production contracts, YB01.135
        statutory approvals for, YB01.134-135
        establishing, YB01.140
        proof of, YB01.138-139
        structure, YB01.116-118
    packaging of the assets, YB01.116-125
        due diligence, YB01.128
    practical legal issues, YB01.133
    proof of ownership
        joint venture interest, YB01.140
        sale of shares, YB01.140-141
        due diligence, YB01.130, YB01.143-153
        employment structures, review of, YB01.135
        practical legal issues, YB01.133
        risk management, YB01.133, YB01.143
        targeting, YB01.129
        warranties to be offered to, YB01.126
    registration of legal/equitable interests, YB01.135
    risk management by purchaser, YB01.133, YB01.143
    securities over interest, YB01.142
    statutory approvals of operations, YB01.134
    structure of, determining, YB01.126
    third party securities, YB01.142-143
    time frame, YB01.126-130
        due diligence, YB01.130
        shareholder of asset holder, as, YB01.127
    waivers, obtaining, YB01.143
    warranties to be offered to purchaser, YB01.126
        valid consents, as to, YB01.134
coal compensation
    acquisition, J02.114-118, J03.125-127
acquisition of property on just terms, J01.8-12
    late lodgement of appeal, J01.102
    leave to intervene, J01.102-103
    loss for capital gains tax, J01.212-213
loss of rates, J02.2-6
Coal Compensation Scheme (NSW)
closure, B94.107
Coal Acquisition Act 1982 (NSW), B94.107
Coal Compensation Board, B94.107
eligibility to claim, B94.108
coal-fired electricity plants, YB00.283, YB00.305
        capital costs, YB00.289, YB00.290
        emissions, YB00.291
        integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, YB00.293-295
        new technologies, YB00.292-295
        pressurised fluid bed combustors (PFBC), YB00.295
        super-critical coal-fired plants, YB00.292-293
    compensation formula, meaning of items (NSW), J00.1
    mining and petroleum industries, overlap (Qld), J00.6-7
    swaps and borrows, GST issues, YB00.453
New Zealand, YB93.421
supply contracts, challenging (NSW), J00.20-25
Coal fired power stations
    greenhouse gas emissions, YB01.287
    natural gas and, YB01.287
Coal Mines Regulation Act 1982 (NSW)
approval to proceed under, YB95.34
Coal mining—see also Mining
    approval for second workings, J99.6
    Coal Acquisition (Compensation) Arrangements (NSW), J99.206
    coal compensation, J97.193-194, J98.10-12, J98.90-93, J98.349
    compensation claim, limitation (NSW), J99.206-208
Court of Coal Mines Regulation, J97.193
deposits, YB97.323-324
Australian, YB97.324
development, YB97.326
exploration, YB97.325
feasibility assessment, YB97.326
    flood prone land, J99.6
geology, YB97.321-322
handling and preparation, YB97.338-339
    health and safety obligations, J99.203-204
        declared plant manager, J99.203-204
        mine manager, J99.203
owner, J99.203
history, YB97.320-321
judicial review of Coal Compensation Review Tribunal decision, J98.10
marketing, YB97.342
mine management, YB97.344
environment, YB97.346
industrial relations, YB97.345
productivity, YB97.345
return on investment, YB97.346
safety, YB97.344
mine-safety management plans, B96.95
    mining lease application over ground subject to, J99.120-121
Moura inquiry, B96.93–99
    new NSW regulations, J99.202-205
    open cut, NSW regulation, J99.204
production, YB97.343
spontaneous combustion management, B96.95
Staunton Report, J98.245-249
surface mining, YB97.328-331
mining the coal, YB97.330
overburden removal, YB97.328
recent developments, YB97.330
surface reclamation, YB97.330
transport, YB97.339
Tribunal decision, J98.10
underground mining, YB97.331-338
emergency response, YB97.338
gas management, YB97.337
longwall, YB97.334-336
room and pillar, YB97.333
services, YB97.336
spontaneous combustion, YB97.338
subsidence, YB97.338
ventilation, YB97.337
underground, NSW regulation, J99.204-205
uses of coal, YB97.339-342
Coal seam gas
    adequacy of law, J01.258-285
    conflict over, J01.261-262
    extraction, impact on coal mining (Qld), J00.6-7
    legislative framework, J01.262-270, J01.276-283
options, J01.271-276
    proposals, J01.283-284
    Queensland legislation, proposals for, J00.6-7
Coal seam methane
    new fields, development of, YB04.389–90
Code of Conduct for Landholders and Mineral Explorers
access agreement
binding on both parties, B94.144
reference to arbitrator, B94.144
purpose, B94.144
rights of farmers/landholders, B94.144
Code of Practice for Explorers and Landholders, B94.144
Codes of practice, YB96.461-462
Collars, YB93.107, YB93.123–125
Collective bargaining
    injunction against refusal to allow, J00.25-34
    allocation of formal mining titles, YB04.62
    acquisitions by, YB02.97-100
    classification of, YB02.96-101
    common law, at
        application of, YB02.96-100, YB02.105
        recognition of, YB02.102, YB02.105
    settlement of, YB02.96-101, YB02.104, YB02.105
    sovereignty, YB02.104-105, YB02.107
Commercial relationships
    equitable obligations, YB04.118
    fiduciary duties, YB04.116
Commission of Inquiry
Commissioner, report by, YB95.30
court procedures, growing similarity to, YB95.49–50
Minister, decision by, YB95.30–31
objection to mining project, where, YB95.29
procedures, YB95.29–30
review, establishment of working party, YB95.56–57
Commodity agreement, YB93.127—see also Copper loans
Commodity loans, YB93.100
Commodity price volatility
    project rating, YB99.6
Common law
    aboriginal rights under, YB02.95, YB02.96, YB02.99, YB02.102, YB02.105-106, YB02.112, YB02.123-124
    changes to, YB02.103
        limitation of, YB02.103
    co-existence, YB02.109
        legal relationship, YB02.110
    colony at
        application of, YB02.96-100, YB02.105
        recognition of, YB02.102, YB02.105
    minerals and, YB02.110-111
    native title, at, see Native title
    pastoral lease, YB02.109
    rights under, YB02.102
        aboriginal, see Aboriginal rights
        acceptance of, YB02.102
        assumption of, YB02.102
        unjust discrimination, YB02.102
Common Mining Code
    development, YB04.37
appeal by, from Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth, YB94.566
judicial power, YB94.75
legislative power, implied restrictions by Constitution on, YB94.66
Western Australia’s pending action with, on validity of native title legislation, YB94.73
Commonwealth powers see also Constitution, YB96.176-177
Community Aid Abroad (CAA) Ombudsman, YB00.61
Companies and Securities Advisory Committee (CASAC)
continuous disclosure, YB96.387
related party transactions, YB96.409-411
Directors, see Company directors
Indemnity, see Indemnity
Insolvency, see Insolvency
Liability, see Liability
    Resource, see Resource company
Company directors
    annual report
        disclosure, YB99.511-512
        environmental performance, YB99.511-512
    expert's report
        duty to provide reliable information, YB99.469
        duty to scrutinise, YB99.469-471
        issues for, YB99.463
        liability, YB99.472
    insolvent companies
        failure to accept situation, YB99.81
        ignorance as to options, YB99.82
    receivership, effect on, YB99.55-57
        dispute as to exercise of powers, YB99.56
        receiver's right to exercise powers, YB99.55-56
        report as to companies affairs, YB99.57
    voluntary administration, effect on, YB99.58-59
        dealings with company property, YB99.58-59
        delivery of books and records, YB99.59
        remaining in office, YB99.58
        report as to companies affairs, YB99.59
Compensation,  see also Damages
    authority to prospect, YB04.564
    breach of statutory duty, for, YB02.429
    cause of action, YB02.421    
    coal, see coal; coal compensation    
    Coal Acquisition (Compensation) Arrangements (NSW), J99.206
    coal claim, limitation (NSW), J99.206-208
    compulsory acquisition, YB02.121
conduct of operations, YB04.564
    damages, see contract
    definition, J00.44
    determination of J03.17-18
    electricity supply disruption (Vic), J99.213-214
    future act regime, YB02.178, YB02.182, YB02.186, YB02.187
injurious affection, YB04.561–3, YB04.570–1
        consequential damages and, YB04.565–7
        appeal, decision on, YB04.567–9
        interpretation, YB04.565–7
        legal expenses, YB04.570
        Mining on Private Land Act 1909, YB04.568
        New South Wales, YB04.571–2
        Northern Territory, YB04.572–3
        Petroleum Act 1923 (Qld), application of, YB04.564, YB04.573
        Queensland, YB04.571
        South Australia, YB04.572
        Tasmania, YB04.572
        Victoria, YB04.571
        Western Australia, YB04.572
    landholders’ rights (NSW), J99.106
    liability for
        public bodies, YB02.421, YB02.423, YB02.443
        public officer, YB02.421, YB02.423, YB02.443
    loss of amenity (Vic), J00.111-112, J00.203
    measure of, YB04.564, YB04.570
    Mineral Resources Act (Qld), claims under, J99.82-89
        additional amount, J99.85
        appeal, conduct of, J99.88
        assessment of amount, J99.83
        capital gains tax, J99.86-87, J99.88, J99.89
        disturbance, J99.87
        inspection of land, J99.84
        Land and Resources Tribunal constitution, J99.81
        loss of profit, J99.85
        mining sales, J99.86
        outcome of appeals, J99.88-89
        status and use premium, J99.84-85
minerals and petroleum, YB02.198, YB02.199
mining see Compensation for mining
loss of productivity or damage caused by, YB95.19–20
Papua New Guinea, in—see Papua New Guinea
    mining lease, see mining lease, J03.131-132, J03.409    
    mining lease, under, YB02.199
    motor accidents, J03.6-7    
    native title, J01.286-305, J03.407, see also Native title
    Native Title Act, claims under, YB02.133
    native title agreements, YB00.538-543
        amount of, YB00.538
        continuing compensation exposures, YB00.542-543
        full satisfaction, YB00.551
        impact on land during life of mine, YB00.541
        NNTT conditions, YB00.540
        non-monetary compensation, YB00.542
        `price of consent', YB00.541-542
        relevant principles, YB00.538-539
        State principles, YB00.538-539, YB00.540-541
    native title, for loss or impairment of, J00.44-53
        agreement-based compensation, J00.44, 46-49
        commercial payments distinguished, J00.44-46
        different dimensions of native title, J00.50-52
        legislative frameworks, J00.45
        value of act’s effect on native title, J00.49
    native title rights, loss or impairment of, J99.253-266
        future acts, provisions for, J99.255
        intellectual property, J99.259
        just terms, calculating, J99.255-257, J99.264-265
        Native Title Act provisions, J99.253-255
        personal injury and damages, J99.259-260
        property law principles, J99.257-259
        property valuation methodologies, J99.260-265
        similar compensable interest test, J99.265-266
    negligence, loss caused by, YB02.430-431
    “off-licence” property owners (Vic), J00.111-112
    Petroleum Act 1923 (Qld), under, J04.21-22    
    petroleum pipeline easement (Qld), J00.4-5
representative proceedings, see Representative proceedings
    resources, YB02.206
right to negotiate, YB02.186-187
surface, J02.25, J02.42-43
surface access, J01.19-28, J01.109, J01.110, J01.220-221
tailings, YB93.329
    “unknown landholders” (NSW), J99.106
    water, YB02.120
    workers compensation, J03.6-7
Compensation for mining
    amount and approach, YB99.326-327
    determination, YB99.326
    land purchase, whether constitutes, YB99.327
    New South Wales, YB99.327-330
        compensable loss, YB99.328, 330
        development consent, YB99.329
        entitlement of landholder, YB99.329
        Environemental Planning & Assessment Act 1979, YB99.329
        improvements, damage to, YB99.329
        legislative provisions, YB99.350-351
        Mine Subsidence Compensation Act 1961, YB99.329-330
        Mining Act 1992, YB99.328-329
        other states compared, YB99.330
        Petroleum (On Shore) Act 1991, YB99.330
        statutory rights, YB99.327-339
    principles, YB99.327
    Queensland, YB99.344-348
        adjustment for previous amounts, YB99.347
        agreement of parties, YB99.347
        assessment of amount, YB99.345
        At Risk agreements, YB99.330, YB00.340, YB00.345-346
        deprivation of possession, YB99.344
        diminution of value, YB99.344
        entitlement, YB99.344, YB99.346
        hardship, definition, YB99.346
        land acquisition rights, YB99.346
        legislative provisions, YB99.351-352
        Mineral Resources Act 1989, YB99.344-345
        mining lease conditions, YB99.344
        Petroleum Act 1923, YB99.346-348
    South Australia, YB99.336-339
        agreement of parties, YB99.337, YB99.338
        amount, YB99.337
        consequential damage, YB99.338
        Crown ownership, YB99.336
        damage to land, YB99.337, YB99.338-339
        deprivation of possession, YB99.337
        deprivation of use and enjoyment, YB99.338
        entitlement, YB99.337
        legislative provisions, YB99.352
        licence conditions, YB99.336
        Mining Act 1971, YB99.336-338
        mining operations, meaning, YB99.337
        Petroleum Bill 1998, YB99.338-339
    Tasmania, YB99.330-331
        compensable loss, YB99.331
        Crown land, YB99.331
        legislative provisions, YB99.352
        Mineral Resources Development Act 1995, YB99.330-331
        private land, YB99.331
    Victoria, YB99.339-343
        agreement of parties, YB99.341
        damage to land, YB99.340, YB99.342
        deprivation of possession, YB99.340, YB99.342
        determination of amount, YB99.342
        entitlement, YB99.340, YB99.343
        legislative provisions, YB99.353
        Mineral Resources Development Act 1990, YB99.339-341
        Petroleum Act 1958, YB99.341-342
        Petroleum Act 1998, YB99.342-343
    Western Australia, YB99.331-335
        agreement of parties, YB99.335
        compulsory acquisition, YB99.330
        consequential damage, YB99.335
        Crown land, YB99.331
        entitlement, YB99.333
        impacts on nearby land, YB99.334, YB99.335
        land near crops, houses or improvements, YB99.332
        leasehold interests, YB99.334
        legislative provisions, YB99.353-354
        licence conditions, YB99.332
        Mining Act 1978, YB99.331-334
        Petroleum Act 1967, YB99.335
        private land, YB99.332
        quantum, YB99.333
        reserves, YB99.332
        resumption of land, YB99.332, YB99.335
        specific projects, YB99.334-335
access arrangements, see Access
access to infrastructure, J97.212-30
Agreement to Implement the National Policy and Related Reforms, YB04.182
anti-competitive conduct, J97.269-270
arrangements substantially lessening
        joint ventures, issues for, YB03.63
        prohibition, YB03.63
bottlenecks, YB04.182–3
    Competition Principles Agreement, YB04.182, YB04.191, YB04.197
electricity supply, J97.196-197
facilities of national significance, YB04.181–2
Gas Act 1997 (SA), J97.108-111
gas sale contract, J97.258-273
legislation and case law
        Australia, YB04.201–2, YB04.204
        Europe, YB04.201, YB04.204
        United States of America, YB04.201–2
lessen competition, J97.86-88
National Competition Policy, YB04.359–61
    Productivity Commission Review, YB04.198–9
    public interest, YB04.181–2
        assessment of, YB04.197–8
public private partnerships, YB03.73
reform, YB02.407-411
relevant market, J97.261-267
    Trade Practices legislation, YB04.181, YB04.183–4
        reforms, YB04.182
Competition law
    Australian, see Australian competition law
    International, see International competition law
Competition Policy Reform Bill 1995 (Cth)
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), introduction of national access regime, YB95.254, YB95.374-376
Competition policy reforms—see Access
Competition Principles Agreement
access regime principles (State or Territory), B96.72–74
access undertakings to the ACC, B96.81–83
accommodation of requirements, YB95.379
accreditation of “effective” access regimes, B96.79–81
dispute resolution, YB95.380
right of appeal, YB95.380
enforcement, YB95.378
existing rights, compensation for, YB95.383
extension of facility, YB95.381–382
financial statements, availability of, YB95.384–385
flexibility of access, YB95.379–380
hindrance to access, YB95.384
multiple State regimes, YB95.385
establishment of process, YB95.377–378
lapse of right, YB95.378–379
protections for pipeline owner and existing users, B96.69–70
pricing issues, B96.68–69
renegotiation of arrangement, YB95.382
separate accounting arrangements, YB95.384
signing of, YB95.355–356
State or Territory schemes, interaction of Pt IIIA with, YB95.376
system extensions and capacity enhancements, B96.69–70
terms and conditions of access, YB95.376–377
criteria for, YB95.381
third-party access provisions, B96.62–67
    greenfield project, YB03.99–100
    projects, of, YB03.99–100, YB03.155–157
Compulsory acquisition
    compensation, YB02.121
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.121
    listings, YB02.321
    takeovers, YB02.322-323
    third party benefit, for, YB02.121-122
Conditional purchase leases
    extinguishment of native title, J00.92
environmental matters, YB93.19–20, YB93.44–52
vendor warranties, YB93.47–48
Conduct money
    subpoenas, compliance with, YB04.104
Confidential information, YB00.350
    see also Intellectual property rights
    new mining technologies, YB00.342-358
    protection of, YB04.111–14
Confidentiality—see also Confidentiality agreements, Inspection
    agreement upheld, J02.95-98
    breach of, remedies for, YB02.601-605
    closed court, YB04.94
    coal assets, obligations concerning, YB01.126-128
        joint venture agreement clauses, YB01.127
        vendor as shareholder of asset holder, YB01.127
    commercially sensitive information, distinguished, YB01.127
    conflict of interest, see Conflict of interest
    duration of, YB02.594-601
duty of, YB93.238, YB02.583
    notification of, YB04.95
    obligation of, YB04.93
    obligations, YB02.591-594
        implied, YB02.591-594
Confidentiality agreements, YB93.194–220
assignment of rights, YB93.208–209
benefits, YB93.194–195
disclosure of negotiations, YB93.203–204
exclusion, YB93.205–206
exclusive area of interest, YB93.201–203
identification of confidential information, YB93.199–200
jurisdiction, YB93.210–211
justified disclosure, YB93.206–207
limitation on liability, YB93.208
limitation on use, YB93.201
receiving party’s responsibility, YB93.204–205
records, YB93.200
remedies, YB93.210
representations about accuracy, YB93.209–210
return of confidential information, YB93.207–208
scope of duty, YB93.217–218
sources of duty, YB93.214–217
terms, YB93.198–211
time limitation, YB93.209
whether obligation exists, YB93.195–198
Confidential statements
    anonymity of sources, J00.228
    obligations of journalists, J00.228-229
Conflict of interest
    confidentiality, YB02.583, YB02.586-590
        nature of, YB02.590
        vulnerability, YB02.589
    fiduciary duty, YB02.581, YB02.583-586
        avoidance of, YB02.583
        protection from, YB02.581
    member of Land and Resources Tribunal (Qld), J03. 16-17
    misuse of information, YB02.606
Consent deed
    contents, YB03.133–134
    cure period, YB03.138
    direct performance undertaking in favour of financiers, YB03.139
    equity party, YB03.141
    overview, YB03.133
    receivers and managers
        appointment, YB03.134
        performance of contract by, YB03.134
    specific performance of counterparty’s obligations, YB03.138
    subcontracts, YB03.140
    subordination, YB03.140
Consent determinations, YB02.172-174, YB02.240, YB02.249-253
    benefits of, YB02.252
    credibility, YB02.250, YB02.251
    limitation of, YB02.252
    principles of, YB02.250-252
    requirements for, YB02.252
    specificity, YB02.250
    transparency, YB02.250, YB02.252
Consequential loss
exemption clauses for
joint operating agreements, YB94.163
third party contracts, YB94.171
Conservation,  see also Environmental issues
position of mining industry, YB96.205
Conservation zone
    Aboriginal relics, liability for damage to, J99.7-8
acquisition power, YB96.180-181, J98.7-10
corporations power, YB96.177-178
defence power, YB96.177
Commonwealth legislative powers, implied restrictions on, YB94.66
external affairs power, YB96.178-180
racial discrimination laws made pursuant to, YB94.37
immunity of instrumentalities, doctrine of, YB94.66
interpretation, in first 20 years of federation, YB94.66
just terms compensation: J98.7-10
laws “with respect to mining”, YB96.176
race power, J98.216-227, J98.283
reserved State powers, doctrine of, YB94.66
trade and commerce power, YB96.176-177
validity of Native Title Amendment Act, J98.216-227, J98.283
Constitutional validity
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), YB94.49, J98.216-227, J98.283
Chapter III, failure to satisfy, YB94.75
assessors in Federal Court proceedings, YB94.82
exclusive jurisdiction vested in Federal Court, YB94.75
powers of Tribunal, YB94.77
High Court decision on, YB94.84
inconsistency between Commonwealth and Western Australian Acts, YB94.83
judicial power of Commonwealth, YB94.76
State governmental functions, interference with, YB94.65
the corporations power, YB94.64
the external affairs power, YB94.58, YB94.71
the race power, YB94.50
the Territories power, YB94.63
Petroleum (Australia-Indonesia Zone of Co-operation) (Consequential Provisions) Act 1990 (Cth), of, YB94.556
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), of, YB94.37
    Building and Construction Industry    Security of Payment Act 1999 (NSW), J04.103-111
    security of payment legislation (Qld, J04. 22-25
Construction contracts—see Contracts, construction
Construction Contracts Act 2004 (WA), YB04.159
    construction work, definition, YB04.161
    related goods and services, definition, YB04.162
Construction industry
    works, definition, YB04.160–1
Construction Industry Development Agency (CIDA)
forms of contracts, review of, YB95.61
Construction of terms
    deviation, YB02.450
    four corners rule, YB02.450-451
    limitation clauses
        drafting of, YB02.460-461
    `main purpose', YB02.450
    misdescription, YB02.450
    voidable, YB02.451
    wilful breach, YB02.449
Construction risk,  B96.179–189, B96.212–213
Abrahamson principles, B96.180–181
BOT project model, B96.188
    breach of duty, YB99.7
concept of “completion”, B96.182, B96.185–186
contractors’ approach, B96.180–182
contracts, B96.188–189
costs, B96.179
    delay in completion, YB99.7-8
    design risk, YB99.7
    early completion, YB99.8
early identification, B96.183–184
financiers’ approach, B96.188
    force majeure, YB99.8
    independent engineer's role, YB99.6-7
    investment grade contractor as `equity', YB99.9
method of payment, B96.182–183
    mining industry, YB99.9
    no blanket contract, YB99.7
“No Dispute” report, B96.180–181
project finance, B96.180
    project rating, YB99.6-10
resource projects, YB99.9-10
Constructive trust, YB93.238, YB93.239, YB93.240
    imposition of, YB04.124
mine proposals, YB93.364–365
Consultative Committee on Safety in the Offshore Petroleum Industry
(COSOP), YB96.476, YB96.479, YB96.507, YB96.508-511, YB96.535
Consumer protection
legislation, YB93.63–64
Contaminated land, J97.194-196
    anti-avoidance, J99.69
    Contaminated Land Management Act 1997, J99.63-70
    Environmental Protection Authority powers, J99.65
    occupiers, position of, J99.63, J99.67
    investigation or remediation orders, J99.67
        appropriate person, J99.67-68
        failure to comply, J99.69
legislation, YB93.7–10
    liability of directors and managers, J99.63, J99.69
    notional owner of land, J99.67, 68
    outline of NSW legislation, J99.63
    past contamination, responsibility for, J99.63
    “polluter pays” principle, J99.63, J99.66-67
    public authority, recovery of costs by, J99.69
    public register, J99.70
    reporting risk of harm, J99.63, 68
    responsibility for, J99.65-68
    risk-based approach, J99.65-66
    “significant risk of harm”, meaning, J99.64-65
    site auditors, accreditation, J99.70
    voluntary investigation and remediation, J99.63, J99.68-69
Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites (ANZECC), YB04.443–5
    best practice contamination assessment principles, YB04.445–6
    definition, YB04.439
    Ecological Risk Assessments (ERA), YB04.442
    Ecologically-based Investigation Levels (EILs), YB04.441–2
    Environmental Impact Statements (EIS), YB04.462
    Environmental Management Overview Strategy (EMOS), YB04.460
    future activities, YB04.460, YB04.463, YB04.465–6, YB04.469, YB04.472, YB04.475, YB04.477
    groundwater, see Water
    Groundwater Investigation Levels (GILs), YB04.441–2
    Health-based Investigation Levels (HILs), YB04.441, YB04.443
        detailed, YB04.440–1
        guidelines, YB04.441–3
        preliminary, YB04.440
        risk assessment, YB04.441
    land management
        New South Wales, YB04.448–50, YB04.462–5
        Northern Territory, YB04.547–9, YB04.477–8
        Queensland, YB04.446–8, YB04.459–62
        South Australia, YB04.454–5, YB04.471–4
        Tasmania, YB04.452–3, YB04.468–71
        Victoria, YB04.450–5, YB04.465–8
        Western Australia, YB04.455–7, YB04.474–7
    legacy issues, YB04.462, YB04.465, YB04.468, YB04.471, YB04.474, YB04.476–7, YB04.479
        New South Wales, YB04.449, YB04.450
        Northern Territory, YB04.457–9
        Queensland, YB04.446, YB04.448, YB04.461–2
        South Australia, YB04.454, YB04.455
        Tasmania, YB04.452, YB04.453
        Victoria, YB04.450–1, YB04.452
        Western Australia, YB04.455–6, YB04.457
mining legislation, YB04.460–1, YB04.463–4, YB04.466–7, YB04.470, YB04.472–3, YB04.475–6, YB04.478–9
    National Environment Protection (Assessment of Site Contamination) Measure 1999, YB04.440–5
        ANZECC, comparison with, YB04.444
    National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) regime, YB04.439
notification requirements, YB04.447, YB04.449, YB04.451, YB04.453, YB04.454, YB04.456, YB04.458
    offences and penalties
        New South Wales, YB04.450
        Northern Territory, YB04.458
        Queensland, YB04.448
        South Australia, YB04.454–5
        Tasmania, YB04.453
        Victoria, YB04.451–2
        Western Australia, YB04.457
    pre-existing, YB04.459–60, YB04.463, YB04.465, YB04.469, YB04.472, YB04.475, YB04.477
    project development
        New South Wales, YB04.462–3
        Northern Territory, YB04.477–8
        Queensland, YB04.459–60
        South Australia, YB04.471–2
        Tasmania, YB04.468–9
        Victoria, YB04.465–6
        Western Australia, YB04.474–5
        Contaminated Sites Act 2003 (WA), J04.139-142    
rehabilitation and post closure liability
        New South Wales, YB04.464–5
        Northern Territory, YB04.479
        Queensland, YB04.461–2
        South Australia, YB04.473–4
        Tasmania, YB04.470–1
        Victoria, YB04.467–8
        Western Australia, YB04.476–7
    remediation process, YB04.447–8, YB04.456
    site, assessment of, YB04.440–1, YB04.456
    soil, YB04.439
    State Environmental Planning Policies (SEPPs), YB04.449–50, YB04.451
Continental margin
definition of jurisdiction, B95.2
Continental shelf
    Commonwealth sovereignty, YB00.93, YB00.95, YB00.176
    definition, YB00.154
    delimitation under UNCLOS, YB00.168
    sovereign rights, YB00.154
    Timor Gap Treaty, see Timor Gap Treaty
Continental Shelf Convention 1958
abandoned or disused oil or gas platforms to be removed, B95.229
delimitation clauses, B95.3
Continuous disclosure
AMPLA Conference discussion, YB96.424-430
        interest of, YB03.466
        matters to be contained in written procedures, YB03.46–467
ASX Listing Rule 3.1, YB96.387, YB96.395-396
ASX Listing Rules, YB03.451, YB03.452
compliance policy, importance of, YB03.464
    compliance program, effectiveness of, YB03.458–460
        Australian Standard 3806, YB03.462
confidential information, YB96.403, YB03.462-463
Corporate Law Reform Act reforms, YB96.388
current environment, YB02.339
“disclosing entity”, YB96.388-389, YB96.391
draft policy on, YB03.470–480
ED securities, YB96.389-391
equal access to information, YB02.339
information management program
        board level commitment, YB03.460
        building, YB03.469
        development and implementation, YB03.454
        object, YB03.455
information to be disclosed, YB96.428-429
level of disclosure required, YB96.402-403
    manuals detailing compliance provisions, YB03.460
media rumours, responding to, YB03.456–457
    meeting obligations, YB03.454
        consequences of, YB03.464
        risk, identifying key areas of, YB03.464
obligations, YB96.392, YB02.339
origins, YB96.387-388
policy, YB02.340
prospectus contents, YB96.401-402
Pt A statements, YB96.404-406
regime, YB02.339-340
        compliance, YB02.341
        effectiveness of, YB02.340
        exceptions, YB02.340-341
        fine tuning, YB02.341
        market-based, YB02.340
        objectives, YB02.342
        remedies, YB02.341
role of ASX, YB96.396-397
s 1001A liability, YB96.392-394
s 1022AA, YB96.400-401
selective disclosure, YB03.456
supplementary prospectuses, YB96.398-399
timing of disclosure, YB96.429-430
transaction specific prospectuses, YB96.399
unlisted entities, YB96.397-398
    what has to be disclosed, YB03.452–454
Contract—see also Royalties agreements
agreements to agree, YB01.382, YB01.402-411
    all reasonable endeavours clauses, YB01.382
    arbitration clauses, J03.161-167
article fettering right or capacity of shareholder to dispose of shares, B95.189–190
    best efforts clauses, YB01.382
    best endeavours clauses, YB01.382
        co-operation as principle of construction, YB01.385-391
    boilerplate clauses, J04.147-155
        assignment, prohibition on, J04.148-153
        corporate veil, J04.149
        entire agreement, J04.153-155    
    breach, see Breach of contract
        breach of coal supply, J02.9-12
caveat to protect interest, B94.66–67
compensatory remedies, YB04.123
construction, see Contracts, construction 
contractual claims, exclusion by joint venture agreement, YB04.141–3
        duty as to, YB01.382-385
        express terms requiring, YB01.381
        fidelity to bargain, YB01.423
        implied term, YB01.383-384
    principle of construction, YB01.385-391
    damages, J03.231, J03.234-237
declaratory order sought, B94.13
duty of good faith, J03.233-234
enforceability, J01.312-325
enforcement of, YB02.2
engineer, procure and construct, J03.50-61
equitable lien for unpaid vendor, B94.23
    establishing meaning of term, J03.122-125
    estoppel, J03.416-418
express terms, see Express terms
fair dealing, YB01.382-401, YB01.415
        general obligation, YB01.418
        international contract law, YB01.417
fiduciary obligations and, YB04.118–19
    force majeure clauses, see Force majeure clauses
formation, timing of, YB01.382, YB01.402
    good faith, J02.179-184
good faith performance, YB01.382-401, YB01.415
        definition, YB01.391-392
        explanatory function, YB01.420
        express agreement, YB01.391
        general obligation, YB01.418
        implied requirement, YB01.382, YB01.394-401
        independent function, YB01.420
        international contract law, YB01.417
    obligations, YB01.382
government—see Sovereign risk
    implied obligations, J02.179-184
implied terms, B94.18–20, see Implied terms
    insurance policies, see insurance
intention to be bound, J01.312-325
interim injunction sought restraining of asset, B95.188–189, B95.192
    joint venture agreements, see joint ventures    
    joint ventures, see joint ventures
liquefied natural gas, see Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
long-term contracting, YB01.381
    management, J03.61-65
    memorandum enforceable, J02.140-141
mining see Mining contract
offer withdrawn, J02.9-12
    People’s Republic of China, see People’s Republic of China    
    performance of, YB02.2, 34
        duty of, YB02.2, YB02.12
        good faith, in, YB02.34
    pre-emption clause, see joint ventures
privacy of information, see Privity of contract
    process contract, J04.45-46
        enforceability of, J04.45-46
        process engineering, see process engineering 
reasonable endeavours clauses, YB01.382
    co-operation as principle of construction, YB01.385-391
specific performance
sought, B95.186
claim not made out, B95.191–192
    state agreement
        interpretation of, J04.39-44
    tenders, see tenders
termination of, see Termination of contract
unconscionability, YB01.415
    international contract law, YB01.419
unconscionable conduct, J03.117-119
whether binding, B94.12
Contract law
    classical, YB01.375
    derivative, YB01.416
    discrete vs relational, YB01.375-377, YB01.415
    dynamic nature, YB01.374, YB01.415
    fairness, concept of, YB01.414
    flexible standards, YB02.2-3
    globalisation, effect of, YB01.416
    internationalisation of, YB01.416
    multifaceted nature, YB01.374
    open-textured, YB02.2
    Principles of European Contract Law, YB01.417
    process, contract as, YB01.376
    purposive approach, YB01.380
    relational vs discrete, YB01.375-377, YB01.415
    trend towards imposition of just solutions, YB01.380
    UNIDROIT’s Principles of International Commercial Contract, YB01.417
    United States, YB02.2
    coal supply contracts, challenging (NSW), J00.20-25
    energy trading, J00.121-127
        authority to enter contracts, J00.124
        estoppel, J00.123
        hedging contracts, J00.121-127
        mistake, J00.123
        trade practices claims, J00.123-124
    gas supply contract, delivery point (Qld), J99.107-108
    GST, transitional provisions, J99.58-60
    heads of agreement, whether binding, J99.115-117
    ISDA Master Agreement, J00.122
    relationship contracting, J99.97-98
    restitution for unjust enrichment, J99.117-118
    split commodity arrangement (WA), J99.115-118
    terminating, where cost too high, J00.20-25
Contracts,  construction
claims minimisation, YB03.220
    contract administration, YB03.231
        effective, YB03.220
debt recovery, YB04.170
    definition, YB04.159–60, YB04.163
    dispute resolution, YB03.220, YB03.232–238
    drafting, YB03.221–222
    energy and resource projects, YB04.163–4
    exclusions, YB04.162
foreign contracts, YB03.223
geographical application, YB04.162–3
improved, YB97.132-133
partnering, YB97.133
payment, security of, YB04.157
        New South Wales, YB04.158
        Queensland, YB04.159
        Victoria, YB04.158–9
        Western Australia, YB04.159
performance, YB04.179–80
preparation of, YB03.221–231
        team, by, YB03.222–223
progress payments
        claiming, YB04.167–9
        responding to claims, YB04.169
        right to, YB04.165–7
project alliancing—see Alliances, project    
recurring problems, YB03.219
    risk allocation, YB03.219, YB03.221, YB03.239
    risk identification, YB03.220
    risk mitigation, YB03.219
    scope of work, YB03.223–224
    standard form contracts, YB03.226–231, YB04.167
    suspension of work, YB04.170–1
    time, YB03.224–226
    traditional model, YB97.129-131
unambiguous contract, YB03.220
    occupational health and safety considerations, YB04.242–3
    progress payments, right to, YB04.165–7
    protection from harsh payment practices, YB04.157
Contractual obligations
    agency, YB02.34
    distributorship, YB02.34
    franchise, YB02.34
    good faith, of, YB02.34
    performance of, YB02.34
    relational contracts, under, YB02.34
Contributory negligence
    Civil Liability Act 2002, YB04.138–9
    equitable compensation and, YB04.125
        expert's report, YB99.459-462, YB99.468-469
        availability, YB99.461-462
        contractual damages, YB99.460-461
change under shareholder agreement, J01.213-215
Control accounts, YB03.98–99
Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
    committee to monitor compliance, see CERD Committee
    complaint system, YB00.73
damages, J01.194
mining lease, J01.190-195
    contract performance in, see Contract
    natural gas industry, in, see Natural gas
Co-operative projects—see Alliances, project
Copper loans, YB93.82, YB93.100
Copper Mines of Tasmania Pty Ltd (Agreement) Act 1994
approval and ratification of operations at Mt Lyell, B95.101
environmental assessment processes, B95.101
Copyright, YB00.349
    see also Intellectual property rights
    computer software, YB00.349, YB00.355
    design, overlap with, YB00.357
    new mining technologies, YB00.342-358
corporate crimes 
    offshore, J02.104-110
    workplace, J02.45- 46
Corporate fundraising
    ASIC policy, YB00.421-423
    CLERP amendments, YB00.409-429
    disclosure documents, YB00.410
        advertising restrictions, YB00.420
        lodgment, YB00.421
        offer information statements, see Offer information statements
        profile statements, YB00.410
        prospectus, see Prospectus
        publicity restrictions, YB00.420
    initial public offer, see Initial public offer (IPO)
    prospectus, see Prospectus
    small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
        CLERP amendments to assist, YB00.411, YB00.413
        costs, YB00.412
        difficulties faced by, YB00.412-413
        offer information statements, YB00.411, YB00.413, YB00.428-429
sophisticated investor exemption, YB00.413
Corporate governance
    contemporary good governance ideas, YB04.65
    directors' duties, YB02.630-632
    duty to hedge, YB02.632-633
    financial reporting process, YB02.345-346
    governance quality, YB04.71–2
    methods of, adequacy of, YB02.630
OECD guidelines, YB04.52, YB04.77
    quantitative measures, YB04.71
    soft-law guidelines, YB04.52
Corporate Law Reform Act
continuous disclosure, YB96.387-388
public companies and related parties, YB96.407
Corporate officer
indemnity—see Indemnity
environment protection legislation, under—see Environment protection legislation
occupational health and safety legislation, under—see Occupational health and safety legislation
Corporate responsibility
    occupational health and safety, YB04.227–8, YB04.237–8, YB04.244–5
        elements, YB04.228
        liability, conditions for, YB04.228–9
        non-compliance, reducing the risk of, YB04.241–3
        organisations,  cultural change within, YB04.239–41, YB04.244–5
        personal liability, increased, YB04.232–5
Corporate social responsibility
    emerging field, YB04.57
Corporation(s)—see also Directors
    breach of environment legislation
        cases under State legislation, J00.151-153
        Conservation Act
            conflict of objectives with Corporations Law, J00.147-148
        constitutional aspects, J00.155-156
        liability of officers under, J00.153-155
    corporate veil, piercing, YB04.51
    criminal responsibility, J01.100-101
    disclosure, YB04.73–4
    duties, YB02.451
    environmental liabilities, YB02.372
    fines and civil penalties, J00.145
    governance of, see Corporate governance
    government-owned, YB93.184–193
    liability of, YB02.451
    liability of company officers, J00.145-156
    misleading or deceptive conduct by, see Misleading or deceptive conduct
    obligations of, YB02.451
    occupational health and safety law
        liability for breach, see safety
    ownership and control, disclosure of, YB04.52
    public, see Public company
    regulation of, YB02.422
    regulator of, YB02.346
        ASIC, YB02.346
        IOSCO, YB02.346
    risk management, YB02.351, YB02.355, YB02.400
    separate legal personality, YB04.51
    State legislation, J00.148-153
    Statutory, see Statutory corporation
    transparency, YB04.73–4
Corporations and Securities Panel see Takeovers Panel
Corporations Law,  see also Related party transactions
directors, duties of, YB95.182
indemnity of companies, removal of prohibition against, YB95.212
Pt 3.2A, YB96.407, YB96.411-417
Corporations Law Economic Reform Programme (CLERP)
    fundraising amendments, YB00.409-429
    history, YB00.408-409
    offer information statements, see Offer information statements
    securities, assessment as to, YB00.400
    contradictions between main principles, YB04.72
    definition, YB00.2
    international, see International bribery and corruption
    international standards, YB04.53–4
    Transparency International's annual corruption perception ranking, YB04.71
adequacy as remedy, YB03.19
commissioning, YB04.542
deducted from royalties, YB93.267–268
discovery, of, YB04.107
Land and Resources Tribunal (Queensland), J01.13-15, J01.114-116, J02.17-19, J02.128-129
    non-party discovery, YB04.110    
party and party basis, YB03.19    
preliminary discovery, YB04.111
    rehabilitation and de-commissioning, YB04.542–3
surface access, J01.222-223
    Wardens Court, J02.139 140
Council of Australian Governments (COAG), YB96.3-4
Competition Principles Agreement, signing of, YB95.355–356
gas industry, implementation of national competition policy, YB95.316, YB95.355-356
    reforms spearheaded by
        energy industry, YB01.181, YB01.183
        transferable water entitlements, YB01.479
Council of Australian Governments Energy Markets Review, see COAG Energy Markets Review

    hearing date, certainty of, YB03.19
    inherent jurisdiction, YB03.18
    procedural advantages, YB03.17
    review of procedural decision of arbitrator, YB03.18
    breach of, exercise of mortgagee’s power of sale, YB03.94
    personal, to repay secured money, YB03.94
environmental matters, YB93.28–29
vendor, YB93.50–51
Credit rating
    obtaining, YB03.114
    project vehicle, of, YB03.114, YB03.162–163
    projects, for, see Project rating
    resource companies,  see Resource company
    scheme of arrangement, J04.163-184
        components, J04.163-164
        jurisdiction, J04.170-171
        Murrin Murrin project, J04.164-184    
        process, J04.165
        voting, J04.171-173
Crescent Head agreement, B96.194–201
Crisis management
    apology, role of an, J00.218-224
    chemical spill, J00.215-216
    insurance issues, J00.217
    media coverage, J00.215-216
    media statement, appropriate, J00.222-223, J00.225-227
Croker Island
    native title appeals, J00.13-20, J00.195
Cross border mergers and acquisitions
    break fees, YB02.333-335
    concepts, YB02.333-336
    concurrent regulation, YB02.320
    disclosure standards, YB02.330-331
        forecasts, YB02.330-331
    DLC structures, see DLC structures
    `foreign', YB02.320, YB02.327
    lock up devices, YB02.335-336
    regulation, YB02.325-333
        ASIC, YB02.328
        concurrent, YB02.320
        foreign, YB02.327
        limitation of, YB02.326
        relief, YB02.329-330, YB02.336
        SEC, YB02.327-328
    schemes of arrangement, see Schemes of arrangement
    structures, YB02.320
    takeovers, see Takeovers
Crown—see also Sovereign risk
    derivative immunity, J04.295-298
        determination of who or what is, YB02.692-693
        control test, YB02.693
        function test, YB02.694
    fiduciary duty of, YB02.214-216, YB02.220-221, YB02.224
    grants by, YB02.202-203
    immunity of, YB02.689, YB02.690
        application of, extent of, YB02.703-705
        contemporary context, YB02.700-705
        derivative, for, YB02.694-695
        determination of, YB02.692-693, YB02.695-700
        inter and intra polity claims, YB02.695
        statutory, YB02.689-692, YB02.704-705
individual polities, representing, YB94.32
    land, see Land title
    lease, see Crown lease
mineral rights, see Minerals and petroleum
native title, YB94.32
ownership of minerals, YB93.421, YB93.426–427, YB96.201-203
property vested in, YB02.177
radical title to waste lands, YB94.33
    sovereignty of, YB02.156, YB02.211
    title to land, YB02.108, YB02.109
        native title and, YB02.109
Crown Land
trespass, right of holder to sue in, YB94.325
Crown Lands (Reserves) Act 1978 (Vic)
amendment regarding consent to commence work, B94.7
Crown lease
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.164, YB02.167, YB02.202-203
    validity of, YB02.164
Cultus—see Disclosure of discoveries
Customer lists
    ACCC, power to demand disclosure, YB04.81

Consolidated Index: D

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Dai Hung
acquisition, YB97.289-290
exit, YB97.292
legislative framework, YB97.290-292
questions about project, YB97.290-291
Damages,  see also Compensation
agreement to negotiate, breach of, YB02.16
breach of duty, YB02.2
    good faith, YB02.2
breach of promise, for, YB02.14, YB02.16
consequential, YB04.561, YB04.565
        legal expenses, YB04.570
definition, YB04.124
duty of care, breach of, YB02.430
equitable compensation and, YB04.125
expectation, YB02.16
insurance against
compensatory, YB95.212
exemplary, punitive or aggravated, YB95.211–212
    joint venture context, in, YB04.140–1
    liability for
        exercise of public functions, in, YB02.423
        public bodies, of, YB02.421
        public officers, of, YB02.421
    measure of, YB02.16
    misfeasance in public office, for, YB02.421, YB02.424
    misleading or deceptive conduct, for, YB02.421
    mitigation, YB04.126
    natural resources project not complying with approval conditions
        common law action, YB00.277-280
    negligence, for, YB02.421, YB02.430
    personal injury to indigenous peoples, J99.259-260
    reliance, YB02.16
    sale of coal assets in breach of joint venture assignment restrictions, YB01.121
    statutory corporation, immunity from liability, J99.205-206
    statutory duty, breach of, YB02.424, YB02.429
    water supply contamination, J99.205-206
Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline Scheme
access regime, YB95.361-362, YB95.363-364
Competition Principles Agreement, comparison with, YB95.376–385
Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement, interaction with, YB95.390–391
Pt IIIA negotiation model, distinguished, YB95.373–376
accounting obligations, YB95.365
capacity, YB95.366–367
application for and grant of, YB95.370
needs, obligation to meet, YB95.364–365
charges for transmission, YB95.371–372
definitions, YB95.360-361, YB95.363
disclosure of information, YB95.367
dispute resolution process, YB95.363, YB95.372
Gas Referee Regulations 1995 (WA), YB95.373
enforcement, YB95.362
“essential terms”, YB95.370–371
exempted contracts, YB95.365–366
Gas Corporation Act 1994 (WA), provisions under, YB95.360–366
Gas Transmission Regulations 1994 (WA), YB95.366–373
non-discrimination between shippers, YB95.367–369
open access to, YB95.359-360, YB95.361-362
pricing scheme, YB95.361, YB95.365
regulation, YB95.363
report, obligation to, YB95.364
tranches, YB95.369–370
    recovery, YB04.170
Debt service reserve account, YB03.99
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, YB94.135
Decommissioning and rehabilitation,  see also Mine closure
acquiring a new site, YB96.432-434
Canadian experiences, YB96.442-443
commitments, YB96.434-435
community perceptions, YB96.447-448
contaminated land, YB96.459-460
costs, YB96.435
effective, YB96.432
environmental audit, YB96.432-433
environmental objectives, YB96.445
environmental planning, YB96.446
innovation, YB96.458
limitations, YB96.447
monitoring, YB96.460-461
need for planning, YB96.432
“polluter pays” principle, YB96.432
practices, YB96.457-458
research, YB96.460
standards, YB96.455-457
strategies, YB96.457
US experiences, YB96.439-441
voids, YB96.458-459
Windarra nickel project, YB96.436-438
    definition, YB03.164
Defence Practice Area land
    exploration on, J99.101-104
    whether Crown land or private land, J99.102-103
due diligence—see Due diligence
environment protection legislation, offences against—see Environment protection legislation
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.250
calculation of royalties, YB93.269
    electricity market, see Energy industry reform
        Victoria, in, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
    facilities of national significance, YB04.181–2
    contract for sale of RECs, YB03.277
    financial product, as, YB03.276
    meaning of, YB03.277
Derivatives—see also Caps, Financial risk management, Futures, Hedging, Options, Securities, Swaps
alternative risk transfer, YB02.403
Bankers Trust v Dharmala, YB97.369
characteristics, YB93.101–103
controls, YB97.353-365
external, YB97.353
internal, YB97.367-369
management, YB97.367-368
Corporations Law, application of the, YB97.355-358
Crown immunity, YB02.694-695
dealers’ duties to end-users, YB97.369-371
defined, YB93.74, YB93.101, YB97.349
gaming and betting exemption, YB93.114–115
inherent risk, YB02.630, YB02.647
licensing, YB93.113–114
    regulation of, YB02.639-640
    reporting of, YB02.646-647
    risk management method, YB02.629
    use of, YB02.623-625, YB02.630
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Designs, YB00.347-348
    see also Intellectual property rights
    copyright, overlap with, YB00.357
    infringement, YB00.357
    new mining technologies, YB00.342-358
Developing countries
    ethnic divisions, YB04.61
    institutional weakness, YB04.60
    international standards and, YB04.60–2
    local or indigenous communities, YB04.61
    weak state powers, YB04.61

Development consent
conditions attached to, YB95.45
explicit power to express, YB95.54–55
conflict with other approvals, YB95.32
de facto power of veto, YB95.45
documentation, YB97.371-376
checklist, YB97.376
content, YB97.375-376
form of, YB97.372
ISDA, YB97.372-374
advantages, YB97.372
disadvantages, YB97.373
electricity transactions, in, YB97.381
electricity market, and, YB97.377-384
insurance contracts, YB97.366
legal regulation in Australia, YB97.354-356
regulatory framework, YB97.355
risks, against, YB97.354-355
licensing regime, YB97.360-361
netting, YB97.367
off-exchange, YB97.353
on-exchange, YB97.352
Proctor & Gamble v Bankers Trust, YB97.370
reform, outlook for, YB97.364
uses of, YB97.349
hedging, YB97.349
trading, YB97.351
electricity market, hedging and, YB97.377-384
end-users, by, YB97.382
hedging contracts, YB97.379-381
New South Wales, YB97.380
Victoria, YB97.379
ISDA documentation, YB97.381
Sydney Futures Exchange, YB97.383
vesting contracts, YB97.378
futures contract, YB97.356-359
adjustment agreements, YB97.357
consequences of treatment as, YB97.359
eligible commodity agreements, YB97.356
eligible exchange-traded options, YB97.357
futures options, YB97.357
futures market, YB97.361
ASC exempt, YB97.362
gaming and wagering legislation, application of, YB97.365
hedging, YB97.349
integrated system of approvals, establishment of working party, YB95.55–56
invalid, J01.206-209
land purchase condition, YB95.32–33
Barry v The Minister for Environment and Planning, YB95.32
success, key components in, YB95.58
uncertainty in terms, YB95.31
unnecessary or excessive detail, YB95.32
Dewatering of underground workings
contribution of neighbouring mine owners to cost, B95.100
Diesel fuel credits
    GST reduction, J99.61
authorisation of offence, YB03.503–505
    best interests of company, acting in
        power of members to override, YB03.549–550
business expenses, YB96.420
confidential information, disclosure of, YB03.548
    confidentiality, duty of, YB03.542–548
    conflicts of interest, avoiding, YB03.534
    connivance, concept of, YB03.507–509
    consent, concept of, YB03.506–507
diligence, concept of, YB03.497–499
    due precautions, taking, YB03.510
duties at common law, YB95.181–182
extension of, YB95.182
Re City Equitable Fire Insurance Company Ltd, summary in, YB95.181–182
environment, liability for, see Environment
environmental checklist, YB93.42
environmental liability, YB93.11, YB93.57, YB93.332
exercise of powers for a proper purpose, YB03.534
fiduciary duties, YB03.533
    good faith, duty to act in, YB03.533
indemnity—see Indemnity
independence of, YB03.551
    interest, disclosure of, YB03.554
knowingly concerned in, or party to, YB03.499–503
liability, personal and joint venture, YB95.182
environment protection legislation, breach of—see Environment protection legislation
nominee, see Nominee directors
    permitting, concept of, YB03.505
    personal liability, YB03.481
        Australian Capital Territory, YB03.495–497
        common law, YB03.482
        Commonwealth, YB03.484–485
        lack of uniformity in provisions, YB03.482
        New South Wales, YB03.485–487
        Northern Territory, YB03.495
        other jurisdictions, YB03.497
        Queensland, YB03.489–492
        South Australia, YB03.493
        statute, YB03.482, YB03.484
        Tasmania, YB03.494
        Victoria, YB03.487–489
        Western Australia, YB03.493–494
potential conflicts, resolution of, YB03.553–554
recklessness, concept of, YB03.509–510
regulation, YB93.340
remuneration, YB96.419-420
taxation, liability for, see Taxation
    third parties challenging actions of, YB03.550–551
    uniform liability, need for reform, YB03.526–528
valuation of assets, YB93.354–356
    workplace health and safety, see Workplace health and safety
Disbursement account, YB03.99
Disclosure—see also Continuous disclosure, Inspection
corporations, by, YB04.73–4
foreign company listing in Australia, by, YB94.249
    hedging, for, YB02.640-642, YB02.647
            ASX listing rules, YB02.646
            financial reports, YB02.646
            rules, YB02.643-646
    standards, YB02.644-646
limiting, after production, YB04.92–5
    powers of regulators, YB04.81
        cross border mergers and acquisitions, YB02.330-331
        forecasts, YB02.320-331
        schemes of arrangement, YB02.324
    takeovers, YB02.330-331
unauthorised exploration by resources company, YB94.337, YB94.385
bases of obligation, YB94.338
code of conduct, relevance, YB94.376, YB94.385
confidential information, YB94.338
fiduciary duty, breach of, YB94.339, YB94.369
Barnes v Addey, rule in, YB94.375
misrepresentation under s 52 Trade Practices Act, YB94.343
statutory duty, breach of, YB94.343
Disclosure of discoveries, YB97.433-452
Australian Securities Commission, action by, YB97.449
Australian Stock Exchange, action by, YB97.448
“aware”, YB97.434
BHP, YB97.439-443
Corporations Law
civil liability for non-disclosure, YB97.439
criminal liability for non-disclosure, YB97.438
Cultus, YB97.443-448
effect of information, expected, YB97.435
exceptions to requirements, YB97.435
integrity of regime, YB97.451
listing rules, YB97.434-438
future of, YB97.449
waivers, when to grant, YB97.451
“material”, YB97.435
mining companies, requirements of, YB97.437
“spirit” of disclosure, YB97.436
Disclosure by companies
    Australian companies, YB00.502-503
    ASX Listing Rules, YB00.495-496, YB00.497, YB00.512-513
    continuous disclosure requirements, YB00.495-496
        civil liability for contravention, YB00.500
    Corporations Law provisions, YB00.495, YB00.497
    disclosure documents, YB00.410
        advertising restrictions, YB00.420
        lodgment, YB00.421
        offer information statements, see Offer information statements
        profile statements, YB00.410
        prospectus, see Prospectus
        publicity restrictions, YB00.420
    failure to disclose, YB00.497
        civil liability, YB00.500
        intentional or reckless, YB00.497
    initial public offer, see Initial public offer (IPO)
    insider trading, YB00.497-498
    native title disclosures, YB00.515
    oil and gas exploration results, YB00.496
    selective, YB00.493-503
        examples, YB00.493-495, YB00.499-500
    selective briefings, YB00.498-499
    tipping, YB00.497-498
    US approach, YB00.501-502
disclosure requirements 
    regulatory response to crisis, J02.162-178
arbitrator’s approach to, YB03.22–23
    civil proceedings, YB04.105
    cost of, YB03.23, YB04.107
    failure to make, YB04.107
    international arbitration, YB03.23
    nature of, YB04.86, YB04.105
        costs, YB04.110
        court's discretion, YB04.109
        definition, YB04.107
        pre-requisites for application, YB04.109
        purpose, YB04.108
        reasons for using, YB04.107
        subpoenas    , distinguished, YB04.108
    objects, YB04.105
power to order, of application and objection, B94.14
    preliminary, YB04.110
        costs, YB04.111
        when available, YB04.110
    relevance test, YB03.22
    time for, YB04.105–6
    use of discovered documents, YB04.106
    volume of, YB03.23
    what documents must be discovered, YB04.106
Discretionary power
    Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act (PSLA), see Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act (PSLA)
    rule of law, contrary to, YB04.38
    unjust, YB02.102
Dispute resolution
    access to upstream facilities, YB99.204-205
        agreement provisions, YB99.188
        UK code of practice, YB99.193-194
        challenges, YB04.178–9
        consequences of determination, YB04.175–6
        procedure, YB04.171–175
        responses, YB04.176–7
    administrative law remedies, YB04.178–9
    alternative dispute resolution, YB99.357-358
arbitration—see Arbitration
    AUSFTA, under, YB04.581–3
    injunctions, YB04.179    
    Dispute Review Board, see Dispute Review Board
    Dispute Settlement Body, see Dispute Settlement Body
engineering and construction contracts, YB03.220, YB03.232–238
mediation—see Mediation
    on site, YB99.495-509
    procedures, YB02.59, YB02.62, YB02.65
royalty disputes, YB93.254–255
    World Trade Organisation, under, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.58-59
Dispute resolution specialists
    international standards, role of, YB04.49
Dispute Review Board
    advantages, YB99.506-507
    case studies, YB99.503-505
    comparison with other ADR forms, YB99.508-509
    composition, YB99.497
    costs, YB99.500
        enforceability, YB99.502-503
        whether binding, YB99.500-501
    disadvantages, YB99.507
    endorsement, YB99.503
    formation, YB99.498
    legal representation, YB99.501
    liability of members, YB99.501
    meetings, YB99.498-500
    mini-DRB, YB99.505
    multi-DRB, YB99.505
    procedure, YB99.498-500
    standby-DRB, YB99.505
    success, YB99.506-507
    use of, YB99.495
    variations on standard, YB99.505-506
    what is, YB99.495, 496
Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), YB02.49, YB02.51
    applications to, YB02.65, YB02.68
    compulsory dispute resolution, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.59
    decisions of
        binding, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.59
        enforceability of, YB02.59
    determinations, YB02.62
    establishment of, YB02.59
    procedures, YB02.59, YB02.62, YB02.65
        compulsory, YB02.59
    quasi-judicial court, YB02.59
    success of, YB02.65
        international standards, relevance of, YB04.47–54
        mediation, YB04.49
        recent examples, YB04.50–4
    contractual obligation, YB02.34
        good faith, of, YB02.34
    termination of, see Termination of contract
DLC structures
    approval, YB02.321
    cross border regulation, YB02.332-333
    establishment of, YB02.321
    features, YB02.324-325
    implementation of, YB02.321
    separate entities, YB02.321
Diversified Mineral Resources v CRA Exploration Pty Ltd
claim for misleading and deceptive conduct, basis of, YB95.558–559
decision, YB95.560–562
disclosure of information, obligations, YB95.561–562
facts of case, YB95.559–560
fiduciary duty in contractual relationship, examination of, YB95.561–562
joint venture agreement, YB95.562–563
plaintiff, argument of, YB95.560
s 52, Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), claim for damages for breach, YB95.558–559
dual listed company structure, YB01.461
    taxation, YB00.472-473
        franking rebates, YB00.473
        imputation credits, YB00.473
        incorporated joint ventures, YB00.472
    unfranked, paid to non-resident parent company, YB00.473
    discovery, YB04.86
    fishing expeditions, YB04.87
    production of, see Production of documents
    subpoenas, YB04.86
Dollar pits, YB93.372–373
Douglas Apsley National Park
Shell Company Ltd licence to mine, B94.9
Downstream petroleum industry
ACCC inquiry, YB96.351, YB96.379-380
Ampol/Caltex merger, YB96.355
changes, YB96.350, YB96.362
characteristics, YB96.352, YB96.381
competition, YB96.350, YB96.381-382
definition, YB96.350
features, YB96.371-372
geographic market, YB96.352-353
investment, YB96.380
marketing, YB96.380
mergers, YB96.355
Mobil purchase of Amgas, YB96.355-357
multi site franchising, YB96.358-361
benefits, YB96.363-364
concerns, YB96.365-366
contracts, YB96.367-369
effects, YB96.366
fiduciary relationships, YB96.377
perspective of franchisees, YB96.364-365
power of oil companies, YB96.364
promissory estoppel, YB96.369-371
questions, YB96.366-367
Trade Practices Act, YB96.371-376
Oilcode, YB96.357, YB96.383-384
participants, YB96.352-352, YB96.381
price monitoring, YB96.354
PRMFA, YB96.351, YB96.354-355, YB96.366
profitability, YB96.382-383
public perception, YB96.379, YB96.381
refining companies, YB96.380
regulation, YB96.353-355, YB96.379, YB96.383-384
scrutiny, YB96.351, YB96.381
Sites Act, YB96.351, YB96.354-355
structural changes, YB96.351-352
mutual interest provisions, YB93.240–241
Drugs in the workplace, YB97.231-245
confidentiality, YB97.238
consequences, YB97.243
duties of employer, YB97.232
education, YB97.244
employment contracts, YB97.233
impairment, YB97.231
observation as detection, YB97.234
policy, implementation of, YB97.243
rehabilitation, YB97.244
blood, YB97.236
collection and handling, YB97.237
cut-off levels, YB97.238
frequency, YB97.239
performance, YB97.234
specific, YB97.235
types of, YB97.235
urine, YB97.236
who to test, YB97.241-242
Dual listed companies (DLC)
        accounting standards, YB01.472
        merger accounting, YB01.467-468
    advantages of structure, YB01.46, YB01.466-470
    agreements implementing, YB01.463-464
        regulatory, YB01.465-466
        shareholder, YB01.465
    assets, YB01.460
    BHP/Billiton model, YB01.45, YB01.457
    boards and management, YB01.461
    Brambles-GKN merger, YB01.457
    break fees, see Break fees
    capital markets, access to, YB01.467
    capital reduction, YB01.461
    complexity of structure, YB01.471
    constitutions, YB01.462
        amendments to, YB01.464-465
    corporate governance, YB01.472
    corporate identities, preserving, YB01.466
    cross guarantees, YB01.462
    deed poll guarantees, YB01.464
    dividends, YB01.461
    domicile, continuity of, YB01.466
    drawbacks of structure, YB01.470-471
    equalisation ratio, YB01.459
        inability to maintain, YB01.470
    examples of, YB01.45-46
    features, YB01.458
    flexibility of structure, YB01.467
    franking credits, preservation of, YB01.468
    goal, YB01.458
    history of structure, YB01.458
    implementation, YB01.463-466
        simplicity of, YB01.469
    implications for operations, YB01.460
    increased compliance costs, YB01.471
    legal entity, YB01.460
    low premium merger, YB01.469
    management inflexibility, YB01.471
    merger accounting, YB01.467-468
    merger implementation agreement, YB01.463
    merger ratio, YB01.459
    minimised tax consequences, YB01.468
    operational delays, YB01.471
    pre-emption, no trigger of, YB01.469
        equalisation, YB01.459
        merger, YB01.459
    regulatory approvals, YB01.465-466
    regulatory framework, cross application of, YB01.472-473
    requirements for creation of, YB01.45-46
    share issues, YB01.461
    share price disparities, YB01.470
    shareholder approvals, YB01.465
    sharing agreement, YB01.463-464
    special voting shares deed, YB01.464
    structure, YB01.44, YB01.458-462
    takeover defence, YB01.469-470
    takeovers effected through, YB01.44-47
    valuation, impact on, YB01.471
    voting, YB01.461-462
        class rights actions, YB01.462
        joint electorate actions, YB01.461-462
        special voting shares deed, YB01.464
Due diligence, YB93.17–18, YB93.57, YB93.58–59
coal assets, sale or purchase of
        bidder, by, YB01.130
        detailed, YB01.129-130
        initial, YB01.126
        inquiries by purchaser, YB01.143-153
        packaging the assets, in, YB01.128
        process, YB01.133
        targeting of purchasers, YB01.129
        vendor, by, YB01.130
obtaining environmental report, YB93.26–28
“Dutch disease”, YB04.67
Duty of care
    breach of, YB02.430, YB02.435-437
        damages for, YB02.430
        negligent, YB02.430
    commercial premises, YB04.526
        Bryan v Maloney, YB04.528
        economic loss, YB04.527, YB04.529
        subsequent purchasers, YB04.526–7
        Woolcock Street Investments Pty Ltd v CDG Pty Ltd, YB04.528–9
            implications of decision, YB04.532–3
    establishment of, YB02.430
    Longford case, YB03.571
    pre-purchase inspection, YB04.532–3
    proximity, YB04.528
    vulnerability, YB04.530–2
Duty of care of joint venture participants, YB01.128
Duty to negotiate
    breach of, YB02.13, YB02.14, YB02.17, YB02.18
        liability for, YB02.13
        repudiation for, YB02.18
    good faith, in, YB02.1, YB02.3, YB02.13-15, YB02.45
        arbitrary clause, YB02.17
        customs, YB02.17
        misrepresentation, YB02.14
        specific performance, YB02.14
        unjust enrichment, YB02.14
        usage, YB02.17
        withdrawal from, YB02.17
    enforcement of, YB02.45
    fair dealing, YB02.17
    imposition of, YB02.13
    pre-contractual, YB02.14, YB02.15, YB02.45-46
    refusal, YB02.18
    scope of, YB02.17-18
    withdrawal from, YB02.14

Consolidated Index: E

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Easements of light
    apertures, right restricted to, YB00.327-328
    cases in relation to, YB00.325-327
    express grant of right, YB00.329-330, YB00.331-332
    extension of rights to other solar radiation, YB00.328-329
    nature of, YB00.325-326
    new negative easements, admission of, YB00.327
    passive solar systems, YB00.329
    restrictive covenants compared, YB00.330-331
    solar access, YB00.325-331
        express grant of right, YB00.331-332
East Spar Alliance, B96.202–214
East Timor
    administering power, YB02.610
    effect of independence on Timor Gap Treaty, J99.1, J99.201-202
    independence, YB00.138, YB00.143, YB00.183-184
        Timor Gap Treaty, effect on, see Timor Gap Treaty
    Indonesian occupation, YB02.611
    maritime boundaries, YB02.607, YB02.618-622
    Portugal v Australia, legal proceedings, YB02.610-611
    seabed boundary, negotiating, YB00.168, YB00.173-174
    self-determination, YB02.610
        right of, YB02.610
    Timor Gap Treaty, see Timor Gap Treaty
    transition from Indonesian control, YB02.611-613
    United Nations Transitional Administration in (UNTAET)
        Bayu-Undan project, consultation regarding, YB00.138, YB00.146, YB00.147
        establishment, YB00.145, YB00.156
        Timor Gap Treaty, role in relation to, YB00.145-146, YB00.156-158, YB00.184
    Zone of Cooperation,  see Timor Gap Zone of Cooperation
Ecologically sustainable development
    concept of, YB00.215-216
    legislation promoting, YB00.215-216
Economic loss
duty of care to subsequent purchasers, YB04.527, YB04.529, YB04.532–3
        vulnerability, YB04.530–2
history of, YB03.562
indeterminacy of liability, YB04.530–1
    individual autonomy, YB04.531
    knowledge of risk, YB04.531
    Longford case, see Longford case
        current position on, YB03.564–567
        incremental approach, YB03.564
        legally recognised rights approach, YB03.565
        salient features approach, YB03.565, YB03.575–576
        three-stage Caparo approach, YB03.566
        reasonable foreseeability, YB04.530
ED securities, YB96.389-391
    access, J02.111-114
    access arrangements, YB04.183
        application procedure, YB04.207–8
        essential facilities doctrine, application of, YB04.203
        Productivity Commission Review, YB04.198–9
        provider has no excess capacity, YB04.208–11
        vertical integration, YB04.206
        Auckland blackout, YB99.295-296, YB99.364-365
        class actions, YB99.365-367
        Fair Trading Act breach, YB99.316-317
        implied contractual terms, YB99.315-316
        settlement scheme, YB99.296
        statutory liability, YB99.295-296, YB99.314-317
    Auckland crisis, J99.42, J99.43, J99.47-48
    Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC), YB04.370, YB04.372–4
    Australian Energy Regulator (AER), YB04.370, YB04.375–6
    carbon rights, J99.3
    claims against suppliers
        breach of implied warranty, YB99.318-323
        exclusion clauses, YB99.373
        Mercury Energy (NZ), YB99.295-296, YB99.314-317, YB99.364-374
        ombudsman, to see Energy Industry Ombudsman NSW
    competition, J02.43-44, J04.98-102
            market, J04.98-102    
    Council of Australian Governments communique, YB94.264, YB94.492
current industry performance, YB94.485
customers, YB02.262
demand side management, J01.120-122, J01.240-241
deregulation, J01.34
distribution, YB94.488
    Electricity Supply Industry Amendment Act (Tas), J03.132-133
generation, YB94.486
generators, YB02.261
history, YB94.482
    implied warranties of merchantable quality and fitness for
            purpose, whether apply to suppliers, YB99.296, YB99.318-323
        ACCC view, YB99.296, YB99.318-320
        ESAA claim, YB99.296, YB99.320-323
        loss or damage, issue of, YB99.322-323
Industries Assistance Commission inquiry, YB94.489
Industry Commission inquiry, YB94.490
    infrastructure, YB02.258
        access to, YB02.263
interconnectors see Electricity interconnectors
International Energy Agency recommendations, YB94.263
    investment, J03.435-440
jurisdictions, YB02.258
market see National electricity market
Ministerial Council on Energy (MCE), role of, YB04.369–70
    monopoly power, abuse of, YB04.358
National Code technical standards, J02.111-114
national competitive electricity industry, YB94.481
regulatory framework, agreement on, YB94.264
transitional arrangements, YB94.264
National Competition Policy, YB04.359–61
    National Electricity Code (NEC), YB04.216, YB04.363
National Electricity Market, J03.435-440
National Electricity Market Management Company Ltd (NEMMCO), YB04.363, YB04.367–8, YB04.370, YB04.377
National Grid Management Council (NGMC), YB94.263, YB94.493, YB04.360
future interconnections, YB94.497
network charges, YB94.496
proposals of, YB94.494
organisational structure, YB94.482
power purchase and hedge agreements, J98.345-355
pricing, J01.118-120
        ACCC, role of, YB04.216–17
        case law, YB04.217–18
        “building block” approach, YB04.217
        customer expectation and capital expenditure, YB04.218
        National Electricity Code (NEC), YB04.216
        reform proposals, YB04.219
private ownership, YB94.483
privatisation and deregulation, YB04.182, YB04.359
purchase of, see National electricity market
reform of industry, YB94.491
pressure for, YB94.488
State systems, YB94.498
    reform package in Western Australia, J01.32-35
    regulation, YB04.357, YB04.362–3, YB04.370–1, YB04.379, see also National Electricity Code
        COAG Energy Markets Review recommendations, YB04.367–8
        efficiency, promotion of, YB04.358
        evolution of new regime, YB04.368
        existing regime, YB04.359
        legislation, YB04.361
        objectives, YB04.369
        quality and reliability, YB04.358
        successful, YB04.358–9
    renewable energy, J01.87-99, J01.326-332
    retail licence conditions, J01.23-25
retailers, YB02.262
service providers, see Network service providers
sources of fuel, YB94.484
Special Premiers’ Conferences, report of Working Group, YB94.491
State system
currently on, YB94.482
reform of, YB94.498
    supply disruption
        consumer claims for compensation, J99.213-214
    legal and insurance implications, J99.42-53
supply interruption parties J01.22-23
    trade practices, see restrictive trade practices
trading, see Energy trading; National electricity market
transmission systems, YB94.487
    transport, YB02.258
    Western Australian regulatory regime
        Electricity Reform Task Force, YB04.379–80
        national regime, interrelationship with, YB04.382
        new market arrangements, YB04.380
        regulatory institutions, YB04.381–2
Electricity Corporation Act 1994 (WA)
restructuring of SECWA monopoly, B95.14
Electricity industry, see also National Electricity Market
ACT, YB96.9-10
Hilmer Report, YB96.3, YB96.4-5
microeconomic reform, YB96.4
NSW, YB96.8-9
NT, YB96.10
Qld, YB96.6-8
SA, YB96.8
Tas, YB96.10
Vic, YB96.9
WA, YB96.6
Electricity Industry Ombudsman, J99.213
Electricity interconnectors, YB02.258
    access to data, YB02.281-282
    assessment process, YB02.281
    augmentations, see National electricity market
    benefits, YB02.267-268
    development of, YB02.276-285, YB02.290
        application of regulatory test, YB02.279, YB02.280
        ACCC, role of, YB02.280-281
        Inter-Regional Planning Committee, role of, YB02.276-279
        regulatory test, YB02.279-280
        setting of regulatory test, YB02.280
        uncertainty, YB02.282-284
    entrepreneurial, YB02.273-275, YB02.293
    establishment of, YB02.282
    hybrid, YB02.275-276
        SNOVIC, YB02.289
        Southernlink, YB02.289
    national electricity market, YB02.260, YB02.266-268
    new projects, YB02.270-274
    non-regulated, YB02.273-275, YB02.293
        Basslink, YB02.286-288
        definition of, YB02.274-275
        Directlink, YB02.288-289
        Murraylink, YB02.289
        Southernlink, YB02.289
    operation of, YB02.274
    regulated, YB02.268-270
        establishment of, YB02.279
        QNI, YB02.285-286
        requirements for, YB02.270
        review of, YB02.272
        SNI, YB02.286
        tests for, YB02.271-272
    requirements for, YB02.270, YB02.271
    types, YB02.268
    what constitutes, YB02.266-267
Electricity market, see also National electricity market (NEM)
    benefits of reform process, YB01.183-185
    business and financial risk, balancing, YB01.177
    business interruption insurance, YB01.177
    Californian experience, see Californian electricity market
    competitive threat, YB01.173
    continued privatisation, expectation of, YB01.167-168
    convergence with gas market, YB01.220
    counterparty risk, YB01.170
    credit risk, YB01.170
        risk management tool, YB01.176-177
    depressed wholesale pool prices, YB01.167
        Californian experience, YB01.174-175, YB01.186, YB01.188
        flawed assumptions underlying asset acquisitions, YB01.166-167
        global markets’ experience, YB01.173-175
        New Zealand, YB01.175
        Victoria, in, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
    distribution operators
        credit ratings, YB01.170
        risk to, YB01.168-169
    electricity tariff equalisation fund (ETEF), YB01.171, YB01.187
        reduction of hedging contracts due to, YB01.171
    energy traders, risk to, YB01.169
        risk to, YB01.169
        unknown creditworthiness, YB01.170
    global deregulated markets, YB01.173-175
    government intervention
        increased, trend toward, YB01.170
        price controls, YB01.171
        risk to investors, YB01.170
    hedge contracts, YB01.170
        electricity tariff equalisation fund, effect of, YB01.171
        risk management tool, YB01.176
        wholesale market risk, to reduce, YB01.171
    insurance for business interruption, YB01.177
        competitive threat, YB01.173
        counterparty risk, YB01.170
        credit risk, YB01.170
        operational risk, YB01.172-173
        regulatory risk, YB01.170-171
        risk mitigation tools, YB01.175-177
        risks to, YB01.169-173
        transfer of risk to, in Victoria, YB01.159, YB01.166
        wholesale market exposure, YB01.171-172
    lower prices and more reliable services, YB01.183
    national, see National electricity market (NEM)
    operational risk for participants, YB01.172-173
    plant failure, risk of, YB01.172
    pool prices
        depressed wholesale, YB01.167
        volatility in, YB01.171
    price controls, effect of, YB01.171
    reform, see Energy industry reform
    regulatory risk to investors, YB01.170-171
    retail competition, YB01.190-192
        competition between, YB01.190-192
        credit ratings, YB01.170
        risk to, YB01.169
    risk mitigation tools, YB01.175-177
    risk to participants
        competitive threat, YB01.173
        distribution operators, YB01.168-169
        energy traders, YB01.169
        generators, YB01.169
        greater transparency, YB01.169
        investors, to, YB01.169-173
        operational, YB01.172-173
        plant failure, of, YB01.172
        retailers, YB01.169
        risk profiles, YB01.168-169
        transmission operators, YB01.168-169
    security of supply
        capacity to maintain, YB01.188
        improvements in, YB01.184
    transmission operators, risk to, YB01.168-169
    Victoria, reform in, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
    wholesale market exposure risk, YB01.171-172
Electricity supply
    see also Renewable energy
    advanced gas turbine combined cycle, YB00.295-296
    Australian system, YB00.283-288
    biomass, YB00.300-302, YB00.305
    capital investment, YB00.302-304
    coal-fired plants, YB00.283, 305
        capital costs, YB00.289, 290
        emissions, YB00.291
        new technologies, YB00.292-295
    development of resources, YB00.314
    distribution of fuels used, YB00.283
    emissions, reducing, YB00.288, YB00.291-292, YB00.306-307
    fuel cells, YB00.296-297
    gas-fired power generation, YB00.283, YB00.305
        capital costs, YB00.290
        emissions, YB00.291
        new technologies, YB00.295-297
    geothermal energy, YB00.311-312
    increase in demand, YB00.283-284
    institutional changes affecting, YB00.313-314
    integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, YB00.293-295
    National Electricity Market (NEM), YB00.284-287
        difference contracts, YB00.286, YB00.287
        operation, YB00.285
        variation of pool prices during day, YB00.286
    new technologies
        biomass, YB00.300-302
        capital investment, YB00.302-304
        coal-fired, YB00.292-295
        cost incentives, YB00.289-291
        environmental incentives, YB00.291-292
        gas-fired, YB00.295-297
        incentives for development, YB00.288-292
        renewables, YB00.297-302
        solar, YB00.297-299
        wind, YB00.299-300
    nuclear energy, YB00.313
    pressurised fluid bed combustors (PFBC), YB00.295
    production costs, YB00.290
    renewable energy, see Renewable energy
    solar energy, see Solar energy
    summary of options, YB00.305
    super-critical coal-fired plants, YB00.292-293
    tidal power, YB00.309-311
    wind power, YB00.299-300, YB00.305
Electricity supply contract
    bankability, YB03.87–91
Eligible exchange traded option—see Futures, types

    anthropogenic, YB02.72
    Australian legislative action, YB02.71-73
        conflict of interest, YB02.84-86
        emission scheme design, YB02.84-94
        implementation of emission scheme design, YB02.89-94
        industry regulation, YB02.74, YB02.78-79
        international treaties, ratification of, YB02.79
        limitation of, YB02.71, YB02.73, YB02.79-84
        reduction schemes, YB02.74-78
        taxes, YB02.80-84
        transitional arrangements, YB02.86-87
    control of, YB02.71-72
    greenhouse gas, see Greenhouse gas
    human activity, from, YB02.71
    impact of, YB02.72
        global, YB02.72
        local, YB02.72
    natural processes, YB02.71
Emissions, noxious
    personal injury claim, J00.187-188
Emissions trading, see Greenhouse gas emissions
Employee relations—see Workplace relations
Employer’s liability
    prolonged exposure to noxious fumes, J99.114-115
Employment contract(s)—see Workplace relations
    termination of see Termination of contract
    legislative amendments (Vic), J03.133-134
    market review (Cth), J03.1-6
    reform of renewable energy legislation (Cth), J04.9-12
    security, J04.305-308
Energy contracting
    energy chain
        contracts along, YB03.311–315
        definition, YB03.311
    energy contracts
        bundling, YB03.314–315
        major, YB03.312–314
        parts of, YB03.315–316
    gas supply agreement, see Gas supply agreement (GSA)
    gas transportation agreement, see Gas transportation agreement (GTA)
    hypothetical contracting scenario, YB03.310–311
    power purchase agreement, see Power purchase agreement (PPA)
    principles of, YB03.309
    risk allocation, YB03.350–356
Energy Coordination Act 1994 (WA)
divesting functions of SECWA, B95.14
Energy Corporations (Transitional and Consequential Provisions) Act 1994 (WA)
implementing restructuring of SECWA, B95.15
interaction with Mining Act, B95.26–28
energy efficiency
    extractive industry projects, YB04.73
    Ministerial Council on Energy (MCE), role of, YB04.369–70, YB04.388–9
        New Zealand, J01.326-332
Energy Industry Ombudsman NSW
    benefits of dispute resolution by, YB99.363
    claims against utilities, YB99.360-361
        investigation of, YB99.361-362
    complaints to, YB99.358, YB99.359-360
        procedure for making, YB99.359
    investigation of claims, YB99.361-362
        power to decline, YB99.359
    jurisdiction, YB99.360
    limit of functions, YB99.359
    role, YB99.358
Energy industry reform
    agreement by all jurisdictions to, YB01.181-182
    benefits of, YB01.183-185
        what remains to be done to deliver, YB01.185-195
    Californian experience, see Californian electricity market
        benefits for, YB01.183-185
        retail competition, YB01.190-192
    Council of Australian Governments (CoAG), YB01.181, 183
    dual ownership situation, YB01.187
    foreign investors, outcomes for, YB01.184
    investment incentives, YB01.192-195
    lower prices and more reliable services, YB01.183
    nature of, YB01.181-182
    objectives, YB01.182
    past decade, over, YB01.180-183
    public policy objectives, YB01.182
        competition between, YB01.190-192
        role of, YB01.191
    security of electricity supply
        capacity to maintain, YB01.188
        improvements in, YB01.184
    Victoria, in, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
Energy industry reform (Victoria)
    asset sales, return on, YB01.158, YB01.166
    background, YB01.155
    benefits of, YB01.158-163, YB01.180
    commercial consumers, outcomes for, YB01.161-162
        benefits for, YB01.161-163, YB01.183
        risk transfer from, YB01.159
    debt reduction, YB01.158
    depressed wholesale pool prices, YB01.167
    flawed assumptions underlying asset acquisitions, YB01.166-167
        depressed wholesale pool prices, YB01.167
        global factors, YB01.167
        limited regulatory price reset risk, YB01.168
        reduced opportunities for portfolio creation, YB01.167-168
    global factors, YB01.167
    government, benefits to, YB01.158-160, YB01.166
    industrial consumers, outcomes for, YB01.161-162
    industry operators, outcomes for, YB01.159-160
        continued privatisation, expectation of, YB01.167-168
        losses on investments, YB01.166, YB01.185
        outcomes for, YB01.159-160, YB01.185
        risk transfer to, YB01.159, YB01.166
    losses on investments, YB01.166, YB01.185
    need for, YB01.155
    new market performance, YB01.157-158
    objectives, YB01.155-156, YB01.179-180
    outcomes, YB01.156-163
    overview, YB01.179
    power sector efficiency, YB01.163
    privatisation sales, yield from, YB01.158, YB01.166
    regulatory regime, YB01.160-161
        light-handed, assumption about, YB01.168
    residential consumers, outcomes for, YB01.162-163
    risk transfer to investors, YB01.159, YB01.166
    stakeholders in, YB01.158-160
    State, benefits accruing to, YB01.158-160, YB01.166
    State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV), power of, YB01.155
        benefits to, YB01.158-160
        risk transfer from, YB01.159
    world leader, YB01.156-157
Energy market review, YB02.417-419
Energy markets, see Electricity, Gas
Energy services
    carbon rights, J99.3
Energy trading
    authority to enter contracts, J00.124
    electricity, J00.121-127
    estoppel, J00.123
    exempt futures market declaration for electricity, J00.127
    hedging contracts, J00.121-127
    ISDA Master Agreement, J00.122
    mistake, J00.123
    trade practices claims, J00.123-124
    trading risk management, J00.124-127
        inadequate system, J00.124-125
        monitoring and assessment, J00.127
        programs, J00.125-126
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Engineering and construction contracts,  see Construction contracts
Enterprise bargaining,  see also Industrial relations
bargaining units, YB96.609-610
beginnings, YB96.605-606
certified agreements, YB96.612-616
flexibility, YB96.611-612
flexibility agreements, YB96.616-620
industrial action, YB96.606
“in good faith”, YB96.608-609
no disadvantage test, YB96.610
period, YB96.606-608
picketing, use in, J00.129
Entry to premises
    ASIC's power, YB04.85
    ATO's power, YB04.85
    Aarhuss Convention, J01.205-206
    access to information, J01.205-206
    administering authority, J01.139-140
    audit, J01.144, J01.146
    carbon rights 
        legislative framework, J04.156-62
        market for trading, J04.156-162
    carbon rights trading, J02.137-138
    directors’ liability
        Australian Capital Territory, YB03.523–524
        Commonwealth, YB03.518–519
        New South Wales, YB03.519–520
        Northern Territory, YB03.523
        Queensland, YB03.520–521
        South Australia, YB03.521
        Tasmania, YB03.522–523
        Victoria, YB03.520
        Western Australia, YB03.522
    environmental authority, J01.140-143, J01.225-227
    grant of mining lease where non-compliance, J02.129-130
    greenhouse gas, see Greenhouse gas
    heritage laws, J03.393    
    international agreements and treaties, YB02.56-57
    impairment of, see Environmental impairment
    insurance, see Insurance
    Kyoto Protocol, see Kyoto Protocol
    major hazard facilities, J02.131
    National Parks, J02.36- 40
    new EPA (SA), J02.130
objections to application, J01.26-28, J01.126, J01.241-243
    objectives, YB02.59
        enforcement of, YB02.59
    protection of, YB02.154
    rehabilitation, J01.139, J01.145-146
    risk assessment, YB02.60
    risk management, YB02.355
    standards, YB02.62
        imposition of, YB02.62
    sustainability covenant, J02.136
    trade and, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.58-61, YB02.63, YB02.66
    World Trade Organisation, role of, see World Trade
Environment and heritage
project rating, risk in relation to, YB99.19-20
reporting, see Environmental reporting
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 2000
    approval process for development projects, YB00.213-214
        Jabiluka, application to, YB00.214
    definition of `environment', YB00.214-215 
    ecologically sustainable development, concept of, YB00.215-216
    international obligations, YB00.217-218
    objects, YB00.213
    precautionary principle, YB00.216-217
        Jabiluka, application to, YB00.216
    scope, YB00.213-214
    standing to bring action, YB00.218-219
    World Heritage Convention, implementing, YB00.217-218
Environment Protection Authority (EPA) (NSW), YB95.46
    investigative powers, YB04.86
    State, YB04.430, YB04.434, YB04.436
Environment protection legislation
Australia, generic Acts in, YB95.183
Bruntland Report, YB95.522
common law, historical background in, YB95.521
company, liability of, YB95.189–191
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), Australian participation in, YB95.523
corporate officers, liability of, YB95.183, YB95.184, YB95.529
corporate officer, interpretation, YB95.184–186
joint venture agreements, in, YB95.187-189, YB95.195
offences by company, for, YB95.187
defences by corporate officers
due diligence, YB95.198–201
all due diligence, YB95.203–204
joint ventures, applicability to, YB95.201–202
reasonable delegation, YB95.202–203
emergency, YB95.198
honest and reasonable mistake, YB95.204–205
unable to exercise control over corporate body, where, YB95.197
without knowledge, YB95.185–197
directors, liability of, YB95.184, YB95.529
“ecologically sustainable development”, concept of, YB95.522
federal legislation, development of, YB95.523
gas pipelines, construction of, YB95.262
Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment (1992), YB95.523, YB95.525
international background, YB95.522–523
offences, YB95.191–195
first tier offence, YB95.191, YB95.223-229
mens rea requirement, YB95.191-194, YB95.223-229
second tier offence, YB95.193-194, YB95.223-231
third tier offence, YB95.194–195
Rio de Janeiro Declaration, YB95.522–523
State legislation, comparison of, YB95.525
Stockholm Declaration, YB95.522
United Nations Convention On Environment And Development—Agenda 21 (1992), Australian participation in, YB95.523
United States
convictions, YB95.183
“knowledge”, interpretation of, YB95.193, YB95.196
Environment protection, see also Biodiversity conservation
    accreditation of future processes, YB01.109-111
    action, definition, YB01.77
        circumstances in which not required, YB01.89-90
        environmental assessment and, YB01.76, YB01.77
        federal process to date, YB01.84-85
        referral of proposed actions for, YB01.76
    assessment and approval, YB01.77
        time frames, YB01.77
    bilateral agreements between Commonwealth and States/Territories, YB01.83
        actions covered by, constraints on State approvals, YB01.92
        Approval Bilateral, YB01.85
        assessment approach by way of, YB01.108-109
        Assessment Bilateral, YB01.85
        bilaterally accredited management plans, YB01.90
        co-ordination through, YB01.85
        definition, YB01.90
        draft, release of, YB01.84
        draft Assessment Bilaterals, YB01.109
        making, YB01.90
        novel arrangement, YB01.85
        procedural requirements, YB01.90-92
        types of, YB01.85
    compliance, YB01.78-79
    enforcement, YB01.78-79
    environmental assessment and approval, YB01.76, YB01.106-108
        application of Act, YB01.99-101
    environmental impact statements, YB01.111-112
        regulations prescribing contents of, YB01.112-114
    EPBC Act
        Acts replaced by, YB01.75
        application of, YB01.99
        benefits delivered by, YB01.80-81
        experience to date, YB01.79-80
        fundamental reform under, YB01.74
        inconsistent State legislation, prevailing over, YB01.86
        key changes under, YB01.75
        key issues arising out of, YB01.85
        local governments, application to, YB01.86
        national scheme, YB01.74
        overview, YB01.83
        penalties under, YB01.79
        State legislation, implications for, YB01.85-86
        public interest groups, by, YB01.87
        undertaking as to damages removed, YB01.88
    monitoring, YB01.78-79
    national environmental significance, matters of, YB01.76, YB01.101-102
    public interest groups
        injunctions by, YB01.87
        standing granted to, YB01.87
    significant impact, meaning of, YB01.102-106
    State and Territory processes
        bilateral agreements, YB01.83
        Commonwealth accreditation, YB01.83
        implications of Commonwealth legislation, YB01.85-86
    State approvals
        Commonwealth control over, YB01.92-94
        constraints where actions covered by bilateral agreements, YB01.92
    Tasmanian Bilateral Agreement, YB01.95-99
        accredited processes to date, YB01.96-97
        conclusions from, YB01.99
        contents of EIA, YB01.98
        control of process, YB01.99
        EIA principles, YB01.97
        level of assessment, YB01.96
        preparation of assessment, YB01.97-98
        proponent, guidance to, YB01.98
        public comment and information, YB01.98
Environment, Resources and Development Court (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA)
assent to Act, B95.99
introduction to House of Assembly, B95.24
Environmental assessment (EA)
    environmental screening, YB03.165
    preparation of, YB03.149
    report on, YB03.149–150
Environmental audit, YB93.29, YB93.31, YB93.49
defined, YB93.44–45
Environmental codes of conduct, YB00.58-61
    Australian Minerals Council Voluntary Code for Environmental
        Management, YB00.58-59, YB00.62, YB00.227
    Forest Stewardship Council certification scheme, YB00.60
    OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, YB00.59-60, YB00.62
Environmental harm by mining company
    foreign country, in see Environmental harm in foreign country
    Great Southern energy case, YB00.225-226
    prosecutions in Australia in last decade, YB00.223-224, YB00.235-245
    prosecutorial risk, YB00.222-223
    statutory penalties, YB00.222, 224-225
        compliance/enforcement distinction, YB00.227
    Trade Practices Act breaches, YB00.224-225
Environmental harm in foreign country
    Bhopal disaster, India, YB00.42
    codes of conduct, YB00.58-61
    domestic litigation, YB00.35-62
        choice of law rules, YB00.36, 47-50
        `control', concept of, YB00.35, 36
        cross vesting legislation, YB00.41
        forum non conveniens discretion, YB00.40, YB00.42-47
        high risk activities, variable standard of care for, YB00.54-55
        intervention in activities of foreign state, rule against, YB00.42
        jurisdictional arguments, YB00.35, YB00.36, YB00.37-50
        Mozambique principle, YB00.40-42, YB00.53, YB00.54
        Ok Tedi litigation, YB00.37-42, YB00.48-49, YB00.53, YB00.57
        private international law rules, YB00.37-50
        statutory exclusion clauses, interpretation, YB00.55-57
        `vulnerability' test for duty of care, YB00.35, 36, YB00.51-54
            pure economic loss cases, application to, YB00.52-54
        want of jurisdiction defence, YB00.39
    Ok Tedi River, Papua New Guinea, YB00.37-42, YB00.55, YB00.57
    Tisza River, Romania, YB00.35-36, YB00.49, YB00.55, YB00.57
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
applications require, J01.137-139
    invalidity of mining lease, J01.124-126
    Jabiluka uranium mine, YB00.201-203
    natural resource projects, non-compliance with process
        injunction, obtaining, YB00.263, 268-270
        objections, YB00.263-264
        suspension or termination of project, YB00.276
    need to refer for, J01.129
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
content of, YB95.46
drafting of, YB95.28
lawyers, role of, YB95.28
legal compliance with, YB95.26–27
preparation, sufficient budget and consultants for, YB95.28
prescribed form of, YB95.26
requirements, amendments to, YB95.57–58
scope of, YB95.27
significance of project, emphasis on, YB95.57–58
state and regional issues, greater focus on, YB95.57
Environmental impairment
    alternative risk transfer, see Alternative risk
    insurance, see Insurance
        ACT legislation, YB02.393-395
        civil, YB02.372
        establishment of, YB02.372
        impact of legislation, YB02.395-398
        insurance, see Insurance
        legislation, YB02.374-395
        NSW legislation, YB02.375-377
        NT legislation, YB02.391-393
        Qld legislation, YB02.379-382
    risk management, YB02.372
    risk transfer alternative, YB02.374
        SA legislation, YB02.385-387
        state legislation, YB02.374-395
        Tas legislation, YB02.387-391
        Vic legislation, YB02.377-379
        WA legislation, YB02.382-385
Environmental issues
Codes of Practice, YB96.461-462
community perceptions, YB96.447-448
eia, YB96.450
esd objectives, YB96.445
enforcement of requirements, YB96.449-450
environmental audits, YB96.432-433
exploration and mining, YB96.448-449
four phases of mining venture, YB96.474
impacts from exploration and mining, YB96.455
mine closure, YB96.465-466
monitoring, YB96.460-461
nsesd objectives, YB96.445
petroleum, YB96.449, YB96.462-463
Qld, YB96.450-454
regulation, YB96.448-454
Environmental law
criminal liability imposed by, YB94.190
damages, YB93.7
history, YB93.5–6
Australian Capital Territory, YB93.40–41
Commonwealth, YB93.34–35
New South Wales, YB93.35–36
Northern Territory, YB93.41
Queensland, YB93.37–38
South Australia, YB93.38–39
Tasmania, YB93.39
Victoria, YB93.36–37
Western Australia, YB93.40
Environmental Management Overview Strategy (EMOS), YB93.67
environmental risks, YB93.1–68
contaminated land, YB93.7–10
common law, YB93.6–7
statutory, YB93.7–10
occupiers, YB93.10–12
risk management—see Risk management process
vendor/purchaser contract special conditions, YB93.44–52
Environmental management plan (EMP)
    contents, YB03.150
    preparation, YB03.140
Environmental management systems, YB97.530-570
Australian Minerals Industry Code, YB97.543-554, YB97.570
development of, YB97.544
features of, YB97.545, YB97.559
implementation of, YB97.553
obligations under, YB97.546, YB97.559
principles, YB97.549, YB97.560
systems and processes, YB97.550
reproduction of, YB97.548-554
best practice, YB97.565
certification, YB97.562-563
commitment required, YB97.537-539
competitiveness, YB97.560-561
components of, YB97.534-536, YB97.555-556
due diligence
demonstrating, YB97.538, YB97.557, YB97.568
importance of, YB97.567
environmental accounting, YB97.568
industry-wide, YB97.559, YB97.560
regulatory, YB97.557-559
ISO 14001, YB97.561-563, YB97.566
limitations, YB97.539
Minerals Council of Australia, YB97.530
National Environmental Protection Measures, YB97.540-541
Normandy Mining, YB97.564-570
purpose, YB97.533
risk management, YB97.568
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (NSW)
consent and existing use, YB95.22–23
Vaughan-Taylor v David Mitchell-Melcann Pty Ltd, decision in, YB95.23, YB95.47
consent authority, YB95.23
merit issues, council inclusion of, YB95.25
s 101, direction under, YB95.23–25
contributions plans, introduction of, YB95.55
Environmental Impact Statement—see Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
land use planning
failure of, YB95.41
s 117 direction, YB95.55
Local Government Act 1993 (NSW), consistency of approvals process with, YB95.54
mining legislation, conflict with, YB95.38–40
State Environmental Planning Policy (SEPP)—see State Environmental Planning Policy (SEPP) (NSW)
Environmental protection

accreditation, J98.81
    areas of national environmental significance, J00.145-146
    breach of environment legislation by corporations
        cases under State legislation, J00.151-153
        Corporations Law and Conservation Act, conflict, J00.147-148
        fines and civil penalties, J00.145
        liability of company officers, J00.145-156
        State legislation, J00.148-153
biodiversity, J98.81
    Conservation Act
        constitutional aspects, J00.155-156
        Corporations Law, conflict of objectives, J00.147-148
        liability of officers under, J00.153-155
    contaminated land, see Contaminated land
    economic instruments, use in, J00.157, J00.166-174
        emissions trading, see Greenhouse emissions trading
        Kyoto Protocol provisions, J00.162-165
        market mechanisms, J00.166
    tradeable units, J00.167-169
environmental assessment and approval, J98.81
environmental impact assessment, J98.191-193
    Framework Convention on Climate Change, J00.159-161
greenhouse emissions trading, see Greenhouse emissions trading
groundwater environmental protection policy, J98.96-99
heritage places of national significance, J98.82
    interaction of Mining and Environment Protection Acts (WA), J99.19-20, J99.36-38, J99.39
Kyoto Protocol, J00.162-165
marine parks, J97.192-196
mineral lease, objection to (NT), J00.3
    mining activities, regulation of (Qld), J00.180-185
        draft Bill, J00.180-185
        environmental authorities, J00.181-185
mining environmental protection policy, J98.365-366
    mining lease, objection to (WA), J00.118-120
mining objections, J97.192, J97.279-291
movement of hazardous waste, J98.391-412
national environmental significance, J98.79
national park, J97.254-257
    new Commonwealth legislation, J99.183-191
        Acts replaced by, J99.183
        bilateral agreements, J99.189-190
        Commonwealth powers given to States, J99.185-186
        criticisms, J99.185-187
        economic issues, J99.186-187
        matters of national environmental significance, J99.188-189
        objects and principles, J99.185
        role of Environment Minister, J99.187
    new NSW legislation, J99.274-280
        community “right to know”, J99.277
        enforcement, J99.278-279
        environment protection licence, J99.274-275
        integrated licensing regime, J99.274-275
        load-based licensing, J99.275, J99.276-277
        notification duties, J99.275, J99.277-278
        penalties, J99.275
        powers of authorised officers, J99.275
        Protection of the Environment Policies, J99.274
        public participation, J99.277
        recommendations, J99.279-280
        voluntary environmental audits, J99.276, J99.278
objections to mining leases (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41, J99.214-217
planning and assessment, J97.274-279
pollution, J97.101
pollution control, J98.210-215
regulation of offshore installations and seabed activities, J98.109-137
reform of Commonwealth legislation, J98.4-7
Environmental Protection Act 1994 (Qld)
administration of, YB95.531–533
compliance with, YB95.527, YB95.528
enforcement, YB95.527
environmental activities, control of
approvals, YB95.527
licensing, YB95.527
environmental duty, concept of, YB95.530
environmental harm, concept of, YB95.526
Environmental Management Programme, YB95.527
environmental values, definition, YB95.526
freedom of information, YB95.528
general environmental duty, YB95.526
historical background to, YB95.521–522
industry, encouragement of responsibility by, YB95.530
integrated management programmes, creation of, YB95.526
licensing system under, YB95.533–534
management liability, YB95.529
Mineral Resources Act 1989 (Qld), conflict with, YB95.531–532
mining industry, impact on, YB95.534–535
mining title, grant of, YB95.534
standard criteria for, YB95.532–534
object of, YB95.525–526
obligations under, YB95.528
policies, development of, YB95.528-529, YB95.533
public involvement in decision-making, YB95.528
self disclosure requirements, YB95.530–531
standard criteria, development of, YB95.532
technical guidelines, release of, YB95.533
Environmental quality
    Contamination, see Contamination
    extractive industry projects, YB04.73
Environmental reporting
    annual director's report, YB99.511-512
    existing practices, YB99.516-517
    mandatory, YB99.516, YB99.517-519
        advantages and disadvantages, YB99.519-520
    particular and significant environmental regulation, YB99.512-514
        details of performance in relation to, YB99.515-516
    public sector, YB99.517
    statutory requirements, YB99.510
    voluntary, YB99.516-517
Equipment supply
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Equitable claims
    common law claims, distinguished, YB04.123
    equitable defences, YB04.123
Equitable compensation
    causation, YB04.126–130
    common law damages and, YB04.125
    contributory negligence and, YB04.125
    defendant's profit, reference to, YB04.125
    definition, YB04.124
    features, YB04.125–6
    mitigation, YB04.126
    object, YB04.124–5
    remoteness, YB04.126–30
Equitable duties
    commercial dealings, in, YB04.118
    concurrent liability, YB04.122–3
    remedies for breach, YB04.123–4
Equitable remedies
    account of profits, YB04.123
    discretionary, YB04.123
    flexibility, YB04.123
Error of law
    judicial review, see Judicial review
Error on the face of the record, B95.18
national strategy, YB96.445
objectives, YB96.445
Essential facilities, access to—see Access
Esso Australia Resources Ltd v Commissioner of Taxation, YB97.459-475
Estoppel, YB93.150–154; YB01.263-264, YB01.422
    merger control regulation, YB01.3
    Principles of European Contract Law, YB01.417
European Commission
    BHP and Billiton, merger between, YB01.4-5
    mergers, approach to, YB01.4-5
    RTZ Corporation PLC and CRA Limited, YB01.4
European Union
    EU Climate Change Policy, YB03.304–305
    EU Renewable Energy Policy, YB03.302–303
    Aboriginal spiritual material, J00.134-136
        privilege, J00.134-135
        public interest immunity, J00.136
        relevance, J00.135
        waiver of privilege, J00.135-136
native title cases, in—see Native title
native title claim, continuing connection to land, J99.8-11
need to gather, YB04.99–100
    of native title, B95.10–11
picketing cases, J00.132-133
right to gather, YB04.99–100
rules not applying to New South Wales Coal Compensation Review Tribunal, B95.9
    ASIC's power to conduct, YB04.85
Exclusion clauses, YB02.449
    prohibition of, YB02.452
Exclusionary provisions
    joint ventures, issues for, YB03.58–60
Exclusive dealing
    joint ventures, issues for, YB03.62–63
Exclusive economic zone
customary international law, B95.2
declaration by Maritime Legislation Amendment Act 1994, B95.2
implementation of rights over mineral resources, B95.2
Exemption clauses
joint operating agreements, in—see Risk allocation
Expenditure—see Exploration expenditure
    aggregation of, within project, J00.73-74, J00.75-76, J00.80
    conditions, non-compliance with, J00.209-211
        forfeiture, J00.210-211
    exemption application
        late lodgement, J00.207-209
        previous applications, J00.211-212
        statutory declarations, supporting, J00.212-213
        warden’s role, J00.212-213
    mining lease, exemption from, J00.204-205
        project exemption, J00.205-206
    mining tenement, exemption from requirements, J00.70-81
Expert evidence
native title cases, in, YB94.22, YB94.25
Experts' reports
    ASIC, expert engaged by, YB99.477
    ASX Listing Rules, YB99.458, 479
    basis of assessment, YB99.486-487
    breach of duty, YB99.466-468
        fiduciary duty, YB99.471-472
    Bre-X Minerals Busang affair, YB99.450-452
    case law, YB99.457-476
        Astley v Austrust Ltd, YB99.459-462
        Duke Group Ltd v Pilmer, YB99.462-473
        Matine Ltd, Re, YB99.473-475
    challenging, reasons for, YB99.477
    compromised reporting, YB99.442
    contributory negligence, YB99.459-462, YB99.468-469
    control premium, YB99.490-494
        case study, YB99.491-494
    Corporations Law provisions, YB99.458, YB99.479
    damages, YB99.472-473
        contractual, YB99.460-461
    definition of expert, YB99.478
        duty to provide reliable information, YB99.469
        issues for, YB99.463
        liability, YB99.472
        scrutiny of report, YB99.469-471
    discounted cash flow methodology, YB99.487-489
        beta co-efficient, YB99.489-490
        gold premium, impact on, YB99.488-489
    duties in contract and tort, YB99.464-465
        breach, YB99.466-468
        continuing duty of care, YB99.467-468
        fiduciary duty, breach, YB99.471-472
    engagement letter, YB99.482-485
    erroneous sample calculation, YB99.474
    experts, issues for, YB99.463
    `fair and reasonable', meaning, YB99.486-487
    goodwill, YB99.474
    guiding principles, YB99.454-456
    incomplete sign-off, YB99.443
    indemnities and disclaimers, YB99.443
    independence, YB99.440, 480-482
    information gathering, YB99.482-485
    interested parties, YB99.439-440
    legal perspective, YB99.457-476
    material omission in statement, YB99.474
    merchant banker's perspective, YB99.477-494
    methodology, YB99.487-491
        control premium, YB99.490-494
        discounted cash flow, YB99.487-489
    negligence in preparation, YB99.466
    risks areas, YB99.441-443, YB99.479-491
    schemes of arrangement, YB99.473, YB99.479
    scope, YB99.440-441
    technical experts, reliance on, YB99.485
    undue conservatism, YB99.442
    Valmin Code, YB99.443-454
    valuation approach, YB99.487-491
    valuer's perspective, YB99.438-457
    voluntary, YB99.441
    when required, YB99.478-479
    who is expert, YB99.478
    written instructions, YB99.482
Exploration—see also Mining; Petroleum
aerial, YB94.311
rights of tenement holders, YB94.316
trespass, YB94.332, YB94.364
mutual interest provisions—see Mutual interest provisions
airborne magnetics, YB94.382
assessment lease, YB95.15, YB95.17
Australasian Code for Reporting of Identified Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves, YB95.5
conceptual targeting, YB94.310
    Defence Practice Area land, on, J99.101-104
    definition under revised tax legislation, YB95.407–409
detailed, of tenement area, YB94.310
diamond drilling, YB95.3, YB95.4
disclosure of information—see Disclosure
drilling, YB94.381, YB96.256-265
electromagnetic surveys, YB94.383
expenditure on, YB95.3–4
expenditures, YB04.541–2
failure of landowner to secure recommendation of excise of land from application, B95.249
geologist, role of, YB95.2–3
government, YB96.206-207
ground surveys, YB94.310
landowner consent, YB96.206
licence, YB95.15, YB95.16-17
application procedure, YB96.546-547
conversion to mining lease, YB96.212
dealings, YB96.213-214
expenditure, YB96.211-212
granting, YB96.209
moratorium, YB96.213
procedures, YB96.208
relinquishment, YB96.210
reporting requirements, YB96.214
rights, YB96.211
size and shape, YB96.210
term, YB96.209-210
licences, royalty agreements and, YB04.254–5
Mineral Exploration Code of Practice (Tas), YB95.4
minerals, YB96.204, YB96.455-462
offshore investment, YB94.221, YB94.269
access to land as criteria, YB94.297–302
Argentina, YB94.280
Chile, YB94.280
China, YB94.281
countries, YB94.275
criteria for, YB94.277
data, access to, YB94.302–306
domestic obstacles, YB94.271
geological prospectivity, primacy of, YB94.271
India, YB94.280
Indonesia, YB94.279
Russia, YB94.281
security of tenure as criteria, YB94.282–290
taxes and royalties as criteria, YB94.290–297
trends in, YB94.270
open file assessment, YB94.310
orebodies, identification of, YB95.2–3
permit, YB93.427
petroleum, YB96.243-253
pre-feasibility study, YB95.4
regional assessment, YB94.310
resource and reserve, standardisation of definitions, YB95.5
resource evaluation, YB94.312
satellite images, YB94.381
trespass, YB94.365, YB94.384
    split commodity arrangement (WA), J99.115-118
        heads of agreement, whether binding, J99.115-117
    restitution for unjust enrichment, J99.117-118
stages in exploration programme, YB94.309–312, YB94.379
stream sediment sampling, YB94.382
subsurface, YB94.311
rights of tenement holders, YB94.323
trespass, YB94.335
surface, YB94.310
rights of tenement holders, YB94.316
trespass, YB94.331
surrender of land not prospective, B95.107–108
techniques, effect of modern technology, YB94.309, YB94.380
aerial activities, YB94.332, YB94.364
surface activities, YB94.331
subsurface activities, YB94.335
unauthorised, disclosure of information—see Disclosure
without licence, YB96.207
Exploration expenditure
feasibility studies, costs of, YB97.465-467
tenement acquisition costs, of, YB97.467
Esso Australia Resources Ltd v Commissioner of Taxation, YB97.459-475
joint venture, payments under, YB97.468-469
operatorship assumption payment, YB97.469-470
petroleum exploration, YB97.461-463
review, evaluation and bidding costs, YB97.463-467
rewrite of tax law, YB97.472-474
technology payment, YB97.468-469
tenement acquisition costs, YB97.470-472
deductibility of, YB97.467
Exploration licences
    application following surrender by previous holder (WA), J99.219-220
    application of expedited procedure, B96.175
claim for forfeiture for breach of expenditure conditions, B96.131–132
conversion to mining lease, B96.15–17, B96.111–112
“fit and proper person” test, B96.139–148
    India, licensing policy, J99.228-229
jurisdiction to consider application, B96.130–131
    maximum term (Vic), J99.12
renewal, B94.8
    renewal terms (Vic), J99.12
    single securities for multiple licences (NSW), J99.5-6
split commodity arrangement (WA), J99.115-118
under Mining Amendment Act 1994 (WA), B96.13
Exploration permit, J00.55
    conditions (WA), J00.213-214
    forfeiture application, J00.206-207
    permittee, definition, J00.55
    prohibitions (WA), J00.214
    transfer and dealings, see Petroleum titles
Exploration permits
    competitive bids, J99.100
    Cth legislation amendments, J99.100-101
    fixing blocks for renewal, J99.101
    Land and Resources Tribunal (Qld) constitution, J99.79
Exploration tenement
    validity of, YB02.200-201
minerals, regulation, YB94.237
petroleum, YB94.237
    GST, J99.55-57, YB00.445-447
Extinguishment of native title, J00.82, J00.85-87
    Aborigines Act 1905 (WA), application, J00.95
    actual use, J00.85, J00.99
    adverse dominion, J00.88, 99
    Argyle mining project, J00.90-92
    clear and plain intention, J00.85, J00.96, J00.99
    conditional purchase leases, J00.92
    development of law, proper approach, J00.98
    exploration licence, J00.92
    flora and fauna rights, J00.94-95
    general purpose lease, J00.92
    grazing leases, J00.94
    inconsistency of incidents test, J00.85, J00.96
        degrees of inconsistency, J00.96
    Limitation Act, application, J00.95
    mineral tenements, J00.98
    mining leases, J00.91-92
    Noongoora Burr Quarantine Area, J00.95
    onus of proof, J00.85, 99
    Ord River Project, J00.89-90
    partial extinguishment, J00.85, 97-98, J00.99
    “past act” provisions of NTA, J00.94
    pastoral leases, J00.86-87, J00.190-191, J00.262-263
    permanent and total, must be, J00.96
    regulation by legislation, J00.97
    reserves, J00.88-89
        leases of, J00.93-94
    resources, J00.98
    significant factors, J00.86
    special leases, J00.92-93
    suspension, J00.96-97, J00.99
    town planning legislation, J00.97
    vesting, J00.88
    water rights, displacement of, J00.97
    Wik case, J00.86-87, J00.190-191
Express terms
    fair dealing, of, YB02.11, YB02.13
    good faith, duty of, YB02.11, YB02.12, YB02.26
    termination of contract, for, YB02.467
Extractive industry
subdivision of lands, J98.369-370

Consolidated Index: F

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Face of the record
reasons for decision do not usually form part of, B95.16
Fair dealing
    breach of, YB02.2, YB02.4
    concept of, YB02.4
    duty of, YB02.2, YB02.11, YB02.13, YB02.19, YB02.21
        breach of, YB02.2, YB02.4
        creation of, YB02.15
        disclaimer, YB02.12
        implied, YB02.27
        imposition of, YB02.3-4
        scope of, YB02.4-9, YB02.16
    expert testimony, YB02.9
    express term, YB02.11, YB02.13
    good faith and, YB02.41-42
    implied term, YB02.3, YB02.13, YB02.462
        breach of, YB02.13
    objective standards, YB02.9
    requirement of, YB02.9
    sale of goods, YB02.9
    scope of, YB02.4-9, YB02.16
Farm-in agreements
    Commissioner’s discretion to determine tax period, J00.256-257
    definition, J00.247
    function, J00.248
    going concern, as, J00.251-252
    GST implications, J00.248-249
    input tax credit (ITC), claiming, J00.249
    joint venture provisions, J00.253, J00.254-255
        taxable supply, J00.255-256
    tax invoices, as, J00.250
    GST, J99.61
Federal Court of Australia
assessors, use in native title proceedings, YB94.8
constitutional validity of, YB94.82
accrued, YB94.76
exclusive, YB94.76
mediation by, YB02.244
National Native Title Tribunal
appeals on points of law from, YB94.8, YB94.78
registration of decrees of, YB94.8, YB94.78
native title
adjudications on, YB94.3
assessors and consultants, use of, YB94.8
determinations, YB02.112, YB02.119, YB02.127-128
determinations, registration of, YB95.439–441
exclusive jurisdiction provisions, constitutional validity of, YB94.76
informal procedure, YB94.8
        jurisdiction for determinations, YB02.119, YB02.182, YB02.183
        mediation, YB02.244
Native Title Act, determinations under, YB02.112
refusal of applications, appeals in relation to, YB95.434–435
supervisory role, YB02.244
Federal government
environmental responsibility, YB93.411
Federal legislation
    mining, YB96.170-176
Fiduciary duties
breach of, YB94.339, YB94.369, YB94.577, YB04.123
Barnes v Addey, rule in, YB94.375
Biala Pty Ltd v Mallina Holdings Ltd—see Biala Pty Ltd v Mallina Holdings Ltd
categories of relationships not closed, YB04.116
commercial relationships, YB04.116
contract, role of, YB04.118–19
co-venturers, YB93.236–240
fiduciary obligations, nature and extent, YB04.117–18
fiduciary relationship distinguished, YB94.372
    joint venture agreements, YB04.115, YB04.120–1
    nature of, YB04.116
    remedies for breach, YB04.123
Fiduciary duty
    breach of, YB02.585
        remedies for, YB02.585, YB02.601-605
    Chinese walls, YB02.573-581
        at law, YB02.575-578
        equity, YB02.575-578
        protection, YB02.581
    conflict of interest, see Conflict of interest
    determination of, YB02.585
    duration of, YB02.594-601
    joint ventures, YB02.567-569
    nature of, YB02.584
    no-profit rule, YB02.566-567, YB02.569-573, YB02.584
    partnership, YB02.559-561, YB02.567-569
    protection from, YB02.581
    relationships, YB02.584
    resource relationships, YB02.558-573
    trusteeship, YB02.559-561
    unincorporated joint venture, YB02.561-566
Fiduciary relationship, YB96.377
gas pipelines project—see Gas pipelines
    project finance, see Project finance
Financial ratios
    debt service cover ratio (DSCR), YB03.96, YB03.158
    interest cover ratio (ICR), YB03.96, YB03.158
    loan life cover ratio (LLCR), YB03.96, YB03.158
    project life cover ratio (PLCR), YB03.95, YB03.158
    reserve tail ratio (RTR), YB03.96, YB03.158
Financial risk management, YB93.131–134—see also Forward contract, Options, Swap
capital adequacy requirements, YB93.90–91
contract terms, YB93.87–88
default risk measurement, YB93.88–90
derivatives—see Derivatives
documentation, YB93.92–96
forward contract—see Forward contract
hedging—see Hedging
    cure period, YB03.138
    international standards, role of, YB04.49
    lending decisions, YB03.164–165
    letters of comfort, see Letters of comfort
assessing international mining regimes, YB97.297-308
country risks, YB97.304-308
ambiguities in law, YB97.306
civil disturbance, YB97.304
customary land tenure, YB97.307
dispute resolution, YB97.308
environmental risks, YB97.307
expropriation, YB97.305
foreign exchange restrictions, YB97.306
land access, YB97.307
political violence, YB97.304
war, YB97.304
    India, gas and oil projects in, J99.229-231
issues, YB97.298-299
preconditions, YB97.300-304
credit and security, YB97.303
fiscal regime, YB97.301
legal regime, YB97.302
management, YB97.302
mineral title, YB97.301
repatriation of profits, YB97.301
sale of product, YB97.301
suitability, YB97.299-300
assessing petroleum developments, YB97.286-296
debt funding, YB97.187-189
equity funding, YB97.189
    offshore units, J99.23
    overseas ventures, YB97.190
project, YB97.298
    project finance, J99.281-282
    native title rights, J00.14, J00.15, J00.16, J00.85
Fishing expeditions,YB04.87
    subpoenas, YB04.103
Fishing rights
    confirmation of, YB02.117
    native title, YB02.117, YB02.139-141, YB02.161, YB02.166
“Fit and proper person” test, B96.139–148
Bond Media case, B96.140–141
Creswick Resources NL, B96.146–147
Croft, B96.144–145
Morgan and Taylor, B96.143
Pyrenees Mining Co NL, B96.143–144
Rimlex Mining NL/March Mining Pty Ltd, B96.145–146
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO)
    see also Offshore mobile craft
    collisions, YB00.87
    mortgages, registration of, YB00.84
    oil pollution, liability for, YB00.87-88
    proposed convention on, YB00.81-82, YB00.89-90
            arguments for and against, YB00.83-84
    registration, YB00.84-86
    ship, whether classified as, YB00.81-90
Floors, YB93.107, YB93.123–125—see also Caps, Collars
Flora and fauna
    environmental objection to mining lease, J00.118-120
    extinguishment of native title, J00.94-95
    revenue production, of, YB01.69-70
Force majeure
gas supply agreement, YB03.327
        gas supplier’s facilities, affecting, YB03.353
        power station, at, YB03.353
    mining contract, YB03.425
    power purchase agreement, YB03.348–349
        risk, YB03.362
PRC contracts, YB03.187
third party contracts, clauses in, YB94.175
Force majeure clauses
    absence of, YB04.286
    allocation of shortfalls, YB04.304–9
    buyer protection, YB04.313–15
    definition, YB04.287
    drafting, YB04.296–7
        buyer protection, YB04.315
        notice requirements, YB04.311–13
        pre-existing events and causes, YB04.300
        shortfall allocation, YB04.309
        sub-contractors, YB04.298
        supplier failure, YB04.303–4
    exceptions, YB04.315–16
    form and content, YB04.287–8
        distinguished, YB04.290–2
        overview of doctrine, YB04.288–90
        test, YB04.289
    interpretation approaches, YB04.292–6
    notice requirements, YB04.310–13
        confidentiality, YB04.312
    piracy, see Piracy
    pre-existing events and causes, YB04.298–300
    purpose, YB04.286, YB04.317
    repudiation of contract, YB04.316
    steps taken to overcome obstacles, YB04.296–7
    sub-contractors, failure of, YB04.297–8
    supplier failure, YB04.300–4
    termination for breach of essential term, YB04.315–6
Foreign corporations
listing in Australia, YB94.248
disclosure obligation, YB94.249
prospectus, preparation and lodgment, YB94.251
takeovers by, YB94.254
Foreign capital
Papua New Guinea, access to in—see Papua New Guinea
Foreign investment
joint ventures, in, see Joint ventures
mining, in—see Mining
    People’s Republic of China, in, see People’s Republic of China
    project finance, YB03.108
Foreign investment law, see Australian foreign investment law
Foreign investors

    energy market, in
        continued privatisation, expectation of, YB01.167-168
        losses on investments, YB01.166, YB01.185
        outcomes of reform process for, YB01.159-160, YB01.184
        risk transfer to, YB01.159, YB01.166
Foreign ownership
Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline, YB94.232
print media, YB94.232
Foreign public officials
    bribery of, see International bribery and corruption
    definition, YB00.17
Foreign torts
jurisdiction of Australian courts, YB96.557-564
    carbon sequestration rights, J99.3
allowable expenditure, B94.65
apportionment of expenditure between several tenements, B94.188
claimed expenditure exaggerated, B94.14
costs of unsuccessful application to withdraw plaints, B94.14
evidence of expenditure not limited to Form 5, B94.116
expenditure conditions not met, B95.17–19
formal evidence of expenditure conditions required, B95.19
insufficient evidence that expenditure conditions not met, B94.155
plaints alleged abuse of process, B94.116
relevant considerations, B95.19
what constitutes expenditure, B94.117–118
Forum non conveniens discretion, YB00.40, YB00.42-47
    Australian approach, YB00.43-47
    Oceanic, test in, YB00.43-44
    oppression and vexation, YB00.43-47
    St Pierre, test in, YB00.43
    UK approach, YB00.43
    US approach, YB00.43
    Voth, test in, YB00.44-46
Forward contract, YB93.74–77, YB93.103, YB93.121—see also Financial risk management, Futures
copper, YB93.82
coupon only swap, YB93.81–82
flat or “par” forwards, YB93.78–79
floating cross-currency swap, YB93.79–81
FX contracts, YB93.77–78
participating option, YB93.82–84
    right to enter land (NSW), J99.106
FPSO, see Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
        vessel (FPSO)
Framework Convention on Climate Change, J00.158, J00.159-161
    background, J00.159-161
carbon trading regime, J98.40
developments after, J00.161
emissions trading and carbon credits, J98.341-345
enforcement, J97.136-138
implications, J97.139
Kyoto Protocol, J98.30-42, J00.162-165
        developments after, J00.165
    flexibility mechanisms, J00.163-165
obligations, J97.135
tradeable permits, J97.139
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.250
    contractual obligation, YB02.34
        good faith, of, YB02.34
    duty of good faith, YB02.10-11
Franchising, multi site see Downstream petroleum industry
Frauds, statute of 

    relationship to Property Law Act (WA), J01.42-43
Free trade agreements
    AUSFTA, YB04.574
        advantages, YB04.583–4
        history of negotiations, YB04.574–5
        key elements, YB04.576
        nature of, YB04.575–6
    bilateral and multilateral treaties, YB04.576–7
    dispute resolution, YB04.581–3
    e-commerce, YB04.580
    GATT, under, YB04.575–6
    government procurement, YB04.579–80
    intellectual property rights, YB04.580–1
    investment, YB04.578–9
    market access for goods, YB04.577–8
    Most Favoured Nation principle, conflict with, YB04.575–6
    resources industry, benefits to, YB04.583–4
Freedom of association
    individual workplace agreements, whether breach, J00.25-34
    injunction against breach, J00.27
    workplace agreements, whether breach of, YB00.579
        BHP Iron Ore case, YB00.582-589
        Cth legislation, YB00.580-581, YB00.582
        international conventions, YB00.581-582
        WA legislation, YB00.580
French, Re; Ex parte Serpentine-Jarrahdale Ratepayers and Residents Association, YB94.598
objections to mining tenements, grounds a warden may hear, YB94.599
Full Court’s decision, YB94.609
hearing by warden, YB94.608
majority decision, YB94.610
minority decision, YB94.613
ramifications of, YB94.614
standing of objectors, YB94.615
previous cases, YB94.599
    exceptions, YB04.315–16
    force majeure, distinguished, YB04.290–2
    liabilities accrued prior to event, YB04.290
    overview of doctrine, YB04.288–90
        limitations, YB04.289–90
    repudiation of contract, YB04.316
    termination for breach of essential term, YB04.315–6
    test, YB04.289
Fundamental breach
    doctrine of, YB02.449
Future act regime,  J02.220-221
    alternative action, YB02.179
    application of, YB02.185, YB02.208
    authorisation of, YB02.244-245
    compensation, YB02.178, YB02.182, YB02.186, YB02.187
    effect of, YB02.119-122
    establishment of, YB02.133, YB02.178
    future act, definition of, YB02.178
    Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), under, YB02.133
    non-extinguishment principle, YB02.178
    notification, YB02.181
        fairness, YB02.181, YB02.183
        operation of, YB02.208
        requirements for, YB02.178, YB02.183
    purpose of, YB02.182
    requirements, YB02.178, YB02.179, YB02.183
    restraint of, YB02.183-184
        interlocutory injunction, YB02.183-184
    right to negotiate, YB02.184-185
    rights under, YB02.182
    validity of, YB02.119-122, YB02.133
        statutory, YB02.178-179, YB02.182, YB02.183
Future flow transactions
    project rating, YB99.1, YB99.22-26
        ESAA, YB99.318-323
        ability to produce, YB99.24-25
        financial performance of company, YB99.24
        importance to industry, YB99.24
        importance to sovereign, YB99.24
        legal framework, YB99.25-26
        local currency issuer credit rating, YB99.23
        operating performance of company, YB99.25
        other companies, treatment of, YB99.25
        structure of company, YB99.25
        structure of finance, YB99.22
        willingness to produce, YB99.24-25
Futures, YB93.75–76, YB93.104–105—see also Derivatives, Securities
common law features, YB93.121
definition, YB93.126
exclusions, YB93.111–112
legislative provisions, YB93.126–130
market, YB93.112
adjustment agreement, YB93.110–111, YB93.129
eligible commodity agreement, YB93.109–110, YB93.127
eligible exchange traded option, YB93.111, YB93.129
exclusions from definition, YB93.111–112
futures option, YB93.111, YB93.129
Futures trading
    greenhouse gas emissions, see also Greenhouse gas emissions
        developing market, YB00.402-403
        establishing market, YB00.398-399
        jurisdiction, YB00.403-404
        legislation, YB00.404
        market access, YB00.404-405
        market rules, YB00.404-405
        regulation, YB00.405-406
        verification, YB00.406
    nature of futures contracts, YB00.401-402

Consolidated Index: G

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Gas, YB96.238-239
    ACCC, role of, YB04.364–5, YB04.370–1, YB04.376–9, YB04.387–8
            Western Australia, YB04.381
        access arrangements, YB04.183
            application procedure, YB04.207–8
            assessment, YB04.394
            essential facilities doctrine, application of, YB04.203, YB04.205
            MCE recommendations, YB04.417
            provider has no excess capacity, YB04.208–11
            risk of coverage, YB04.390–2
            vertical integration, YB04.206
        access to upstream facilities, see Access to upstream facilities
AGL Letter of Agreement, YB04.389
    Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC), YB04.370, YB04.372–4
    Australian Energy Regulator (AER), YB04.370, YB04.375–6
    characteristics of Australian markets, YB99.196-197, YB99.210-211
    coal seam gas extraction, impact on coal mining (Qld), J00.6-7
    contract (New Zealand), see Gas Contract heads of Agreement
coverage, YB04.408–9
        risk, YB04.390–2, YB04.406, YB04.410
    distribution of reserves and pipelines, YB99.212
Eastern Gas Pipeline, YB04.389, YB04.390, YB04.420
    gas-fired power generation, YB00.283, YB00.305
        advanced gas turbine combined cycle, YB00.295-296
        capital costs, YB00.290
        emissions, YB00.291
        fuel cells, YB00.296-297
        new technologies, YB00.295-297
joint marketing, see Joint marketing
joint ventures, YB04.418–20
limitations on storage, B95.82
liquefied natural, see Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    Longford gas explosion, YB99.295
        causation, YB99.311-314
        defence and cross-claim, YB99.310-311
        loss or damage caused, YB99.314
        misleading and deceptive conduct, YB99.304, YB99.306-309
        representative proceedings against Esso, YB99.295, YB99.302-314
        statement of claim, YB99.306-310
        statutory liability, YB99.302-314
maritime transportation, YB04.282–3
    Mereenie Producers, YB04.388
    Ministerial Council on Energy (MCE)
        establishment, YB04.388
        role of, YB04.369–70, YB04.388–9
    monopoly power, abuse of, YB04.358
    Moomba-Adelaide Pipeline System (MAPS), YB04.396–8
    Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System (MSP), YB04.390–2, YB04.400–3
    National Competition Policy, YB04.359–61
national framework, COAG recommendations, YB94.265
    National Gas Pipelines Advisory Committee (NGPAC), YB04.365, YB04.378    
National Third Party Access Code for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems, YB04.386–7
        access arrangements, assessing, YB04.394
        conflicting considerations, YB04.393–4
        industry regulation, YB04.405
        objects clause, YB04.411
        principles, YB04.219–20, YB04.412–13
        Productivity Commission Review, YB04.403–8, YB04.420
        recommendations, YB04.408–13
        purpose, YB04.393
        Regulator, discretion of, YB04.395–6
    National Third Party Access Regime for Natural Gas Pipelines, YB04.386–7
        rationale, YB04.403
        natural gas, definition, YB99.179
North West Shelf Project, YB04.388
    optimised replacement cost (ORC), YB04.400
        contingency, YB04.402
    parameter risk, YB04.406–7, YB04.410–11
    Parer Report, YB04.389, YB04.404, YB04.413–15
        Petroleum Act 2000 (SA), regulation by
        security of supply, YB00.564-566
        third party access provisions, YB00.574-576
            storage reservoirs, YB00.574-576
            transmission pipelines, YB00.574
        underground storage, YB00.567, YB00.578
    pipeline, definition, YB99.178-179
pipeline transportation favoured over liquefaction, B95.82
    Pohokura gas field, see Pohokura gas field    
    pricing regulation, YB04.219, YB04.222, YB04.408–9
        capital base issues, YB04.219–22
        Moomba-Sydney decision, YB04.220–2
    privatisation and deregulation, YB04.182, YB04.359
    reform in Australia, YB99.196
    regulation, YB04.357, YB04.364-5, YB04.371, YB04.379, YB04.386-8. YB04.405-7, YB04.420-1
        access code, see National Third Party Access Code for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems above
        asymmetric truncation, YB04.407, YB04.410–11
        COAG Energy Markets Review recommendations, YB04.367–8, YB04.416
        efficiency, promotion of, YB04.358
        evolution of new regime, YB04.368
        existing regime, YB04.359
        investment impediments, YB04.407
        legislation, YB04.361
        objectives, YB04.369
        quality and reliability, YB04.358
        regulatory error, YB04.406
        regulatory risk, YB04.406–7, YB04.410–11
            successful, YB04.358–9    
    representative proceedings against suppliers, YB99.295
    sale and purchase agreements, YB03.87
    security of supply, ways to ensure, J00.201
    storage, see Underground gas storage
transmission pipeline infrastructure, development of, YB04.389
        UK code, see Offshore Infrastructure Code of Practice (UK)
    underground storage, see Underground gas storage
    upstream competition
        access and, YB99.196-198, YB99.208-211
        importance, YB99.196-197
        increasing, YB99.197-198
    upstream facilities, access to, see Access to upstream
upstream issues, YB04.387, YB04.413, YB04.421
        access to facilities, YB04.414–15
        acreage management, YB04.415
        joint marketing, YB04.417
        separate marketing, YB04.413–14
    Upstream Issues Working Group, YB99.179-182, YB99.202-203
    water management, YB04.432
Gas access regime, see also Access regimes
    ACCC, regulation by, YB01.183
    access arrangements, YB01.330-332
        minimum content, YB01.332-333
    alternative approaches, YB01.341-343
    asset valuation
        issues, YB01.222-223
        optimisation by regulators, YB01.224
competition, promotion of, YB01.231, YB01.232, YB01.311, YB01.314-315, YB01.318-321
    contracts with associates, YB01.335
        requirements for, YB01.336-338
        resistance to, YB01.339-341
    declaration of service, YB01.312
        criteria, YB01.313-314
    dispute resolution, YB01.335
    Duke decision, YB01.203, YB01.225
    duplication of facility not economical, YB01.23, YB01.311, YB01.322-323
    Eastern Gas Pipeline (EGP) coverage decision, YB01.304-305
        meaning of, YB01.315
        national significance, YB01.311, YB01.324-325
    Gas Pipelines Access Code, YB01.23, YB01.199
        asset valuation issues, YB01.222-223
        Code Register, YB01.23-24
        coverage tests, YB01.221-222
        information disclosure requirements, YB01.222
        Introduction to, YB01.24
        objectives, YB01.328-330
        origins, YB01.220
        pricing issues, YB01.222-223
        uneconomic to develop test under, YB01.203, YB01.304
    Gas Pipelines Access Law (GPAL), YB01.199, YB01.310, YB01.328
        objectives, YB01.328-330
        overview, YB01.328-330
    Gas Reform Implementation Group (GRIG), framework of, YB01.23
    information, publication of, YB01.334
    investors, certainty for, YB01.224
    legislative scheme
        overview, YB01.310
    National Gas Access Regime, YB01.199
    Natural Gas Pipelines Access Agreement, YB01.23, YB01.198, YB01.220
    pipelines as natural monopoly, YB01.316
    pre-existing regimes, YB01.326
    Productivity Commission review of, YB01.197, YB01.207-219, YB01.225, YB01.301-303
    public interest, YB01.326-328
    recent developments, YB01.24-25
    reference tariff principles, YB01.336
    regulatory bodies’ assessment of, YB01.23
    ring fencing obligations, YB01.333-334
    safety, no risk to, YB01.311, YB01.325
    service, definition, YB01.315
Gas Contract heads of Agreement
    “all reasonable endeavours” obligation, J00.274
    binding agreement, as, J00.269
    enforceability, J00.270-271, J00.272-273
    incomplete agreement
        force majeure, J00.272
        liability for non-delivery, J00.271-272
        prepaid gas relief, J00.272
    negotiations, J00.268
Gas Corporation Act 1994 (WA)
establishment of Alinta Gas Corporation, B95.14
Gas Electricity Certificates (GECs)
    demand, creating, YB03.270
    duration of scheme, YB03.269
    legislation, YB03.270
    supply, creating, YB03.270
Gas exports,  J97.206-211
contracts, J97.206-211
price, J97.209
quantities, J97.208
transportation, J97.206
Gas industry, see also Natural gas
    Access Code for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems, J99.93
access regimes
Dampier to Bunbury pipeline—see Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline Scheme
Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement, YB95.389–391
Moomba-Sydney pipeline—see Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth)
Natural Gas Pipelines Access Act 1995 (SA), YB95.393
New South Wales, developments in, YB95.393
Petroleum Pipelines Act 1969 (WA), s 21, YB95.391-392
Queensland, developments in, YB95.393
rights and negotiation models, comparison of, YB95.373–374
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), Pt IIIA, under—see National competition policy
Victoria, developments in, YB95.392–393
access undertakings to the ACCC, B96.81–83
accreditation of “effective” access regimes, B96.79–81
    amendments to Vic legislation, J99.90-94, J99.191-196
        anti-competitive conduct rule, J99.91
        appeal tribunal powers, J99.193-194
        confidentiality requirements, J99.193
        correction of directions, J99.90, 92
        declared emergencies, J99.194
        definitions, J99.93, J99.192
        infringement notices, J99.195
        offences, J99.194
        pipelines access, J99.93, J99.196
        protection from liability, J99.91, J99.93, J99.195
        provision of information, J99.92
        safety law amendments, J99.93-94, J99.196
anti-competitive conduct, YB95.268–271
long-term sales agreements, effect, YB95.272
relevant market, identification of, YB95.271–272
blending services, YB95.246
Canada, in—see Gas industry: experience in Canada
COAG Gas Reform Task Force, B96.72, B96.81
competition, development of, YB95.324-327, YB95.352-353
access, issues of, YB95.325
interstate sale, relaxation of restrictions on, YB95.350–352
foreign companies, YB95.353
national competition policy, implementation of—see National competition policy
timeframe, YB95.325
United Kingdom, in, YB95.326–327
United States, in, YB95.325–327
compressor stations, YB95.247
contractual arrangements, YB95.245-246, YB95.254-256
United Kingdom, in, YB95.296–297
convergence with electricity market, YB01.220
Council of Australian Governments, proposals for reform, YB95.316-317, YB95.355-356
dispatching centre, YB95.246
distribution system, YB95.247
electricity supply system, restructuring of, effect, YB95.241
exploration, Schedule of Specific Requirements, B96.102–103
    failure to supply, legal and insurance implications, J99.42-53
gathering system for raw gas, YB95.246
government policies, changes to, YB95.24, YB95.248
approvals, review of, YB95.254
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, establishment of, YB95.254
Gas Act 1986 (UK), privatisation under, YB95.294
government ownership of assets, divestiture of, YB95.252–253
Hilmer Report, adoption of pro- competitive policies, YB95.253
legislation, changes to, YB95.253–254
micro-economic reform, effect of, YB95.304–308
National Competition Council, establishment of, YB95.254
United States, in, YB95.297–298
Victoria, in—see Victoria infra
historical background, YB95.311–313
India, projects in, J99.221-240
Industry Commission, report by, YB95.336–337
infrastructure and midstream agreements, J99.199-200
interstate grid, establishment of, YB95.322–323
investment in, YB95.240–242
    Longford incident, J99.42, J99.43, J99.49, J99.90
    NSW Interconnect Transmission Pipeline, J99.192
overseas utilities, comparison with, YB95.314–315
national competition policy, implementation of—see National competition policy
national gas pipeline grid, YB01.220
natural gas
ownership of, YB95.243
petroleum laws in respect of, YB95.243
New South Wales, in—see New South Wales
past restrictions on competition and entry, YB01.181
peaking services, YB95.246–247
pipelines—see Gas pipelines
price of gas, YB95.257
Canada, in, YB95.302
United Kingdom, in, YB95.294, YB95.296-297
United States, in, YB95.298
pricing issues, B96.68–69
reform see Energy industry reform
reform of industry, YB95.327
Council of Australian Governments, proposals by, YB95.316–317
Victoria, in—see Victoria infra
sales agreement for supply of gas
annual and daily quantities, YB95.256
annual minimum quantity, YB95.256–257
anti-competitive conduct where long-term, YB95.272
indemnity of seller, YB95.257
measuring equipment, accuracy and access to, YB95.257
quality and pressure requirements, YB95.256
reserves, adequacy of, YB95.257
term of contract, YB95.256
United Kingdom, in, YB95.294
United States, in, YB95.298
volume adjustment provisions, YB95.257
South Australia Cooper Basin, supply of gas from, YB95.308–310
state markets, development of, YB95.313
storage services, YB95.247
supply contract, delivery point (Qld), J99.107-108
system extensions and capacity enhancements, B96.69–70
technology, role of, YB95.323–324
third-party access, B96.62–74
access declarations, B96.67, B96.76–79
processing plants, B96.67, B96.78
transportation—see Gas pipelines
treatment and processing plant, YB95.246
underground storage, see Underground gas storage
United Kingdom, in—see British Gas
United States, in—see Gas industry: experience in the United States
        directions, amendment of, J99.90
        enhancement of powers, J99.191
        protection from liability, J99.91, J99.93
    provision of information to, J99.92
Victoria, reforms in
access regimes, YB95.392–393
Gas Industry Act 1994, introduction of, YB95.317–318
Gas Transmission Corporation, establishment of, YB95.319–320
distribution and marketing, YB95.321–322
tariffs for transportation, setting of, YB95.320–321
third party access principles, YB95.318–319
Victoria see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
Western Australia, in—see Western Australia
Gas industry: experience in Canada
contracts for supply, YB95.304
deregulation of market, YB95.301–302
market forces, YB95.303
price of gas, YB95.302
regulation, YB95.303–304
take-or-pay arrangements, YB95.304
transportation charges, YB95.302–303
Gas industry: experience in the United States
competition, development of, YB95.325–327
contracts for supply, YB95.298, YB95.299, YB95.300
Californian gas market, in, YB95.301
changes in, YB95.300–301
electricity market, competition in, YB95.297
interconnection, cases in relation to, YB95.340–341
price of gas, YB95.298
regulation, YB95.297–298
pipeline transmission, YB95.299–300
take-or-pay arrangements, YB95.300–301
transportation charges, YB95.299
Gas industry reform
competition policy, interstate comparison, B95.257–260
demand forecasts for WA natural gas, B95.254
establishment of market in WA, B95.250–252
impact of deregulation in WA
Pilbara and Eastern Goldfields, B95.252–253
South west, B95.253–254
impediments to development of competitive markets, B95.83–85
joint ventures, B95.81–83
market identification, B95.80–81
new energy development opportunities in WA, B95.254–256
summary of developments in 1994, B95.76–77
third party access regimes, B95.78–80
transport of gas in south-west WA, B95.256–257
Gas pipelines—see also Gas industry
    access (Vic), J99.93, J99.196
    Commonwealth legislation, J83-85
national natural gas pipeline access agreement, J98.138-163
New South Wales legislation, J98.85
Northern Territory legislation, J98.362-364
South Australian legislation, J98.23
Victorian legislation, J98.26-28, J98.99
anti-competitive conduct, YB95.268-271, YB95.285-286
long-term sales agreements, effect, YB95.272
relevant market, identification of, YB95.271–272
capacity of, YB95.245–246
compressor stations, YB95.247
construction of
contract, YB95.281–283
costs, YB95.247–248
risks associated with, YB95.286
regulations in relation to, YB95.261–263
risks, YB95.281–283
environmental issues, YB95.262
financing of
leasing, YB95.290
limited or non-recourse loans, YB95.289–290
performance guarantees, YB95.290–291
security for, YB95.291–292
throughput arrangements, YB95.287–289
gas haulage agreement
allocation of capacity
imbalances, YB95.259
nature of service
nomination of capacity, YB95.259
non self displacement clause, YB95.260
option to reduce quantity, YB95.260
overrun gas, YB95.259
tariffs, YB95.259–260
Victoria, principles for setting in, YB95.320–321
United Kingdom, charges in, YB95.295
unused capacity, forfeiture of, YB95.260
high pressure transmission, YB95.246
India, J99.233-235
interstate grid, establishment of, YB95.322–323
investment in, issues in relation to, YB95.240–255
approvals, review of, YB95.254
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, establishment of, YB95.254
contractual arrangements, YB95.245-246, YB95.254-258
demand for services, YB95.252
financial arrangements, YB95.255
government ownership of assets, divestiture of, YB95.252–253
Hilmer Report, adoption of pro- competitive policies, YB95.253
interdependency of participants, YB95.255
legislation, changes to, YB95.253–254
National Competition Council, establishment of, YB95.254
land, access to, YB95.272–273
market risk, YB95.285
Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline—see Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline
native title, YB95.239
extinguishment of title, YB95.273–274
new projects, YB95.275–276
old pipeline corridors, YB95.274–275
open access, introduction of
New South Wales, legislation in, YB95.267, YB95.338
pipeline project, effect on, YB95.268
Queensland, legislation in, YB95.267
South Australia, legislation in, YB95.266, YB95.305
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), amendments in relation to, YB95.254, YB95.264-265, YB95.286
Victoria, legislation in, YB95.267, YB95.318-319
Western Australia, legislation in, YB95.266
operation, regulation of, YB95.263
ownership of, YB95.248–252
functions, determination of, YB95.251–252
risks associated with
buyer, YB95.250
owner, YB95.250
seller, YB95.249–259
regulation, YB95.263–264
structure for, YB95.248-249, YB95.250-251
Pipeline Access Code, YB95.392
pipeline, definitions, YB95.244–245
pipeline project, establishment of new
“bankability”, concept of, YB95.280–281
financing, YB95.287–291
security for, YB95.291–292
risks involved in, YB95.281–287
political risk, YB95.287
price control, YB95.263
regulations, impact of, YB95.260–272
competition laws, introduction of, YB95.253-254, YB95.264-265
sacred site
pipeline corridor, proposal for, YB95.239, YB95.276-277
federal and state legislation, protection under, YB95.276
registers, maintenance of, YB95.276–277
supply of gas, risk in relation to, YB95.283–285
transportation of gas, YB95.245
contractual arrangements for, YB95.245-246, YB95.254-258
gas haulage agreement—see gas haulage agreement supra
high pressure transmission, YB95.246
gas sales, long-term
    anti-competitive, J01.166-179
    authorisation by ACCC, J01.181-183
    enforceability, J01.312-325
    exclusive dealing, J01.168
    pre-emptive, J01.181
    take or pay, J01.180-181
    Trade Practices Act implications, J01.165 -185
gas storage, underground
    authorisation, J01.70-73, J01.75-77
    ownership, J01.68-70, J01.74-75
    Western Australia, J01.65-77
Gas supply
access to information, J98.209
authorisation of conduct, J98.206
competition, J97.108-114, J98.207
Cooper Basin (Ratification) Act 1975 (SA), J97.111, J97.258
corporate status of suppliers, J98.203
licensing, J97.109
regulation of anti-competitive conduct, J98.205
restrictions on cross-ownership: significant producers”, J98.205
Gas supply agreement (GSA)
    bankability, YB03.87–91
    buyer’s and seller’s maintenance, YB03.324–325
        risk, YB03.355
    commencement date, YB03.318
    conditions precedent, YB03.317–318
    default, YB03.326
    delivery point, YB03.323
    force majeure, YB03.327
        gas supplier’s facilities, affecting, YB03.353
        power station, at, YB03.353
    indemnity, YB03.327
    key aspects, YB03.316
    law, change in, YB03.322
    limitation of liability, YB03.327
    measurement, YB03.325
    metering, YB03.325
    minimum annual quantity, reductions in, YB03.320
    nominations, YB03.324
    PPA pricing, integration with, YB03.322
    price re-determination provisions, YB03.321
    pricing provisions, YB03.321
        risk, YB03.354
        specifications, YB03.324
    quantities of gas, YB03.320–321
    risk allocation, YB03.350–356
        buyer’s and seller’s maintenance, YB03.355
        cost overrun, YB03.355
        delays in construction/commissioning, YB03.352
        gas demand risk, YB03.351
        permitting/approvals risk, YB03.351
        quality risk, YB03.354
        supply shortfall, YB03.354
    sale and purchase obligation, YB03.321
    sources of supply, YB03.323
        maintenance risk, YB03.355
        restrictions, YB03.324
    ‘‘take or pay’’ provisions, YB03.319–320
    tax, change in, YB03.322
    term, YB03.318
    types, YB03.316
    warranty as to title, YB03.325
Gas transmission, YB02.293-294
    access arrangements, YB02.291, YB02.292
        tariffs, YB02.291
    access regulatory framework, YB02.294-303, YB02.318
        blue sky earning potential, YB02.316-317
        central themes, YB02.313
        Code, YB02.296-297
        downside risk, YB02.315-316
        Draft Greenfields Guidelines, YB02.312-317
        Gas Pipeline Access Legislation, YB02.296
        role of, YB02.203
        Trade Practices Act, YB02.295
    infrastructure, YB02.291
        coverage revocation applications, YB02.303-307
        Eastern Gas Pipeline YB02.297-298, YB02.308-311
        Moomba to Sydney Pipeline System, YB02.308-311
        Parmelia Pipeline, YB02.311-312
        investment, YB02.291-293, YB02.297-298
        unregulated, YB02.308-312
        initial capital base, YB02.315-316
    monopoly, YB02.293, YB02.297
    pipelines, YB02.293-294
    regulation, YB02.294
        risk profile, YB02.314-315
        tariffs, YB02.315-316
    trade in, YB02.291
Gas transportation agreement (GTA)
    background to contracting, YB03.329–330
    balancing, YB03.334
    capacity to be transported, YB03.330–331
    delivery points, YB03.331–332
    duration, YB03.331
        construction of, YB03.330
        dedicated, YB03.330
    liability, YB03.336
    major elements, YB03.328
    metering, YB03.336
    nominations, YB03.333–334
    outlet station, YB03.330
    peaking, YB03.334–335
    quality of gas, YB03.335–336
    tariff, YB03.332–333
    title to gas, YB03.335
    who delivers and receives gas, YB03.332
Gaming contract, YB93.114–115, YB93.116–121, YB93.122–123
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Australian mineral exporters, benefits to, YB94.236
general-purpose lease 
    refusal where excess area, J02.57-58
Geologist—see Mining
    regulatory framework, J04.211-213
    exploration, J04.124-128
        permits, J04.124-128    
Geothermal energy, YB00.311-312
    licence, YB00.567
    Petroleum Act 2000 (SA), regulated by, YB00.567
Global society
    NGOs, function of, YB04.58
    unequal distribution of wealth and power, YB04.56
    universal standards, need for, YB04.46
Global standards, see International standards
Going concerns
GST on supply of, YB99.401-402, YB00.449-453
contract issues, YB00.449-451
farm-out arrangement, whether applies to, YB00.451
transfer of joint venture interest, YB00.451-453
New Zealand, YB99.416-423
Gold, YB93.321–332—see also Tailings
hedging, YB93.380
new mines, YB93.375–376
Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement
compulsory access regime under, YB95.389–391
Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline Scheme, interaction with, YB95.390–391
Gold industry
    Hedging, see Hedging
    key players, YB02.626-629
Gold mining, YB96.167
    environmental protection, J00.202
    reforms (Vic), J00.201-202
Good faith
    agreement to negotiate, see Agreement to negotiate
    contract law, meaning in, J99.163-164
contract performance in, see Contract
    cause of action, YB02.1, YB02.11, YB02.23, YB02.35-36
    concept of, YB02.4, YB02.36
    contractual obligation, YB02.34
    court interpretation, YB02.10-11
    declaration of service application, J99.136-137
    default rule, YB02.11-12, YB02.15
    disclaimer, YB02.12
    doctrine, YB02.27
    duty of, YB02.1, YB02.2, YB02.6, YB02.13, YB02.18-21, YB02.38, YB02.473-474, YB02.486-495
        agreement at will, YB02.3
        Australia, YB02.25-30, YB02.46
        breach of, YB02.2, YB02.4, YB02.11, YB02.13, YB02.14, YB02.17, YB02.35, YB02.46
        damages for breach, YB02.2
        disclaimer, YB02.12
        discretion, YB02.1, YB02.5-7, YB02.12
        express terms, see Express terms
        government tenders, YB02.33
        implied, see Implied terms
        imposition of, YB02.3-4, YB02.10
        independent, YB02.1
        mandatory, YB02.12
        reasonable, YB02.19, YB02.32, YB02.35-37, YB02.39
        standard form contracts, YB02.27, YB02.33, YB02.41-43
        termination for breach, YB02.4
        United States, YB02.1-2, YB02.22-27
        United States Uniform Commercial Code, YB02.2, YB02.3, YB02.12
    duty to negotiate, see Duty to negotiate
    express terms, see Express terms
    fair dealing and, YB02.41-42
    franchise, YB02.10-11
    honesty, YB02.6, 8
    implied terms, see Implied terms
international trade, in, YB01.416
    legitimate business judgment, YB02.4-8
LNG contracts, YB04.327
    meaning of, YB02.4, YB02.36
    native title negotiations, J99.112-113, J99.153-166
        application to all parties, J99.160-164
        AIRC cases, J99.161-163
        effect on grantee, J99.153-166
        NNTT and Federal Court decisions, J99.155-160
        principles and propositions, J99.155-158
        “reasonableness”, relevance of, J99.158-160
    public power, exercise of, YB02.440
    reasonableness, YB02.8, YB02.32, YB02.35-37, YB02.39, YB02.41-42
    requirement for, YB02.7
    right of, YB02.10
    scope of, YB02.4-9, YB02.17-18, YB02.27
    standard of, YB02.4
        objective, YB02.8
        subjective, YB02.6, YB02.8
    unconscionability and, YB02.41-42
    originating, meaning of, YB04.578
    Rules of Origin, YB04.577–8
Goods and services tax (GST), J00.248
    ACCC pricing issues, YB00.442-444
    agents, YB99.410, YB00.460
    agreements spanning 1 July 2000, YB99.395-398
        construction agreements, YB99.385-386, YB99.399
        non-reviewable, YB99.384-385
        progressive or periodic supplies under, YB99.383-384, YB99.398-399
    amalgamated companies, YB99.408-409
    anti-avoidance provisions, YB99.411, YB00.444-445
    basic principles, YB99.393-394
    business, definition, J00.252
    cash-flow considerations, YB00.441
    cash flow implications, J99.60
    certainty of contract, YB00.437
    coal swaps and borrows, YB00.453
    common mistakes by lawyers, YB00.430-434
    consideration, meaning of, YB00.438
    consideration, payment of, YB99.402-403
    Consumer Price Index, YB00.443
    contracts spanning 1 July 200, J99.58-60
    creditable acquisitions, YB00.441-442
    diesel fuel credits, J99.61
    defective recovery clause, YB00.432
    demurrage, YB00.455-456
    deposits, YB00.440
    dispatch, YB00.455-456
    drafting contracts to avoid mistakes, YB00.434-442
    enterprise, definition, J00.252
    exports, J99.55-57, YB99.379-381, YB00.445-447
    farm-outs, J99.61
    forgetting, YB00.431-432
    going concerns, YB99.401-402, YB99.449-453
        New Zealand, YB99.416-423
    going concerns and capital assets, J00.252
    gross-up clause, YB00.434-437
    GST Act, YB99.392-393
    GST branches, YB99.390-391, YB99.408
    GST clause in contract, YB00.430-431
    GST-free goods and services, YB99.376-377
    GST groups, YB99.388-389, YB99.404-408, YB00.456, YB00.459-460
        administrative matters, YB99.407-408
        membership, YB99.405-406
    GST joint ventures, J99.60-61, YB00.456-458
    GST pricing (NZ), YB99.423-428
            implied contractual term, YB99.426-427
            pricing clauses, YB99.423-425
            recovery/indemnity clauses, YB99.426
            Tri Star case, YB99.427-428
    impact on businesses, YB99.378-379
    impact on mining industry, J99.54-62
    imported ore, J99.62
    imports, J99.57-58
    indemnities, YB99.410-411, YB99.426
    input tax credit, entitlement to, YB99.396-397
    input tax credit (ITC), claiming, J00.249
    input tax credits, YB00.441, YB00.442
    input-taxed supplies, YB99.377
    invoice, YB00.440-441
    invoice, timing of, YB99.402
    joint venture provisions, J00.253
    joint ventures, YB99.389-390, YB99.404, YB00.456-458
        New Zealand, YB99.414-416
    legislative reform, J00.257
    margin schemes, YB99.400-401
    misconceptions, YB00.430-434
    motor vehicles, input tax credits for, YB99.387-388
    multiple supplies, YB00.439
    New Zealand, YB99.412-437
        going concerns, YB99.416-423
        joint ventures, YB99.414-416
        non-residents, YB99.428-437
        pricing, YB99.423-428
        terminology, YB99.413
        zero rating, YB99.412, 413
    non-residents, YB99.390-391
        New Zealand, YB99.428-437
    overview, J99.54-55, YB99.375-378
    payment, YB99.377, YB99.402-403
    pre-1 July 2000 contracts, YB00.433-434
    precious metals, J99.58
    private sales, YB99.37
    recipient, issues for, YB00.441-442
    reciprocal supplies/barter, YB00.439
    recovery, YB00.432
    refining fees, J99.62
    reimbursable items, YB00.439
    remote housing, supply of, YB00.454-455
    resources industry issues, YB00.445-461
        agents, YB00.460
        coal swaps and borrows, YB00.453
        demurrage and dispatch, YB00.455-456
        exports, YB00.445-447
        going concerns, YB00.449-453
        GST groups, YB00.456, YB00.459-460
        GST joint ventures, YB00.456-458
        imports, YB00.447-448
        lifts, YB00.454
        remote housing, YB00.454-455
        reverse charge, YB00.448-449
    returns, YB99.377
    sale of land, YB99.378
    supplier’s contract, YB00.434-438
    supplies, identifying, YB00.431, 437
    supply of going concern
        redefinition, J00.258
supply, meaning of, YB00.438
tax savings, YB00.442 
    taxable supply, YB99.394
    time of supply, YB99.394-395, YB99.402-403
    timing of payment, YB00.439-440
    transitional arrangements, YB99.378, YB99.381-383, YB99.394-399
    transitional provisions, J99.58-60
transitional relief, YB00.434
turnover based pricing, YB00.443-444
    WST credits, YB99.393
autonomy of ministries, YB04.55
    compartmentalisation, YB04.55
contracting with, YB03.77–78
effect of policy—see Sovereign risk
environmental responsibility—see Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment (IGAE)
    international standards, role in, YB04.54–5
Government regulation, see also Regulators
    access regimes, see Access regimes
    appropriate nature of, YB01.197
    continual revision, YB01.196
    objectives, YB01.197
Government tenders
    duty of good faith, YB02.33
greenhouse emissions
        Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme (NSW), J03.403-406    
        Kyoto protocol, J02.1
Greenhouse emissions trading, J00.157-179
    allocation method, J00.173-174
    auctioning, J00.173-174
    COP-6 regime recommendations, J00.174-179
    enforcement and administration of regime, J00.178
    Framework Convention on Climate Change, J00.158, J00.159-161
    GHG emission trade agreement, J00.177
    grandfathering, J00.173-174, J00.178
    international legal background, J00.159-165
    Kyoto Protocol, J00.162-165
        clean development mechanism, J00.164
        emissions trading provision, J00.165
        joint implementation, J00.163-164
    market mechanisms, J00.166
    multinational GHG emission trade zones, J00.176-177
    parties, J00.169-173
        economic considerations, J00.170-171
        environmental considerations, J00.170-171
        equity considerations, J00.171-172
        national states as, J00.169
        private enterprises as, J00.169-173
    permit allocation, J00.176
    tradeable credits, J00.167-168
    tradeable permits, J00.168-169
    trading tax, J00.177
    verification process, J00.178
Greenhouse gas
    climate action partnership, YB02.49, YB02.50
    climate change, see Climate change
    emissions, YB02.49, YB02.50
    legislation, YB02.49
    reduction, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.69, YB02.70
        effectiveness, YB02.51
        Kyoto Protocol, see Kyoto Protocol
    targets, enforcement of, YB02.64
Greenhouse gas emissions
    acid rain program, YB00.368-369
    Canadian Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Pilot, YB00.362
    carbon credits, YB00.363, YB00.364, YB00.365-367, YB00.378, YB00.380, YB00.396
        emission permits distinguished, YB00.372-375
carbon credit trading
            carbon sequestration rights, J01.20-21
    Clean Development Mechanism projects, YB00.360, YB00.364, YB00.380, YB00.381, YB00.396-398
        bilateral model, YB00.386
        early project structures, YB00.386-387
        funding, YB00.387-391
        multilateral model, YB00.384-385
        opportunities, YB00.383-387
coal fired power stations, YB01.287
    emission permits, YB00.367-368, YB00.398
        carbon credits distinguished, YB00.372-375
    energy sources reducing, YB00.288, YB00.291-292, YB00.306-307
        domestic hot water heaters, YB00.308-309
    funding for projects, YB00.387-391
        Australian based funds, YB00.390-391
        Greenhouse Gas Abatement Programme, YB00.390
        international funds, YB00.389-390
        Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund, YB00.389
        World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund, YB00.388-389, YB00.392
    Greenhouse Challenge, YB01.286
    Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change report, YB00.359
    Joint Implementation projects, YB00.360, YB00.364, YB00.380, YB00.396-398
        funding, YB00.387-391
        opportunities, YB00.381-383
    Kyoto Protocol, YB00.359-363, YB00.374, YB00.377-392, YB00.394, YB00.395-398
    natural gas to meet abatement targets, YB01.287
        Australia’s international obligations, YB01.287
            Cannington mine power station, YB01.286
    reduction targets, YB00.396
    renewable energies, YB01.287
    trading, YB00.359-407
        background, YB00.394-395
        developing market, YB00.402-403
        establishing market, YB00.398-399
        futures, YB00.401-406
        international system, YB00.378-381
        jurisdiction, YB00.403-404
        Kyoto Protocol provisions, YB00.362-363, YB00.380-383, YB00.395-397
        legislation, YB00.404
        market access, YB00.404-405
        market rules, YB00.404-405
        `on-exchange' market, YB00.394
        `over the counter' arrangements, YB00.394
        project funding, YB00.387-391
        project opportunities, YB00.381-387
        real property rights, YB00.399-400
        regulation, YB00.405-406
        securities, YB00.400-406
    trading instruments, YB00.360, YB00.361, YB00.362-264
        carbon credits, YB00.363, YB00.364, YB00.365-367, YB00.378, YB00.380, YB00.396
        carbon sequestration right, based on, YB00.365-367, YB00.405
        emission permit, based on, YB00.367-368
        licence, nature of, YB00.369-372
        rights attaching to, YB00.369-372
        security, YB00.374-375
        severability, YB00.373-374
        transferability, YB00.373
        value, YB00.375
    UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, YB00.360, YB00.377, YB00.394
    what are, YB00.360-361
‘Green markets', YB00.393
Green Power Accreditation Program
    details, YB03.267–269
    duration, YB03.267
    relevant documents, YB03.267
Green Rights
    contract for sale of, issues to include, YB03.283–287
    definition, YB03.294
    documenting transactions involving, YB03.280
Greenfield projects
    completion test, YB03.99–100
    direct pay letters of credit, YB03.113
    funding needs of, YB03.143
    tax risk, YB03.131
Greenhouse gases
    abatement certificates
        accredited providers, YB03.265
        nature of, YB03.266
        registration of, YB03.266
        transfer issues, YB03.267
    Kyoto Protocol, YB03.297, YB03.301
    Large User Abatement Certificates (LUACS), YB03.258, YB03.265
        surrender of, YB03.263
    NSW Greenhouse Gas Abatement Certificates (NGACs), YB03.258, YB03.265
        demand for, YB03.262
        price of, YB03.262
        surrender of, YB03.263
    NSW Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme
        benchmark participants, YB03.259
        calculation of liability, YB03.260
        demand, creating, YB03.259
        duration, YB03.258
        Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Statements, YB03.262–263
        legislation, YB03.259
        overview, YB03.258
Griffin Venture
development, YB96.477-478
facility description (fd), YB96.486-488
features, YB96.477
formal safety assessment (fsa)
acceptance criteria, YB96.491-493
approach, YB96.491
base case results, YB96.499-500
focus, YB96.491
hazard identification, YB96.496-497, YB96.497-498, YB96.501-504
objectives, YB96.491
performance standards, YB96.494-495
process, YB96.496
review, YB96.499
risk, YB96.492, YB96.497-498, YB96.501-504
safety goals, YB96.493-494
safety case
background, YB96.480-482
conclusions, YB96.504-505
update, YB96.482-486
safety management system (sms), YB96.488-490
    access to information, YB01.483-484, YB01.496-497
    Council of Australian Governments, strategic framework of, YB01.479-480
        amendment, YB01.490-492
        application, YB01.485
        cancellation, YB01.490-492
        conditions, YB01.489
        duration, YB01.489-490
        eligibility, YB01.485-486
        grant of, YB01.487-488
        new amendments, YB01.484
        objections to applications, YB01.488-489
        power to issue directions affecting, YB01.492
        renewal, YB01.489-490
        restrictions, YB01.489
        statutory system, YB01.476
        suspension, YB01.490-492
        terms, YB01.489
        undertakings to grant, YB01.486-487
    market information, YB01.483-484, YB01.496-497
    mining industry use, in WA, YB01.475-476
        deficiencies in statutory framework, YB01.476-478
        proclamation of groundwater areas, YB01.485
        statutory licensing systems, YB01.476
    water resource information, YB01.483-484, YB01.496-497
    letters of comfort, see Letters of comfort
Gulf War, YB96.235, YB96.236
Gyles Royal Commission (NSW)
forms of contracts, influences on, YB95.61

Consolidated Index: H

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Hamersley Iron case, YB04.187–92, YB04.223–4
    determination of native title, YB02.180-181
        claimant group, YB02.181
    future acts, YB02.181
    permit, YB02.180
    right to negotiate notice
        compliance with, YB02.180
        issue of, YB02.180
        procedural fairness, YB02.181
        time for, YB02.180
        validity of, YB02.180-181
Hayes v Northern Territory
    determination of native title, YB02.135, YB02.158-163
        claimant groups, YB02.160
        connection, YB02.160
        continuity, YB02.160
        proof, YB02.161
        traditions, YB02.159, YB02.160
    exclusive possession, YB02.158-160
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.135, YB02.158, YB02.159, YB02.161-163
    land grants, YB02.135
    recognition of native title, YB02.161
Hazardous waste
permit application to move internationally, J98.391-412
Heads of agreement
    African Minerals case, YB03.601
        decision in, YB03.615
        evidence in, YB03.609–610
        facts in, YB03.601–602
        issues, YB03.603
        letter, YB03.602–603, YB03.620–622    
    agreement to agree, YB02.526-528, YB02.543-545
    case law, YB02.530-534
certainty in commercial contracts, YB03.604
commercial contracts, YB03.603–604
conditions precedent, YB03.613–615
    enforcement of, YB02.518
        disputes, YB02.556
        obstacles, YB02.521-530
    examples, YB02.530-556
    function of, YB02.519
    incompleteness, YB02.526-528, YB02.542-543, YB02.549-550
    intention to be bound, YB02.522-526, YB02.539-543, YB02.546-549, YB02.550-551, YB02.
        557, YB03.610
    legal status, YB02.556
    legally binding, whether, YB03.600    
    LMI Australia Pty Ltd v Baulderstone Hornibrook Pty Ltd, YB03.616–617    
    New Zealand position, YB02.535-556
practical lessons for commercial lawyers, YB03.618–619
    principles, YB03.603
    proposal, identification of, YB03.610
    reasonable endeavours, YB02.552-556
    recent cases concerning, YB03.600    
    repudiation of, YB02.518
    standard form of agreement, reference to, YB03.612
    unagreed terms, YB02.528-530, YB02.557
    uncertainty, YB02.542-543, YB02.549-550
    uncertainty, areas of, YB03.611    
    workable, YB02.556
Health and safety law,  see Mine safety
Health and safety provisions, YB93.431
    certainty of date, YB03.19
    limited time, YB03.23–24
Hedging, YB93.131–134, YB93.380—see also Derivatives Financial risk management, Forward contract, Options
    accounting techniques, YB02.642-643
    activities, YB02.624
asymmetrical, YB02.637
average rate caps, YB93.86–87
    committed, YB02.636-637
    complexity of, YB02.635
    corporate governance, see Corporate governance
    currency, YB02.635-636
    dangers of, YB02.632
differential swap, YB93.85–86
    disclosure, see Disclosure
    documentation, YB02.634-635
    duty of, YB02.U632-633
    finance, YB02.629
    gold, YB02.623-647
        key industry players, YB02.626-629
        methods of, YB02.625
        overview of, YB02.624-626
        patterns, YB02.628
    level of, YB02.624, YB02.647
    margin requirements, YB02.633-634
    meaning of, YB02.625
    naked call options, YB02.637-638
    price, YB02.624
programs, YB02.624
customer service, YB93.74
investment optimisation, YB93.73
managing volatility, YB93.71
reducing risk of financial distress, YB93.72
reducing transaction costs, YB93.72
    risk mitigation, YB03.159–160
    risks, YB02.624, YB02.633-639
        commercial, YB02.635-638
        counterparty, YB02.633
        legal, YB02.633-635
        management of, see Risk management
        operational, YB02.638-639
    timing, YB02.636
    trends, YB02.629
    types of, YB02.625-626
    uncommitted, YB02.636-637
    what constitutes, YB02.625
power to enter on Register, J97.94-95
HIH Report
    recommendations of, YB03.551
Hilmer Committee
Report on National Competition Policy, YB99.168-170
Hilmer Inquiry, YB04.182, YB04.190, YB04.202, YB04.359–60
Hilmer Report, YB95.354-355—see also National competition policy
features of reform, YB96.5-6
impact on electricity industry, YB96.3, YB96.26-27
petroleum industry, YB96.580
recommendations for structural reform, YB96.2-3
Hindmarsh Island case
background, B96.104, B96.127
Federal Court appeal, B96.105
High Court application, B96.128–129
judicial review, B96.104
right to access to information, B96.127
Royal Commission, B96.106
Hiring agreements
    receivers and managers, YB03.135
Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre (HKIAC), YB03.35
Hot Holdings Pty Ltd v Creasy
application for exploration licences, YB96.546-547
certiorari, YB96.544-545, YB96.548-549, YB96.553-554
discretion of Minister, YB96.551
facts of case, YB96.545-546
High Court majority decision, YB96.552-553
High Court minority decision, YB96.551-552
Mining Act provisions, YB96.546-547
“right of Priority”, YB96.550
s 105A, YB96.550
Warden’s decision, YB96.547-548
Hunting rights
    native title, YB02.126, YB02.161, YB02.176

Consolidated Index: I

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

IFC Safeguard Policies, YB03.166
IFC Specific Guidelines, YB03.167, YB03.168
    amendments, YB02.244-245
        acceptance of, YB02.248-249
        effectiveness of, YB02.252-253
        endorsement of, YB02.249
        purpose of, YB02.245-248
    effectiveness of, YB02.243, YB02.244
    establishment of, YB02.244-245
    purpose of, YB02.243
Implied terms
    ad hoc implications, YB02.467-468
    breach of, YB02.13
    contract, in, YB02.3
    co-operation, YB02.462, YB02.469-473
    fair dealing, duty of, YB02.3, YB02.13, YB02.27, YB02.462
    good faith, duty of, YB02.3-4, YB02.10, YB02.22-48, YB02.462, YB02.473-474, YB02.486-495
        acceptance of, YB02.28
        ad hoc, YB02.31-32
        application of, YB02.33
        Australia, in, YB02.25-30, YB02.46
        breach of, YB02.13, YB02.35, YB02.46
        business efficiency, YB02.31
        canon of construction, YB02.23-24, YB02.29, YB02.35-36
        co-operation, YB02.35-37, YB02.41
        fact, in, YB02.31, YB02.43
        fairness, YB02.42, YB02.43
        flexible standards, YB02.42-43
        independent cause of action, YB02.23, YB02.35-36
        joint ventures, YB02.46-48
        law, in, YB02.31-32
        objective test, YB02.43-44
        pre-contractual obligations, see Duty to negotiate
        reasonableness, YB02.32, YB02.35-37, YB02.39
        rejection of, YB02.28
        relational contracts, YB02.34
        standard of conduct, YB02.37
        subjective test, YB02.43-44
        third party, YB02.46
        United States, in, YB02.22-27
    reasonableness, YB02.32, YB02.35-37, YB02.39
        breach of, YB02.41
    termination of contract, YB02.462, YB02.467-474
    GST, J99.57-58
        imported ore, J99.62
        temporary imports, J99.58
    GST issues, YB00.447-448
        deferral scheme, YB00.448
        reverse charge, YB00.448-449
    definition, J00.191
    discretion of court to determine, J00.192
income tax
    changes in legislation, YB03.132    
depreciation, J02.114
native title legislation, between Western Australian and Commonwealth Acts, YB94.83
Incorporated joint venture
    insolvency of participant in, YB99.160-161
        security over equity in company, YB99.161
        single purpose vehicle, YB99.160
        substantial company with other assets, YB99.161
company, of
Corporate Law Reform Act 1994 (Cth), under, YB95.212
Corporations Law (Cth), amendment to, YB95.212
defence costs, advancement of, YB95.213
insurance, YB95.213
environmental matters, YB93.24–25, YB93.48, YB93.59
receiver’s rights to, YB99.54-55
seller of gas, of, YB95.257
voluntary administrator’s right to, YB99.54-55
Indemnity clauses
enforceability of, YB94.195
joint operating agreements, in—see Risk allocation
service contracts, in, YB94.171
    termination of, YB02.496-497
        effect of, YB02.497-498
foreign investment in minerals, YB94.280
    large emerging economy, YB04.60
    oil and gas projects in, J99.221-240
        acreage for licence bidding, J99.226
        administered pricing mechanism, J99.226-227
        canalisation, J99.226
        current LNG projects, J99.236-238
        deregulation, J99.238-240
        financing, J99.229-231
        foreign investment regulation, J99.223-224
        legal issues, J99.222-224
        liquified natural gas, J99.235-238
        pipelines, J99.233-235
        production sharing, J99.224-225
        regulatory framework, J99.221-222
        risk sharing, J99.231-233
        taxation, J99.227-228
India Act (Canada), YB02.213, YB02.233-237
    background, YB02.233
    governance under, YB02.235-237
    land management, YB02.233-235
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention 1989, YB94.135
Indigenous groups
        American Indian tribes, YB01.426
        Maori claims to, see Maori claims to petroleum
Indigenous land use agreements (ILUAs),
        see also Native title agreements
    Aboriginal perspective, YB99.237-253
    alternative procedure agreements (Subdiv D), YB99.240-241, YB99.242, YB99.247, YB99.250, YB99.266
    alternative to NNTT procedures, YB99.238-239
    area agreements (Subdiv C), YB99.240, YB99.242, YB99.247, YB99.250, YB99.265-266
    binding on parties, YB00.551
    body corporate agreements (Subdiv B), YB99.239-240, YB99.265, YB99.266
    certification, YB99.250
    cohesion between Aboriginal groups, YB99.236
    community acceptance and, YB99.256-257
    compensation based on, J00.44, J00.46-49
    compensation, future exposure, YB00.542
concept of, YB01.525
    conjunctive and disjunctive agreements, YB99.219-221
    costs, YB99.230-237
        Aboriginal parties, funding, YB99.234-235
        resource developer's, YB99.232-234
    decision making, YB99.248-249
    definition, YB01.526
    de-registration, YB00.547
    drafting agreements, YB99.267-268
    expectations, YB99.252-253
    finalisation, YB99.229-230, YB99.237
    identifying parties, YB99.245-248
    introduction into statute, YB99.218
    legislative scheme, YB99.218, YB99.255
    McArthur River Agreement, YB99.231
    matters covered, YB99.219
    mediation, YB99.258-276
        NNTT, by, YB99.259, YB99.261-269
        reasons for, YB99.258-259
        role of mediator, YB99.259-261
    mediator's perspective, YB99.254-276
    mining tenements and, J00.264
    National Native Title Tribunal, YB99.226
        disqualification of members, YB99.272-273
        drafting agreements, YB99.267-268
        facilitating framework agreements, YB99.263
        financial assistance to parties, YB99.262-263
        forms of assistance by, YB99.261-269
        identifying issues and options, YB99.264-266
        limitation on ability to assist, YB99.271-273
        mediation by, YB99.259, YB99.261-276
        monitoring compliance, YB99.268-269
        nature and extent of assistance, YB99.270-273
        number of members, YB99.271
        organising meetings, YB99.263-264
        qualification of members, YB99.272
    native title and other rights, relationship, YB00.549
    native title claim to area subject to, YB00.547
    native title claimants, YB99.247
    native title determination (WA), J00.263-265
    native title environment, YB99.241-244
    Native Title Representative Bodies (NTRBs), YB99.240, YB99.247, YB99.248
        role of, YB99.250-252
    nature of, YB99.239-241
    negotiation, YB99.221-222
        beginning, YB99.227-228
        costs, YB99.230-235
        decision to negotiate, YB99.223-224
        external consultations, YB99.225-226
        finalisation, YB99.229-230, YB99.237
        language issues, YB99.227
        mediation, YB99.258-276
        meetings, YB99.228-229, YB99.263-264
        NNTT role, YB99.226, YB99.259, YB99.261-276
        protocol, YB99.227
        risk minimisation, YB99.273-275
        timing, YB99.223-228
        women, role of, YB99.225-226
    overlapping claims, YB99.245-248
        Aboriginal parties, funding, YB99.234-235
        financial assistance to, YB99.262
        identifying, YB99.245-248
    past agreements, YB99.222
primary benefit, YB01.526
    processes, YB99.221-230
    project rights, YB00.550
Queensland State ILUA
        background to, YB01.526-527
        operation of, YB01.529-530
        scope, YB01.528-529
        status of, YB01.530
        terms, YB01.531
    reasons for negotiating, YB99.256-257
    representation, YB99.248-249
    resource industry perspective, YB99.216-237
    risk management tool, as, YB99.216-276
    social responsibility of resource companies, YB99.217-219
State-wide, generally
        advantages from miner’s perspective, YB01.533-534
        analysis of concept, YB01.531
        benchmarking, YB01.534-535
        costs, YB01.534
        disadvantages from miner’s perspective, YB01.534-536
        double jeopardy, YB01.535-536
        inherent restrictions, YB01.31-533
        less than State-wide application, YB01.535
        timing under, YB01.533-534
    third party interests, YB99.246
    types, YB99.219
    uncertainties, YB99.244-245
    Woodcutters Agreement, YB99.231
    Yandicoogina Agreement, YB99.222, YB99.223, YB99.235
Individual workplace agreements
    freedom of association, breach of, J00.25-34
    injunction against, J00.25-34
contract of work (COW)
abolishing lex specialis, YB96.126
definition, YB96.145
differences between fifth and sixth generation, YB96.128
dividend withholding rate reduction, YB96.132
English language provisions, YB96.125-126
exemptions, YB96.128
first negotiations, YB96.124
        “generations”, YB96.145-146
import and export facilities, YB96.126-127
import duties, YB96.127
import tariff relief, YB96.128-129
import recommendations, YB96.131
income tax rate reduction, YB96.132
problems, YB96.125
process for obtaining, YB96.147-148
sixth generation, YB96.128, YB96.146
VAT, YB96.129-130, YB96.134-135
voluntary taxes, YB96.134
withholding taxes, YB96.133-134
foreign investment in mining industry, YB94.279, YB96.138-143
COW companies, YB96.146-147
GR20 changes, YB96.139-143, YB96.146-147
New Company Law, YB96.154-155
PMA companies, YB96.139
    forestry law, J04.7
mining industry
changes, YB96.137
companies conducting business, YB96.152
foreign companies, YB96.152, YB96.153
foreign investment, YB96.144-145
legislation, YB96.143
permitted activities, YB96.153
mining law and policy, J02.77-94
New Company Law
articles of association, YB96.157, YB96.159
capitalisation, YB96.157-158
Commercial Code, YB96.154
Commissioners’ duties, YB96.162
development, YB96.154
director’s duties, YB96.161
general meeting of shareholders, YB96.160
importance of foreign investors, YB96.154-155
incorporation of companies, YB96.155
liability of shareholders, YB96.156
minority shareholders, YB96.162-163
number of shareholders, YB96.156-157
register of shareholders, YB96.159
share classes, YB96.158
share transfer, YB96.159
“subsidiary”, YB96.158
new oil and gas law, J03.443-449    
reforms, J02.77- 94
Industrial disputes
    picketing, J00.128-133
Industrial manslaughter, see also Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)
    criminal offence, YB04.236–9
    statutory duty of care, YB04.229–31
    zero tolerance YB04.227, YB04.229
Industrial relations—see also Workplace relations
amendments, YB96.600-601
Australian Workplace Agreements, YB96.621-624
deregulation, YB96.627-630
development, YB96.603-605
reasons, YB96.601-603
enterprise bargaining, YB96.605-620
evolution in Australia, YB96.625
Howard government
mandate, YB96.630-631
impact of proposals, YB96.640
mining industry, YB96.626-627
overview, YB96.595-599
role of Commission, YB96.623-624
unions, YB96.602-603, YB96.621, YB96.622, YB96.632-633
Workplace Relations Bill, YB96.620-621
effect of proposed changes, YB96.632-640
Industry Commission
gas industry, report on, YB95.336–337
disclosure—see Disclosure
unjust enrichment, where obtained by reprehensible means, YB94.366
Informed consent
    extractive industry projects, those affected by, YB04.65, YB04.74
access, J01.34, J01.73, J01.104-105, J01.107
    construction contracts, YB04.163
        Tasmanian gas project, J01.116-118, J01.236-237
Initial public offer
    ASX Listing Rules, YB00.511-515
    CLERP amendments, YB00.504
    mining companies, YB00.504-515
        disclosure obligations, YB00.512-513
        eligibility for listing, YB00.512
        native title disclosures, YB00.515
        prospectus, YB00.505-511
        restricted securities, YB00.513-515
        consents, YB00.508-509
        contents, YB00.505-506
        expert reports, YB00.508-509
        general disclosure obligation, YB00.505-506
        materiality, YB00.510-511
        mining company, YB00.505-511
        projections and forecasts, YB00.506-507
aboriginal heritage, J01.224
    agreement to negotiate, YB02.15-16
application, see joint ventures    
environmental protection
        public interest groups, by, YB01.87
        undertaking as to damages removed, YB01.88
    individual workplace agreements, J00.25-34
    interlocutory, test for, J00.27
    invalidity of development consent, J01.209-212
    invalidity of water permit, J01.209-212
    natural resource project, restraining, YB00.263, YB00.265-270
        City of Enfield case, YB00.266-268
        conditions of approval, non-compliance, YB00.277
        environmental impact assessment process, non-compliance, YB00.268-270
        right to apply, YB00.265-270
    onus of proof, J00.27
    sale of coal assets by joint venture
        assignment restrictions, to prevent breach of, YB01.121
        pre-emptive rights, to prevent breach of, YB01.124
Injunctive relief—see Kalkadoon People v North Queensland Electricity Commission
Insider trading,
    Australian laws, YB99.43
    General Insolvency Inquiry, YB99.43
    receivership see Receivership
    reorganisation options, YB99.72-79
        administrator's recommendations, YB99.72-79
        deed of company arrangement, YB99.75, YB99.77, YB99.82
        scheme of arrangement, YB99.74-79
    resource companies, see Insolvency of resource companies
    voluntary administration,  see Voluntary administration
Insolvency of resource companies
    administrators, problems faced by, YB99.81-88
        directors' failure to accept situation, YB99.81
        ignorance as to options, YB99.82
        lack of money, YB99.83
        monitoring and control, YB99.83-84
        operational problems, YB99.83-85
        practitioners' lack of understanding, YB99.85-87
        short term solutions, YB99.84-85
        strategic problems, YB99.85-87
        viability issues, YB99.82-83, YB99.85
    deed of company arrangement, YB99.82, YB99.85, YB99.86
    incorporated joint venture, participant in, YB99.160-161
        security over equity in company, YB99.161
        single purpose vehicle, YB99.160
        substantial company with other assets, YB99.161
    informal arrangements, YB99.136-145
        advantages, YB99.145
        disadvantages, YB99.145
        documentation, YB99.137
        environmental liability, risk of, YB99.144-145
        insolvent trading, risk of, YB99.142
        nature of remedy, YB99.136
        procedural requirements, YB99.136-137
        shadow directorship, risk of, YB99.138-141
        voidable transactions, risk of, YB99.142-144
    liquidation, YB99.153-155
        nature of remedy, YB99.153-154
        usefulness of remedy, YB99.154-155
    receiver, appointment of, YB99.128-136, see also Receivership
        demand for payment, YB99.133
        duties of receiver, YB99.133
        improper appointment, consequences, YB99.130-131
        nature of remedy, YB99.128-129
        priority of debts, YB99.129
        procedural requirements, YB99.129-130
        proper appointment, YB99.130-131
        sale of property, YB99.134-135
        timing requirements, YB99.129-130
    shadow directorship
        determining existence of, YB99.139-140
        elements of, YB99.138-139
        financiers, application to, YB99.130-141
        risk of, YB99.138-141
    single project company, YB99.155-157
        crucial employees, YB99.157
        government involvement, YB99.156
        project agreements and tenements, effect on, YB99.156-157
        public relations, YB99.156
        sponsor support, YB99.157
        trade unions, YB99.155
    unincorporated joint venture, participant in, YB99.157-160
        joint venture agreement, YB99.157-158
        management agreement, YB99.158-159
        security over equity in company, YB99.160
        single purpose vehicle, YB99.157-159
        substantial company with other assets, YB99.159-160
    voidable transactions
        exceptions to voidability, YB99.143-144
        risk of, YB99.142-144
        uncommercial transactions, YB99.143
        unfair preference, YB99.143
        void dispositions, YB99.144
    voluntary administration, see also Voluntary administration
        administrator's report, samples, YB99.89-126
        nature of remedy, YB99.146
        procedure, YB99.146-153
        usefulness of remedy, YB99.153
compliance with environmental requirements, YB93.29
confidential documents, YB93.391–407
environmental damage, YB93.29
Inspection of documents
    definition, YB04.105
    limited, orders for, YB04.93–4
    objection to, YB04.95
    subpoenas, produced under, YB04.93, YB04.104
Insurance—see also Caps, Collars, Floors
against pecuniary loss, YB93.123–124
    categories of loss, J99.44-45
company, reimbursement of, YB95.216
civil penalty, for, YB95.211
compensatory damages, for, YB95.212
criminal liability, against, YB95.211
direct damage or injury, J99.44, J99.45-46
directors, liability of, YB95.216, YB95.218
disclosure, J03.177-180
effect of loss on whole community, J99.48
employees, liability for injuries to, YB95.215
environmental damages, YB93.30
environment impairment, YB95.216-217, YB95.218
    environmental-related, YB02.351-355
        claims, YB02.352
        clean up costs, YB02.373-374
        contaminated site, YB02.362-363
        coverage, YB02.354-355
        disposal sites, YB02.365-366
        exclusions, YB02.353, YB02.368-370
        general, YB02.373
        liabilities, YB02.372
        limitation of, YB02.371
        market demand, YB02.357-358
        market growth, YB02.370
        policy detail, YB02.366-370
        public liability, YB02.373-374
        recoverability, YB02.371
        regulation of, YB02.355-356
        reinsurance, YB02.398
        risk tolerance, YB02.358-359
        service industry, YB02.363-364
        site specific, YB02.359-362, YB02.366
        site specific clean up costs, YB02.373
        site specific conditions, YB02.367
        site specific exclusions, YB02.368-370
        site specific policy details, YB02.366-370
        site specific terms, YB02.367
        special products, YB02.366
        transportation, YB02.365
        types of products, YB02.359-366
environmental risk, YB93.18–19
    Floating Production, Storage and Offtake Services Agreements, J03.481    
    general, YB02.373
indemnity, right of, and, YB95.213
joint venture liabilities, YB95.217–218
legal expenses, YB95.217
liability insurance of defendant, J99.50-53
markets, recent changes in, YB03.123–126
    mining contract, YB03.425–426
officers of company, liability of, YB95.216, YB95.218
piracy and terrorism, YB04.319–20
policies, J03.167-188
professional indemnity, YB95.215–216
directors and officers, liability of, distinguished, YB95.216
project, YB03.123–126
project finance, J01.255-257
public liability, YB02.373-374
public/product liability, YB95.214
purely economic loss, J99.45, J99.46-48
    risk, J03.167-188
risk management, YB94.196
risk solutions, J01.57-61
third party contracts, clauses in, YB94.175
utility failure, J99.42-53
Willemstadt case, J99.47
integrated planning
    integrated planning legislation (Qld), J02.25-31
Intellectual property
AUSFTA, under, YB04.580–1
    indigenous peoples’ property rights, J99.259
Intellectual property rights
    assignment, YB00.355
    commercialisation options, YB00.354-355
    confidential information, YB00.350
    copyright, YB00.349
    designs, YB00.347-348
    exclusive licence, YB00.354
    exclusive use, YB00.354
    joint ventures, YB00.355
    management issues, YB00.351-354
    new mining technologies, YB00.342-358
        acquiring others' technology, YB00.355-356
        BP's Acrylonitrile, YB00.356
        commercialisation, YB00.354-355
        confidentiality, YB00.353
        examples, YB00.356-357
        management issues, YB00.351-354
        ownership of rights, YB00.352
        relevant categories of protection, YB00.345-351
        various contributors, YB00.352
        Warman pumps, YB00.356-357
    non-exclusive licence, YB00.355
    overview, YB00.344-346
    ownership of rights, YB00.352
    patents, YB00.346-347
    sole licence, YB00.354
    subordinated loans, on, YB03.107
Interest rates
protection against rise, YB93.83–84
Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment (IGAE), YB93.408–416
aims, YB93.410–411
duplication of interests, YB93.413–414
environmental policy, YB93.414–415
implementation, YB93.415
international agreements, YB93.412–413
levels of government
responsibilities, YB93.411–412
National Environment Protection Authority (NEPA), YB93.416–418
parties, YB93.410
review, YB93.415–416
terms, YB93.409
Interlocutory injunction
    future act, restraint of, YB02.183-184
Interlocutory processes
    legitimate and illegitimate uses, YB03.19
International Accounting Standards
    Australian adoption of, YB04.534–5
        long term impact, YB04.544–5
    Board (IASB), YB04.535
    commissioning costs, YB04.542
    comparisons between industries, YB04.545
    exploration expenditures, YB04.541–2
    extractive industries, YB04.534–7
        “area of interest” accounting, YB04.537–8
        “full cost” accounting, YB04.537–8
        “successful efforts” accounting, YB04.537
    generally accepted accounting principles (GAAPs), YB04.536
    impairment testing and amortisation, YB04.540–1, YB04.544
    International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), YB04.534–5
        Australian equivalents, YB04.539–40
    rehabilitation and de-commissioning costs, YB04.542–3
    reporting entities balance sheet, YB04.543
International arbitration
ad hoc, YB03.3, YB03.35–36
    amicable composition, YB03.10
    Anaconda arbitration, YB03.28–32
    appeal, rights of, YB03.26–27
    arbitral rules, YB02.652-653, YB02.657, YB02.660
        agreement for, YB02.649
        application of, YB02.665-670
    Australia, in, YB02.651, YB02.654-655
    commercial, YB02.650
    definition, YB03.2
    discovery, YB03.23
    effectiveness, YB03.8
    evidence in chief, YB03.21
    ex aequo et bono, YB03.10
    flexibility of, YB03.5–6
    governing law, choice of, YB03.9
        lex mercatoria, YB03.11–12
    institutional, YB03.3, YB03.35–36
    maritime boundary disputes, YB03.392–394
    neutrality of the forum, YB03.7
    number of arbitrators, YB03.36
    `opt out' of, YB02.649, YB02.652, YB02.656-661
        agreement for, YB02.649
        what constitutes, YB02.652, YB02.657-661
    place of arbitration, YB03.36
    popularity, YB03.4–5
    PRC projects, YB03.192–193
    preliminary conference, YB03.20
    procedural options, YB03.15
    procedure, YB03.20    
    procedural law, YB02.649, YB02.651, YB02.652
        application of, determination of, YB02.653-654, YB02.666-670
        arbitral rules, YB02.652-653, YB02.657, YB02.660, YB02.665-670
        curial law, YB02.652
        domestic, YB02.655, YB02.660, YB02.662-665
        lex arbitri, YB02.652
        `opt out', YB02.649, YB02.652, YB02.656-661
        opt out agreement for, YB02.649
        opt out implied, YB02.656
        UNCITRAL Model Law, YB02.651-652, YB02.655-670
        what constitutes, YB02.652
    reasons for using, YB03.5–9, YB03.12–13
    Singapore, in, YB02.650-651
    statement of contentions, YB03.21
    statistics about, YB03.4
    UNCITRAL Model Law, YB02.651-652, YB02.655, YB03.2
        adoption of, YB02.651-652
        application of, YB02.665-670
        `opt out' of, YB02.656-657
International bribery and corruption
    aid money, waste of, YB00.6-7
    Australian companies, reaction to, YB00.11-12, YB00.14
    Australian Standard AS3806, YB00.24-25, YB00.34
    awarding contracts, YB00.2, YB00.3
    corporate compliance programs, YB00.24-33
        accountability, YB00.31-32
        assessment, YB00.30
        Australian Standard AS3806, YB00.24-25, YB00.34
        continuous improvement, YB00.33
        culture of compliance, maintaining, YB00.28-33
        education and training, YB00.28-29
        failures, system for handling, YB00.32-33
        high level commitment, YB00.25
        liaison, YB00.31
        management responsibility and supervision, YB00.26
        monitoring, YB00.30
        operating procedures, YB00.26
        record keeping, YB00.27
        reporting, YB00.27-28
        resources, YB00.26-27
        review, YB00.30-31
        visibility and communication, YB00.29-30
    corporate culture authorising, YB00.16
    Criminal Code (Cth)
        Amendment Act 1999, YB00.15
        compliance programs, YB00.24-33
        criminal liability of corporations, YB00.16-18
        OECD review, YB00.19, YB00.20
        offence under, YB00.16-18
            corporate liability, YB00.16
            defences, YB00.18
            penalties, YB00.17
            what constitutes, YB00.17
        operation in host countries, YB00.21
    duties of advisers, lawyers and auditors, YB00.21-24
        due diligence, YB00.23-24
    economic damage caused by, YB00.4-8
    European measures against, YB00.8
    Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 (US), YB00.1, YB00.8, YB00.20-21
    high risk areas, YB00.17-18
    Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, YB00.8
    International Chamber of Commerce Rules of Conduct on Extortion
        and Bribery, YB00.8
    international grand corruption, YB00.2-4
    international reactions to, YB00.8-11
    laws prohibiting, YB00.13-34
        Australia, YB00.15, YB00.16-18, YB00.20
        OECD review process, YB00.18-19
        operation in host countries, YB00.21
        US, YB00.1, YB00.8, YB00.20-21
    Lockheed scandal, YB00.1, YB00.3
    multinational corporations, role, YB00.15
    OECD Convention, YB00.1, YB00.12, YB00.13, YB00.15
        Australian compliance programs, YB00.24-34
        implementation, YB00.18-20
        review of compliance, YB00.18-19
    OECD Recommendations on Bribery in International Business
        Transactions, YB00.11
    penalties, YB00.17
    professional advisers, role of, YB00.21-22
        due diligence checklist, YB00.23-24
    reasons for spread of, YB00.3-4
    Transparency International, YB00.1, YB00.8-11
    UN Declaration Against Corruption and Bribery in International
        Commercial Transactions, YB00.8
    World Bank measures against, YB00.8, 9
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), YB03.35
International commercial disputes
    litigation of, YB03.7
International competition law
    global mergers, application to, YB01.3
        Europe, YB01.3
        United States, YB01.3-4
    overseas regulators, approach to global mergers
        Europe, YB01.4-5
        United States, YB01.5-8
International Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution
    Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (London Convention), YB00.79
    enforcement, YB00.79
    obligations of parties, YB00.79
    Protocol, YB00.79
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, YB94.37
Constitution, power of Parliament to make laws under external affairs power, YB94.37
inherit, right to, YB94.38
particular forms of, YB94.38
positive discrimination, acts of, YB94.38
property, right to own, YB94.38
racial discrimination
condemnation of, YB94.38
definition, YB94.37
undertakings to prohibit and eliminate, YB94.37
ratification by Australia, YB94.38
rights of persons, YB94.38
special measures in, YB94.38
International conventions, see Treaties
International Court of Justice, YB00.67-68
    jurisdiction, YB02.610-611, YB02.622
        recognition of, YB02.611
jurisdiction over state only with consent, B95.161
proceedings, YB02.610
ruling regarding Timor Gap Treaty, B95.161–163
    Timor Gap Treaty case, YB00.169-170, YB00.180
International enforcement
    awards, of, YB03.7–9
    New York Convention, YB03.8
International environmental harm,  see Environmental
    harm in foreign country
International law
alien tort claims, see tort
binding, YB04.47
    continued state practice as source of, YB04.76
    customary, YB04.76
    governments, role of, YB04.54–5
    human rights, see tort
    lack of development of, YB04.46
maritime zones, B94.4
    sources of, YB04.76
International mining operations
changing priority of environment, B95.129–134, B95.149–150, B95.155–158
“environmental restriction”, B95.126
influential role of environmentalist movement, B95.150–154
international conventions and treaties, B95.142–150
conflicts between trade and environment treaties, Basel Convention, B95.147–149
proposed indigenous populations convention, B95.150
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, B95.145–147
World Natural Heritage Convention, B95.143–145
priority of environmental considerations, B95.126–129
Alaska, B95.136–137
Bingham Canyon, B95.137–140
Ok Tedi, B95.140–142
Windy Craggy, B95.134–136
International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)
    approach, YB02.346-347
    initiatives, YB02.347-348
    principles, YB02.346-347
    recent trends, YB02.346-347
    regulator, YB02.346-347
    representatives, YB02.348
International organisations
    international standards, role in, YB04.55–6
International Seabed Authority, B95.1, B95.2
International standards
    assessing, YB04.76–9
    compliance, managing, YB04.49
    corruption, on, YB04.53–4
    customary international law, as, YB04.76
    developing countries, YB04.60–2
    direct and indirect operation, YB04.44
    governments, role of, YB04.54–5
    hard law, YB04.46
    impact of, YB04.44
    increasing role of, YB04.49
    international organisations, role of, YB04.55–6
    key players, YB04.54–62
    legal impact, types of, YB04.75
    legal instruments incorporating, YB04.75
    management, YB04.45
    multinational companies, YB04.56–7
    natural resources and energy industries
        key concepts to identify, YB04.71–4
        “license to operate”, YB04.62–6
        other industries, distinguished, YB04.63
    new relevance, YB04.49
    non-governmental organisations (NGOs), YB04.47, YB04.57–60
        new players, as, YB04.50, YB04.57
    practical management, YB04.75–9
    professional and industry associations, developed by, YB04.78
    regulatory competition, YB04.79
    role of, YB04.47
    “soft-law” instruments, YB04.46–7
    transnational dispute practice, relevance to, YB04.47–54
    UN Global Compact, see UN Global Compact
    UN system, prepared within, YB04.77
International Swaps and Derivatives Association Inc (ISDA)
    ISDA documents
        background to, YB03.287–288
        termination values for transactions, calculating, YB03.289–294
International trade
    bans, YB02.61
        arbitrary, YB02.61
        discriminatory, YB02.61
        unilateral, YB02.62
    environmental objectives, YB02.66
    integrated rules, YB02.66
    restrictions, YB02.61
    trade measures, YB02.60-62, YB02.65
        enforcement by, YB02.64
        environmental, YB02.66
        inconsistency, YB02.61-62
        justification for, YB02.63, YB02.65
        non-discriminatory, YB02.62
        scientific data, YB02.61, YB02.65
        use of, YB02.62
International treaties and conventions, B96.18–29
Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, B96.23–27
Charter of the United Nations, B96.19–21
conflict between Commonwealth and State legislation, B96.33, B96.41, B96.53
conflict between trade and environmental treaties, B96.40–41
Convention on Biological Diversity, B96.119
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, B96.38–40, B96.119
definitions, B96.18
Framework Convention of Climate Change, B96.119–120
impact on Australian minerals industry, B96.30–61
incorporation in Australian law, B96.33–34, B96.45–48
International Labour Organisation Convention No 169 (Indigenous and Tribal Peoples), B96.44–45
non-governmental organisations, B96.19–29
participation in negotiating delegations, B96.27–28
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), B96.116
United Nations Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, B96.42–44, B96.56–58
World Commission on Environment and Development, B96.36–38
Brundtland Report, B96.37–38
Zone of Cooperation between Australia and Indonesia, B96.91
International tribunals
    international standards and, YB04.48, YB04.51
    limited legitimacy, YB04.48
Investigative powers
    ACCC, of, YB04.82
    APRA, of, YB04.83–4
    ASIC, of, YB04.84–5
    ATO, of, YB04.85
    Environment Protection Authority, of, YB04.86
    WorkCover, of, YB04.86
Investment—see also Financing
gas pipeline, in—see Gas pipelines
    electricity market, in
        continued privatisation, expectation of, YB01.167-168
        losses on investments, YB01.166, YB01.185
        outcomes of reform process for, YB01.159-160, YB01.184
        risk transfer to, YB01.159, YB01.166
    gas pipelines, in, YB01.224
    government policy changes, negative impact of, YB01.303
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.251

Consolidated Index: J

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Jabiluka uranium mine
    Aboriginal issues, YB00.197, YB00.203, YB00.204-205, YB00.208, YB00.212, YB00.218
    background, YB00.195-196
    economic issues, YB00.208-211
    Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 2000, YB00.213-219
        approval process, YB00.214
        international obligations, YB00.218
        precautionary principle, YB00.216
    environmental impact statement, YB00.201-203
    environmental issues, YB00.207
    export approval, proceedings for order prohibiting, YB00.198
    Kakadu National Park, danger to, YB00.74-76, YB00.196, YB00.197, YB00.205-206
    legal regime, YB00.197-207
    mineral lease for, YB00.196, YB00.197
        power of Northern Territory to grant, YB00.199-200
    1991 Agreement, YB00.206-207
    opposition to project, YB00.194-195
        economic, YB00.208-211
        environmental, YB00.207
        social, YB00.208
        standing to bring proceedings, YB00.218-219
    political issues, YB00.211-212
    public environmental report, YB00.201-203
    public relations issues, YB00.211-212
    Ranger Mill alternative, YB00.206-207, YB00.209
    sacred site issues, YB00.197, YB00.203, YB00.204-205, YB00.208
    social issues, YB00.208
    Uranium Mining (Environmental Control) Act authorisation, YB00.203-204
        application for injunction restraining, YB00.204
    Westpac investment, YB00.210
    World Heritage issues, YB00.74-76, YB00.205-206
    economic growth and development, YB04.325
    energy market deregulation, YB04.325
    LNG contracts, see Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Joint marketing

    gas from joint venture, draft determination on authorisation, YB03.623–624
        Australia, impact on, YB03.641
        background, YB03.624–625
        benefits of joint marketing, YB03.635
        competition, substantially lessening, YB03.629–635
        competitive market, development of, YB03.633–634
        conditions, YB03.635–638
        evolution of market, YB03.628
        feasibility of separate marketing, YB03.626–627
        future exploration and production, impact on, YB03.638–641
        intrinsic detriments, YB03.633
        market characteristics, YB03.627–628
        preference for separate marketing, YB03.630–631
        process, YB03.624–625
        specific competition detriments, YB03.632–633
Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA)
    administration, YB03.370
    Bayu-Undan field, YB03.367, YB03.380–381
    designated authority, YB03.371
    Elang-Kakatua field, YB03.367, YB03.385
    establishment, YB03.369
    existing petroleum projects, YB03.380–385
    Greater Sunrise fields, YB03.368, YB03.381–385
International Unitisation Agreement between Australia and Timor-Leste relating to the Sunrise and Troubadour Fields (IUA), YB03.406
        continuation of petroleum activities, YB03.409
        future prospects, YB03.411–412
        sovereign rights, preservation of, YB03.409
    joint commission, YB03.371
    ministerial council, YB03.370
    Petroleum Mining Code (PMC), YB03.372–374
    pipelines, YB03.378–380
    sharing of petroleum production, YB03.369–370
        product sharing contracts, YB03.374–377
    Sunrise fields, YB03.406
    taxation of petroleum activities, YB03.377–378
    Timor Sea Treaty, see Timor Sea Treaty
    Troubadour Fields, YB03.406
    unitisation, YB03.380
        duty to seek and agree on, YB03.407–409
        reserves extending across boundary, YB03.406
Joint venture
    access to upstream facilities, YB99.183-184
    assignment of interests, J99.174-175
    enforceable agreement, J99.174-175
    GST, YB99.389-390, YB99.404
    GST joint ventures, J99.60-61
        New Zealand, YB99.414-416
    insolvency of participant in, YB99.161
        incorporated joint venture, YB99.160-161
        unincorporated joint venture, YB99.157-160
    prospecting licences (WA), J99.14
    unincorporated, see Unincorporated joint venture
Joint venture agreement(s)
difficulties, YB96.118
elements, YB96.118-119
    good faith, implied duty, YB02.46-48
    rights of, YB02.47
third party, YB02.46
trade offs, YB96.119
Joint ventures, YB93.212–214—see also Taxation
agreement, YB03.104
        breach of , J04.46-47
        injunction, application for, J04.46-47    
        right of refusal, J04.44
application of access regime, B96.71–72
    assignment of participating interest, YB03.45
        damages where breach of assignment restriction, YB01.121
        injunction to prevent sale in breach of restriction, YB01.121
        operation of clause, YB01.142
        personal performance required, YB01.120
        prohibition on, YB01.118-122
        requirements, YB01.118
        restrictions void as restraint on alienation of private property, YB01.118
authorisation of joint venture marketing, J98.379-390
    change of control clauses, YB01.70, YB01.124-125, YB01.142
        disclosure of, YB01.70-71
Chinese investors, YB03.41    
classic arrangement, YB03.42–46
clauses excluding or limiting liability
        equitable duties, YB04.132–4
        heads of damage, YB04.140
coal asset ownership, YB01.116, YB01.139
        establishing, YB01.140
    commercial consequences of modifications, YB03.52–56
competition between joint venturers, B95.81–82
competitive markets, B95.83–85
concurrent liability, equitable and contractual duties, YB04.122–3
    confidentiality clauses, YB01.127
    consents, YB01.143
    construction, J03.416-418
construction of agreement, J03.450-452, J03.487-488    
contractual claims, exclusion of, YB04.141–3
    corporate restructure, YB01.125
costs, sharing, YB03.44    
damages, YB04.140–1
defeating bids, unacceptable circumstances, YB01.71-72
    duty of care owed by participants, YB01.128
equitable duties
        clauses excluding or limiting liability, YB04.132–4
        concurrent liability, YB04.122–3
        impact of terms on existence of, YB04.130
        remedies for breach, YB04.123–4
exception in Trade Practices Act, B95.83
exclusionary provisions, YB03.58–60
farm-in agreements, J00.253-256
fiduciary and equitable obligations, YB04.120
        agency/operator, YB04.121
        confidential information, receipt of, YB04.121
        pre-contractual negotiations, YB04.120
        trust and confidence, YB04.121
fiduciary duties, YB93.236–240, J98.351-352
    fiduciary duties (NZ)
        negotiation of joint venture, J04.243-245    
fiduciary duties, scope and content, YB04.130
fiduciary nature of relationship, B95.60, B95.82
fiduciary obligations, J03.452, J03.490-491
fiduciary relationship between joint venturers, YB94.370
breach of—see Fiduciary duty
financing of weaker party, YB03.153
flexibility of, YB03.56
foreign investors, YB03.40
        potential modifications to usual provisions, YB03.46–52
        risk aversion, YB03.49–51
goods and services tax, J00.253
GST joint ventures, YB00.456-458
heads of damages, limitation or exclusion, YB04.140, YB04.147–9
incorporated, as project vehicle, YB03.102, YB03.161
insolvency, YB94.252
intellectual property rights, YB00.355
corporate officers, of, YB95.195
defence of due diligence, YB95.201–202
insurance against, YB95.217–218
partners, of, YB95.182
market power, B95.81
marketability of interests, YB03.53
    marketing, J03.433-434
    mining, J03.146-153
misleading and deceptive conduct claims, exclusion of, YB04.144–7
Mt Isa Mines v Paragon Nickel Pty Ltd
judgment at first instance of Rowland J, B94.172–180
judgment on appeal of Brinsden J, B94.190–194
judgment on appeal of Olney J, B94.195–198
judgment on appeal of Wallace J, B94.181–189
    natural gas projects, see Natural gas
    negligence claims, exclusion of, YB04.143–4
objects of, YB03.44
    oil and gas, J04.185-209
        joint marketing agreements, J04.185-209
        restrictive trade practices, see restrictive trade practices
    oil and natural gas, J03.153-160, J03.485-491
Papua New Guinea, establishment in—see Papua New Guinea; Porgera Mine
partial changes in ownership, amendment of tax legislation, YB95.415–417
partnership, YB04.120
    partnership, distinguished, YB94.369
predetermination of key decisions, YB03.52    
pre-emptive rights, YB01.122-124, YB01.141-142, J03.146-153, J03.491-495
    price fixing exception, YB01.368-369
problems with “reserves risks” and “facilities risk”, B95.82
provision of information to participants, YB03.44
    public private partnerships, see Public private partnerships
restrictive trade practices provisions, YB03.56–65
right of first refusal, YB01.122
        aversion, YB03.41, YB03.49–51
        sharing, YB03.44
risk allocation in—see Risk allocation
sale or partition, property on statutory trust for, YB01.121
sales arrangements, YB03.41
        commercial drivers, as, YB03.46
scope of, YB03.56
selling to common purchasers, B95.82
separate or differential production inconsistent with principles, B95.82
Sole Risk Operation, J03.488-489
special purpose proprietary company, YB94.253
    sub-joint venture, J03.450-452    
    supply, ensuring, YB03.42, YB03.51–52    
    tag-along rights, YB01.125
    taxation issues, YB00.483-486
        dividends from incorporated joint ventures, YB00.472
        fractional interest approach, YB00.484-485
        joint approach, YB00.485
        transfer of plant, YB00.484
termination rights, restriction of, YB03.45    
    Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), Part IV, J04.192-200, J04.203-208
trade practices legislative reforms, YB04.418–20
trade practices provisions, YB03.56–65
        authorisations, YB03.64–65
        export exemption and notification, YB03.63–64
transfer of interests in, GST implications, YB00.451-453
    unincorporated, YB01.139, YB01.347-348, YB01.360-361, YB03.42-43
        project vehicle, as, YB03.102–103, YB03.161
    upstream business building, YB03.42, YB03.51–52
    valuation of interests, YB03.53–55
    ‘‘virtual’’, YB03.40–65
    voting requirements, YB03.44
        ASX, required by, YB01.68
        voluntary, YB01.68
    documents issued by mining company to comply with, YB01.38-39
    overview, YB01.68
    recommended terms, YB01.39
    Takeover Panel, use as benchmark by, YB01.68-69
Judicial power
    information, to obtain, YB04.86
    separation of powers, YB04.89–90
    vesting of, YB04.89
Judicial proceedings
    administrative power used in aid of, YB04.89–90
Judicial review
    bias of decision-maker, YB01.250-251
    broad discretionary powers, application to, YB01.242-244
    decision must be administrative, YB01.240-241
    error of law, YB01.236-238, YB01.248-249
        materiality, YB01.239-240
        other errors, distinguished, YB01.236
    essence of, YB01.236
    exercise of regulatory power, controlling, YB01.229
Judicial Review Act 1991 (Qld), B94.53–54
application under, B94.53
discretion to extend time, B94.55
“right to reasons”, B94.54
time limit for application, B94.55
lack of jurisdiction for, YB97.453-458
    legislative impediments, YB01.260-263
    merits review, distinguished, YB01.237
    relevant/irrelevant considerations, YB01.247, YB01.252-254
    unreasonableness as ground of, YB01.254-257
    appointments to superior courts, YB03.15–16
Commonwealth Parliament’s power to invest federal courts with, YB94.76
Federal Court, of—see Federal Court
of Australian courts to hear foreign torts, YB96.557-564
National Native Title Tribunal, of, YB94.3
Just terms
acquisition of property on, YB94.555
Northern Territory, recent claim by, YB94.565
    Alien Tort Claims Act (US), see tort
    grant of concession, validity of, see Timor Sea
        Act of State Doctrine, J04.63-80
        International Comity Doctrine, J04.63-80
        Political Question Doctrine, J04.63-80

Consolidated Index: K

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Kakadu National Park
    Jabiluka, see Jabiluka uranium mine
    World Heritage Committee, consideration of status by, YB00.69, YB00.74-76, YB00.205-206
Kalgoorlie Golden Mile, YB93.372
Kalkadoon People v North Queensland Electricity Commission, YB97.476-484
balance of convenience, YB97.481
decision, YB97.482
delay, YB97.482
Electricity Act 1994 (Qld), YB97.479
facts, YB97.476-478
Federal Court jurisdiction, YB97.479
harm, irreparable, YB97.480
issues, YB97.478-482
powerline, construction of, YB97.479
Kambalda, YB93.365
Kyoto Protocol, J00.162-165, J02.1
    background, J00.162-163
        committee, YB02.52-53
        procedures, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.69
    consensus for, YB02.70
    Conference of Parties, YB02.49-51
    developments after, J00.165
    effectiveness of, YB02.50, YB02.69
    enforcement of, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.52-54
    enter into force, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.69
    extension of, YB02.70
    facilitate, YB02.49, YB02.52-54
    flexibility mechanisms, J00.163-165
    greenhouse gas reduction, YB02.49, YB02.50
    members, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.55
        responsibilities, YB02.55
        rights of, YB02.55
    non-compliance, consequences of, YB02.53-54, YB02.69
    objectives, YB02.50
    obligations, YB02.49, YB02.51, YB02.55, YB02.57
        legally binding, YB02.53
        non-party, effect on, YB02.57
    participation, YB02.49, YB02.50
    ratification of, YB02.49, YB02.50
    review of, YB02.70
    WTO rules, conflict with, YB02.66-68

Consolidated Index: L

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Labour covenants, B96.138
Aboriginal, see Aboriginal land
agreements, YB96.119
restrictions, YB96.204-206
access to, YB02.121
categorisation, YB96.205
    compulsory acquisition of, YB02.121-122
    Crown grants, YB02.103, YB02.108
    estate in, YB02.214
    grants, YB02.135
        validity of, YB02.111
    interest in, YB02.213
    lease of, YB02.120
        mining, see Mining lease
        pastoral, see Pastoral lease
    Land and Environment Court (Qld), J04.226-227
    land rich regime (Vic), J04.132-133
low impact future act, YB02.121
multiple land use, YB96.205
    native title, see Native title rights; Aboriginal rights; Native title
    title to, see Land title
“occupied”, YB96.206
    use of, YB02.120-121
Land Acquisition (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA), B94.146
Land and Resources Tribunal
    jurisdiction, J04.275-289
        condition precedent, J04.278-288
        criteria for allowing determination of, J04.287-288
        non-extinguishment of native title, J04.278-281
        power to determine, J04.282-287
    nature of, J04.275-276
Land Councils, YB02.112
    community, YB02.112
    legal proceedings by, YB02.112
Land Resources Tribunal (Qld)
    appeals, J99.77
    constitution, J99.75-76, J99.78-81
    directions, J99.76
    establishment, J99.71
    indigenous issues referees, J99.74
    jurisdiction, J99.71, J99.72
    mediation referees, J99.74
    members, J99.72-75
    mining referees, J99.71, J99.74
    Mining Warden’s Court, replacing, J99.71
    native title jurisdiction, J99.71
    NNTT panel, J99.75, J99.81
    non-presiding members, J99.73-75
    panels, J99.76
    powers, J99.76
    practice and procedure, J99.76-77
    presiding members, J99.72-73
    referrals, J99.77
    registrar, J99.75
    representation of parties, J99.77
Land title
    Aboriginal, see Aboriginal land; Native title
    Canada, in, YB02.213-214, YB02.217-220, YB02.239
    Crown, YB02.103
        grants by, YB02.103, YB02.108
        land, YB02.108, YB02.109
    native, see Native title
    possessory rights, YB02.108
    tenure, YB02.103, YB02.104
    validity of, YB02.191, YB02.200-201
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA), YB94.17
application for grant of title, B94.39
assent to Act, B95.99
commencement, B94.12, B94.38
Commonwealth Act, inconsistency with, YB94.83
compensation, B94.38–39, YB94.44
extinguishment of native title, B94.126
extinguishment provisions, YB94.42, YB94.43
future titles, B94.127–129
introduction to House of Assembly, B95.24
main features of, YB94.41
native title, definition, YB94.41
Preamble, YB94.17
Racial Discrimination Act, application of, YB94.45
relationship with Commonwealth Act, B94.38, B94.39
rights of traditional usage, YB94.43
declarations of, YB94.43
mining tenement, objection on ground of, YB94.47
“traditional usage” rights, B94.38
validation of titles, B94.38, B94.126–127
validity, B94.12, B94.126
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA)
inconsistent with Racial Discrimination Act, B95.108–109, B95.243–244
invalid, B95.102–105, B95.108–112
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Regulations 1993 (WA)
amendment by Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Amendment Regulations 1994
commencement, B94.62
commencement, B94.12
Landholders’ rights
    amendment of NSW legislation, J99.106
    compensation, J99.106
    objection to mining lease where improvements to land, J99.208-210
    notice of mining lease applications to, J99.106
    penalty provisions, J99.107
    readvertising mining lease application to protect, J99.268-269
    “unknown landholders”, compensation to, J99.106
Lange case, YB03.556–558
    permit, validity of, YB02.181-183
        establishment of native title, YB02.182
    registered native title claimants, YB02.182
        statutory rights of, YB02.182
Lavarch Committee, YB96.357
liability for environmental damage, YB93.11
conditions, YB93.67
Lease agreement
    letter of intent, YB02.15
        enforcement of, YB02.15
    negotiation of, YB02.15
    terms, YB02.15
    receivers and managers, YB03.135
Legal precedent, YB04.79
Legal professional privilege
    dominant purpose test, YB04.91
    foreign lawyers, communications with, YB04.97–8
    High Court treatment of, YB04.90–1
    nature of, YB04.90
    third party communications, YB04.91–2
    United States developments, YB04.95–6
Legislative frameworks for petroleum development, YB97.246-285
bankability of, YB97.286-296
Bank group’s petroleum sector investments, YB97.283-285
Dai Hung - see Dai Hung
disputed areas, YB97.293
essential elements, YB97.249-262
access to land, YB97.261
arbitration, YB97.262
competent authority, YB97.250
definitions, YB97.260
duties, YB97.254
environmental protection and safety, YB97.259
fiscal stabilisation, YB97.258
natural gas development, YB97.260
petroleum agreements, YB97.252
petroleum operations, YB97.252
qualifications, YB97.253
regulations, YB97.253
rights, YB97.254
state property in petroleum, YB97.249
duties and exchange controls, YB97.257
profits, of, YB97.255
unitisation, YB97.261
extraterritoriality, YB97.293
foreign investment, YB97.247
model contracts, YB97.273-281
cost recovery and expenses, YB97.277
declaration of discovery, YB97.276
environmental protection, YB97.279
fees and bonuses, YB97.279
joint management committee, YB97.277
minimum work obligations, YB97.275
production shares, YB97.277, YB97.279
relinquishments, YB97.276
requisition, emergency, YB97.280
rights, YB97.275
standard provisions, YB97.273-281
supply of domestic market, YB97.280
taxation and duties, YB97.278
training of personnel, YB97.281
types in use, YB97.274
host country’s, YB97.249
international oil companies’, YB97.252
regulations, YB97.262-273
agreements, YB97.266
assignment of rights, YB97.270
competent authority, YB97.263
environmental protection, YB97.271
exploration period, YB97.267
financial regime, YB97.268-270
land use, YB97.271
licensing, YB97.263
miscellaneous provisions, YB97.272
model forms, YB97.273
operations, YB97.266
risk, legal, YB97.293
zones of co-operation, YB97.293
Legislative power
abdication, YB96.331
manner and form requirements, YB96.331-332
Lenders’ liability, YB93.11, YB93.56
contractual clauses
“as is” clause, YB93.23
compliance with environmental requirements, YB93.21, YB93.28–29
due diligence, YB93.26–28—see also Due diligence
environmental audits, YB93.29—see also Environmental audits
hazardous materials, YB93.21, YB93.28
indemnity, YB93.24–25—see also Indemnity
inspection, YB93.29
insurance, YB93.30—see also Insurance
notification, YB93.26—see also Notification
no notice of breach or litigation, YB93.22
permits, YB93.22–23
release clause, YB93.23–24
remediation, YB93.25–26—see also Remediation
rescission, YB93.30–31—see also Rescission
underground improvements, YB93.21
environmental protection
Rio Summit policy, YB93.58
precautions, YB93.17–33
conditions, YB93.19–20
due diligence—see Due diligence
environmental audits, YB93.29
indemnity, YB93.24–25
insurance—see Insurance
warranties, YB93.19–33
Australia, YB93.14–16
Europe, YB93.12–13
United Kingdom, YB93.13
United States, YB93.13–14
Letter of intent
    enforcement of, YB02.15
    lease agreement, for, YB02.15
Letters of comfort
construction, YB04.549
    definition, YB04.546
    difficulties with, YB03.111
    false and misleading statements, YB04.559–60
    Gate Gourmet decision, YB04.552–60
    guarantee, distinguished, YB04.547
    identity of parties, problems establishing, YB04.558
    intention to create legal relations, YB04.557–8
    non-enforceability, YB04.547–8, YB04.551–2, YB04.560
    privity of contract, YB04.559–60
    project finance, YB03.111–112
    promissory statements and obligations, YB04.549–51, YB04.557
    purpose, YB03.111, YB04.546-8
Lex specialis, YB96.125
apologies and, J00.220-224
company, of
common law, at, YB95.221–222
defences, YB95.224, YB95.227, YB95.228, YB95.229, YB95.230-231
due diligence, YB95.235–237
direct, YB95.222
    compensation, for, see Compensation
    damages, for, see Damages
    employer, where employee exposed to noxious fumes, J99.114-115
New South Wales, in, YB95.225–229
Queensland, in, YB95.223–225
South Australia, in, YB95.223–225
Tesco Supermarkets v Nattrass, principle in, YB95.222, YB95.224, YB95.227, YB95.231
vicarious, YB95.222–223
Victoria, in, YB95.225–229
Western Australia, in, YB95.229–231
environment protection legislation, under
company, YB95.189–191
corporate officers, YB95.183, YB95.184
corporate officer, interpretation, YB95.184–186
joint venture agreements, in, YB95.187-189, YB95.195
offences by company, for, YB95.187
director of company, YB95.182
joint venture
corporate officers, of, YB95.187-189, YB95.195
partners, of, YB95.182
exclusion clauses, see Exclusion clauses
Gascor, J99.91, J99.93
insurance, J99.50-53
insurance and admissions of, J00.221-222
insurance against—see Insurance
joint venture, corporate criminal liability in
incorporated, where, YB95.234–235
unincorporated, where, YB95.232–234
    limitation clauses, see Limitation clauses
limitation of, YB02.442, YB02.444
occupational health and safety legislation, under
corporate officers, YB95.205–208
    offshore units
        limitation, J99.25
pollution, for, J99.25
    public bodies, of, see Public bodies
    public officer, of, see Public officer
    solicitor’s professional liability, J99.173-176
    statutory corporation, immunity, J99.205-206
    transfer of, YB02.444
    utility failure, J99.42-53
VENCorp, J99.91, J99.93
Licence; Licences—see also Exploration licences, Mineral development licences, Prospecting licences, Pollution control licences
access regimes,
“fit and proper person” test, B96.139–148
Bond Media case, B96.140–141
Creswick Resources NL, B96.146–147
Croft, B96.144–145
Morgan and Taylor, B96.143
Pyrenees Mining Co NL, B96.143–144
Rimlex Mining NL/March Mining Pty Ltd, B96.145–146
land outside boundary, right to enter, explore and gather information, YB03.583–599
        legislation, YB03.588
        Santos Ltd v Minister for Minerals & Energy, YB03.584–588
mining, YB93.329, YB94.315—see also Tailings
profit a prendre, B94.21–22
        legislation evolving with, YB03.594
        surveys, YB03.595–598
Limitation clauses
    consequential loss, for, YB02.448-449
    drafting of, YB02.460-461
    exclusion of, YB02.451
    interpretation of, YB02.445-451
    liability, for, YB02.444
    negligence, for, YB02.447-448
    terms of, see Construction of terms
    acquisition of control, YB02.321
        compulsory acquisition, YB02.321
        schemes of arrangement, YB02.321
        takeovers, YB02.321
    insolvent resource company, YB99.153-155
    nature of remedy, YB99.153-154
    procedure, YB99.153-154
    usefulness of remedy, YB99.154-155
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    arbitrage and swap opportunities, YB04.350–1
    Asia Pacific market, YB04.322–4, YB04.340–1
        changing environment, YB04.347
        China, YB04.345
        emerging buyer countries, YB04.345–6
        Japan, YB04.324–6, YB04.355
        net-back pricing, YB04.346–7
        North America, YB04.345, YB04.346–7
        recent developments, YB04.345
        traditional buyers, responses to change, YB04.347–8
        freedom, YB04.350–1
        review of, YB04.330–2
    excess purchase commitments, diverting, YB04.350
    freight on board (FOB) purchases, YB04.349
        flexibility, YB04.349–50
        transportation margin, YB04.349
    maritime transportation, YB04.282–3
        pre-conditions, YB04.331
    market expansion, YB04.323
    North West Shelf Project, YB04.321–2
        Japan, contract with, YB04.322, YB04.324–5
    pricing, YB04.333–5, YB04.340–1, YB04.344–5
        buyer financial stability, YB04.351–2
        net-back, YB04.346–7
        price reviews, YB04.336–7
        traditional buyers, YB04.398
    quantity, YB04.328–30
        annual contract (ACQ), YB04.343
        downward tolerance (DQT), YB04.329–30, YB04.343A
        excess capacity, YB04.344
        buyers seeking priority, YB04.355
        flexibility, buyers seeking additional, YB04.352
        take-or-pay and make-up, YB04.344, YB04.352
        risk, mitigation of, YB04.353–5
        upward tolerance (UQT), YB04.329–30, YB04.343–4, YB04.349–50
    sale and purchase agreements, YB04.342
        breaches, YB04.353–4
        buyers and transportation commitments, YB04.339–40
        “change of circumstances”, YB04.337–9
        “confer in good faith” clauses, YB04.327
        damages for breaches, YB04.353–4
        destination restrictions, review of, YB04.330–2, YB04.350–1
        flexibility and certainty, dichotomy, YB04.326–7, YB04.352
        pricing, YB04.333–7, YB04.344–5
        quantity, YB04.328–30
        shorter terms, YB04.328, YB04.348–9
        sources of supply, diversity in, YB04.332–3
        “substantial hardship”, YB04.338–9
Liquor Licensing Tribunal (WA)
bias, B95.4–6
    cost, YB03.14
    inefficiency, YB03.14
Local environment plan (NSW)
Direction to prepare draft plan
application of Direction to prepare draft plan, B95.95
consultation requirements, B95.96–97
extent of application of Direction, B95.95–96
form of Direction, B95.97–98
s 65 certificate, B95.97
Local government
environmental responsibility, YB93.412
Logging companies
    quarries, use of (Tas), J00.8
London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA)
    rules, YB03.35
Longford case
    background, YB03.567–569
    decision in, YB03.571–579
    facts of, YB03.567
    history of proceedings, YB03.569–570
    issues to be determined, YB03.570
    Longford explosion and subsequent gas supply interruption, YB03.569
    public utility providers, consequences for, YB03.579–581

Consolidated Index: M

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Mabo, YB96.85, YB96.111—see also Native Title
    aboriginal rights, see Aboriginal rights; Native title
application of, YB02.96-104
application to areas of mainland Australia, B94.15
    common law rights, YB02.102
        acceptance of, YB02.102
        assumption of, YB02.102
    unjust discrimination, YB02.102
credibility of Eddie Mabo, trial judge’s opinion of, YB94.24
    determination of native title, YB02.242
effect of, YB02.241
extinguishment by reversion, YB95.498
fiduciary duty of Crown to native title holders, YB95.500
High Court decision in, YB94.2
implications of decision, B94.158–169
interest in land, YB02.242
law prior to, YB94.33
majority of High Court, significant differences of opinion within, YB94.33
principles of, B94.16, YB94.33
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), consideration of provisions in Mabo (No 1), YB94.39
response to, YB02.122
State legislation in response
Northern Territory, B94.40
Queensland, B94.40
Victoria, B94.40
summary from judgment of Brennan J, B94.71–72
Western Australia v the Commonwealth, reference to decision in, YB95.537
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Major projects
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.206
    use of term, YB02.205-206
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.251
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.251
Mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), see Renewable energy
“Manner and form” provision,
YB93.160–165, YB93.178–179
Maori claims to petroleum
    background, YB01.426
    claimant arguments, YB01.437-438
    Crown arguments, YB01.439-440
    environmental issues, YB01.435-436
    immediate context, YB01.431-436
    Kupe Field, Crown rights, YB01.435
    Maori freehold land, YB01.429
    native title
        articulation of claims, YB01.429-431
        recognition in New Zealand, YB01.429
    ownership of petroleum, YB01.427-429
    Taranaki Raupatu (Confiscation) Claim, YB01.431-432
        resolution of, YB01.432-435
    Treaty of Waitangi
        nationalisation of petroleum contrary to, YB01.438
        principles of, YB01.430
    uncertain outcome of, YB01.440
    Waitangi Tribunal
        claimant arguments, YB01.437-438
        Crown arguments, YB01.439-440
        forum for grievances, YB01.430
        initial claim before, YB01.426
        procedural history of claim, YB01.436-437
Maori land, YB93.428
Margin schemes
GST, YB99.400-401
Marine parks and reserves,  J97.192, 279-291
creation, J97.283
environmental protection, J97.290
management, J97.281-286
mining (NSW), J97.192
mining (WA), J97.287
petroleum, J97.289
Marine pollution
conventions concerning, YB00.78-79
Maritime boundary disputes
    applicable legal principles, YB03.388–391
    Australia-East Timor, YB03.401–403
    Brunei-Malaysia, YB03.400–401
    Cambodia-Thailand, YB03.398–400
    case studies, YB03.398–403
    international litigation/arbitration, YB03.392–394
    issues arising, YB03.387
    maritime boundary treaty, YB03.392
    methods for resolving, YB03.391
    petroleum companies, implications  for, YB03.403–404
    provisional arrangements, YB03.394–398
Maritime law
    offshore units, application to, J99.21-27, J99.241-252
Maritime Legislation Amendment Bill 1993 (Cth)
“continental shelf”, B94.5
purpose, B94.4
Maritime liens
    offshore units, J99.24
Maritime terrorism, see also Piracy
    Abu Sayyaf, YB04.277
    Al Qaeda, YB04.277
    bulk cargo, YB04.282–3
    choke points, YB04.281–2
    crews, documentation relating to, YB04.283
    impact, YB04.275
        economic, YB04.281–2
    insurance, YB04.319–20
    international agreements and conventions, YB04.283–4
        Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA), YB04.283–4
        International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, YB04.284
        South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO), YB04.285
        United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, YB04.284
    Jemaah Islamuyah, YB04.277
    Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), YB04.277
    LPG and LNG vessels, YB04.282
    maritime trade, importance of, YB04.276
    Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), YB04.277
    New People's Army, YB04.277
    obstacles to progress, YB04.284–5
    potential attack scenarios, YB04.277
    recent history, YB04.276–8
        review of attacks, YB04.278–9
targets, YB04.277
Market flex clauses, YB03.115–116, YB03.163–164
marking out
at each extremity, J01.245-246
sea, J01.244-245
Aboriginal cultural heritage issues, YB04.509–11
confidentiality agreement, YB94.204
essential criteria, YB94.201
good faith, YB94.205
legal advisers, role of, YB94.202
qualifications, YB94.201
role, YB94.201
native title see Federal Court of Australia; National Native Title Tribunal
nature of, YB94.200
party representatives, role of, YB94.203
People’s Republic of China, in, YB03.190
phases, YB94.201
position papers, YB94.204
preliminary conference, YB94.203
structuring, YB94.203
    trans-national disputes, YB04.49
Mediator—see Mediation
    Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
        Alcoa Inc and Reynolds Metal Company, YB01.7
        offshore mergers affecting Australian market, YB01.7
        proposed acquisition of Ashton Mining Limited, YB01.7-8
    Australian competition law, see Australian competition law
    BHP and Billiton, between, YB01.4-5
    contractual arrangement, YB02.321
    cross border, see Cross border mergers and acquisitions
    European Commission, approach of, YB01.4-8
    overseas competition laws
        application of, YB01.3
        Europe, in, YB01.3
        United States, in, YB01.3
    overseas regulators, approach of
        Europe, YB01.4-5
        United States, YB01.5-8
    overseas regulatory review, YB01.3
    RTZ Corporation PLC and CRA Limited, YB01.4
    structure, YB02.321
    United States Department of Justice, approach of, YB01.5-8
Mergers and acquisitions
CRA/Rio Tinto Zinc, YB97.502-507
exemptions from ASC and ASX, YB97.506
implementation agreement, YB97.503
shareholders voting, YB97.504
sharing agreement, YB97.503
dual listed company, YB97.502-507
advantages of, YB97.506
Australia, in, YB97.507
goodwill, YB97.498-500
Normandy Mining, YB97.485-502
elements of schemes, YB97.487
goodwill, YB97.498-500
accounting standard AASB 1015, YB97.499
ASC relief, YB97.499-500
group pre-merger, YB97.486
implementation agreement, YB97.488
listing rule complications, YB97.501-502
blocking of merger, YB97.488
proposal by, YB97.489
rejection of, YB97.490
recommended terms, YB97.487
scheme meetings, developments before, YB97.488
shareholders, option for, YB97.495-497
successful proposal, YB97.490-491
Tanami Option, YB97.496-497
schemes of arrangement
advantages over takeovers, YB97.492-498
complexity of, YB97.500
control under, YB97.492
convertible securities, YB97.493-495
disadvantages of, YB97.500-502
flexibility of, YB97.495-498
shareholders, meetings of classes of, YB97.501
stamp duty considerations, YB97.497
takeover schemes—see Takeovers
Metallurgy—see Mining, ore processing
Mine closure, see also Decommissioning and rehabilitation
abandoned minesites, YB96.464, YB96.467-468
final voids, YB96.464, YB96.468-469
history of, YB96.465-466
importance of environmentally acceptable closure, YB96.465
infrastructure, YB96.470
new operations, YB96.466
ongoing operations, YB96.466-467
process plant, YB96.470
public safety, YB96.465, YB96.471-472
solid waste, YB96.469
standards, YB96.470
Mine management
    legislative developments (NT), J00.106
    sale of mine, J00.194
Mine safety
    breach of provisions
        onus of proof (Qld), J99.112
        penalties (Qld), J99.112
        prosecution (NSW), J99.104-105
    coal mines (NSW) regulations, J99.203-204
        declared plant manager obligations, J99.203-204
        mine manager obligations, J99.203
        owner obligations, J99.203
    employer’s liability where employee exposed to noxious fumes, J99.114-115
    investigation of incidents (NSW), J99.4
    issues (NSW), J99.4-5
    new requirements (Qld), J99.111-112
    officers and investigators, J99.4, 111-112
    prosecution of health and safety law breaches (NSW), J99.104-105
Mineral and resources policy statement
key objectives, J98.1
principles for government action, J98.1
resource security, J98.1
Mineral Development Lease (Qld)
“holding title”, B95.92
Mineral development licences, B96.169–170
Mineral development licences (Qld)
    Land and Resources Tribunal constitution, J99.79
Mineral exploration
    code of practice (Tas), J00.9
    licencing procedures (NSW), J00.192-193
    management of (Vic), J00.202
    mineral sands (Vic), J00.202
    native title, J00.192
    royalties, J00.192, J00.193
    security deposit required, J00.192
Mineral Exploration Code of Practice (Tas), YB95.4
Mineral lease
    application for (NT), J00.2-3
        environmental objection, J00.3
        notice, J00.2-3
        role of Warden, J00.3
    environmental offences
        penalties, J00.192
Mineral lease (NT)
    date of grant, J99.212
    estate or interest in land, whether, J99.210-211
    profit à prendre, J99.211
Mineral processing, YB97.316-318
comminution, YB97.316-317
concentration, YB97.317
Mineral refineries
definition “mine”, B95.233–234
environmental concern, B95.235-236
implications for off-site processing, B95.234–235
requirement for mining lease, B95.232–236
Mineral Resources Act 1989 (Qld)
amendments, B95.164–170
appointment of Mining Warden, B95.167
avoiding lease not promptly and properly used, B95.92–93
“environmental audit” required with respect to plan of operations or alterations to such a plan, B95.166
“environmental impact”, B95.164
exploration permits, B95.165
“explore”, B95.225–226
failure to comply with direction of mining registrar, B95.167
late objections, B96.3–8
“mine”, B95.225–226
mineral development licences, B95.166
mining claims, B95.165
mining leases, B95.166–167
powers to interfere with exploration and prospecting, B95.226–227
prospecting permits, B95.164
renewal or termination of mining claim, B95.165
Mineral Resources Development Act 1989 (Vic)
amendment by the Mineral Resources Development (Amendment) Act 1993 (Vic)
assent, B94.6
commencement, B94.6
“development” licences, B94.6, B94.8
effectiveness, B94.8
exploration licence renewal, B94.8
permit, grant of, B94.6
private land owner’s rights, B94.6
protection of environment, B94.6
“restricted Crown land”, B94.7
royalties for disposal of tailings, B94.8
amendment by the Mineral Resources Development (Further Amendment) Bill 1993
application of planning restrictions to exploration, B94.56–57
“licensee”, B94.57
“mineral”, B94.56
Crown land, B94.7
“Reserves Act”, B94.7
Mineral Resources Development Act 1995 (Tas), B96.137–138
Mineral Resources Development Bill 1995 (Tas), B95.240
Mineral Royalty Act 1982 (NT)
royalty valuation provisions, examination of—see North Flinders Mine Ltd v Conn

definition, YB96.203
exploration, YB96.204-206, YB96.455-462
export regulation, YB94.237
extrinsic aid, J97.74-81
historical definition, J97.72-73
meaning, J97.69-83, J98.12-13
native title, J00.82, 84, 90
        extinguishment, J00.98
        sea-bed, J00.14-17
ownership, YB96.201-203
private ownership, YB96.202-203
processing, foreign investment statistics, YB94.231
Minerals and petroleum
    access to, YB02.110-111
        mining lease, YB02.110-111
        tenement, YB02.110
    common law and, YB02.110-111
    compensation, YB02.198, YB02.199
        exclusive rights, YB02.110, YB02.117
        vested in, YB02.110
    legislation, YB02.195-197
    native title rights, YB02.110
        determination of, YB02.195-198
        extinguishment of, YB02.110, YB02.195-197, YB02.205
    negotiation of, YB02.205
    ownership of, YB02.197
    regulation of, YB02.195-197
    right to mine, YB02.121
    royalties, YB02.198
    state rights, YB02.117
    statutory vesting of, YB02.110
Minerals industry
abolition of export controls, B96.92, B96.163
Constitutional protection of resource rights under Commonwealth laws, B96.149–154
definition, B96.35
development of minerals projects, B96.162–163
export earnings, B96.164
urban benefits, B96.36
effect of environmentalist movement, B96.55
safety in work, B96.95, B96.138
South Australia, B96.171
Mineral sands industry
buried radioactive tailings, B95.206–207
environmental problems with radioactive tailings, B95.195–197
legislative control of radioactive waste disposal
deficiencies in regulation of disposal, B95.207–208
dilution of tailings prior to burial, B95.209
Environmental Protection Act 1986 (WA), B95.202–205
land title to information relating to tailings, B95.209
Mines Regulations Act 1946 (WA), B95.197
Mines Regulations Act Regulations 1976 (WA), B95.198–200
Mining Act 1978 (WA), B95.201–202
occupational exposure to radiation, B95.194–195
problems with radioactive elements, B95.193–194
register of tailings sites, B95.208
nature of mineral sands, B95.193
no risk burial of radioactive tailings, B95.209
Mines and Works Inspection Regulations 1965 (SA)
fees amendment, commencement, B94.10
Mines Regulation Act 1946 (WA)
repealed, B96.14
Mines Safety and Inspection Bill 1994 (WA)
administration of Act, B94.152
duties of employers and managers, B94.152–153
expected commencement, B94.151
health and safety representatives, B94.153
“mining operations”, B94.151
occupational health, welfare and safety, duties regarding, B94.151–152
repeal of Mines Regulation Act 1946 (WA), B94.151
Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994 (WA), B96.14
Mining—see also Coal, Coal Mining, Exploration, Mining applications, Opal mining, Petroleum
    absolute privilege of inspection reports (NSW), J99.5
access to land, YB93.428–429, YB95.48-49
accounting standards, see International Accounting Standards
administration, YB93.422
agencies, conflict between, YB95.4446
    alien tort claims, see tort    
amendments to NSW Mining Act 1992, J97.3-5
    application for 
        mining claim, J04.119-120
        consent of owners, J04.119-120
application to “minerals”, YB96.203
approvals for, YB95.12-14, YB95.34
federal controls, YB95.34
integrated development approvals system, establishment of working party, YB95.55–56
review of, YB95.54
success, key components in, YB95.58
“at risk” agreements, J98.95-96
Australian economy, position in, YB94.224
    best practice contamination assessment principles, YB04.445–6
Best Practice Notes, publication of, YB95.58
Canadian, YB96.169-170
challenging the warden’s discretion, J98.164-190
claims and disputes—see Mining contracts
coal—see Coal mining
Code of Conduct on Mining Policy, development of, YB04.65
common law, YB96.167
Commonwealth, role of
Constitutional powers, YB96.176-181
existing legislation, YB96.170-176
    company, J04.230-231
        companies, see Resource companies
compensation, see Compensation claims, J98.16-18, J98.355-363, J98.367
compensation for see Compensation for mining
    compensation to landowners, J04.229-230
concentration of ore, YB95.9
conditions, J98.354-356
consent authority, YB95.23–25
Environmental Impact Statement—see Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
merit issues, council inclusion of, YB95.25, YB95.50
consultants, YB93.364–365
Contaminated Land Management Act 1997, impact on, J99.63-70
    Contamination, see contamination
contract—see Mining contracts
Coronation Hill, J97.106, J97.184-188
costs before warden, J97.7-10
    Crown-owned minerals, YB93.421, YB93.426–427, YB93.429–431
    Crown ownership of minerals, YB99.325, YB99.336
    damage during exploratory operations, J03.398-400
    definition of ‘mine’ (Qld), J03.20-21
definition of ‘minerals’, YB96.203
description of mining tenement, J98.372-373
designated development, YB95.25–28
significance of project, emphasis on, YB95.57–59
developing a mine, YB93.358–380
drilling, YB93.362–364
field work, YB93.360–362
research, YB93.359–360
development consent—see Development consent
directors’ liability under legislation, YB03.524–525
disclosure information—see Disclosure
discovery, J97.203, J98.373-374
diversity, YB96.183
duties of directors and shareholders in joint venture companies, J98.106-107
environment, impact on, YB95.4
Environmental Impact Statement—see Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
environmental objections, J97.254-257
environmental protection authorities, YB04.430, YB04.434, YB04.436
    exemption applications 
        extension of time for, J04.37-39
exemptions, J97.16, J97.115-118, J98.103-106
capital, YB94.224
private mineral exploration, YB94.225
exploration licence, YB96.200-214
    exploration licence, application for, J04.238-239
        objections, J04.238-239
        native title, see native title
        exploration licences, see Exploration licences
exploration permits, see Exploration permits
export controls, J97.3, J97.100
Federal Court jurisdiction, J98.194-195
financial analysis, YB93.379–380
foreign investment, YB94.223
access to land, YB94.298–299
data, access to, YB94.303
Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act 1975 (Cth), YB94.230
guidelines, YB94.230
Senate Select Committee recommendations, YB94.233
security of tenure, YB94.283–286
statistics, YB94.231
taxes and royalties, YB94.292–293
forfeiture, J98.28-29, J98.100-103
freeholders, YB96.167
GATT, benefits conferred by, YB94.236
    Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994, adoption by NT, J99.211
glossary of terms, YB97.318
policy, absence of, YB95.40–44
power of, YB95.13–14
GST, impact on mining industry, J99.54-62
in Northern Territory, J98.71-76
includes "exploration" (Qld), J02.22
injunctive relief, J03.398-400
international treaties, federal government powers under, YB94.235
investigation of incidents (NSW), J99.4
joint ventures, see joint ventures
jurisdiction of warden’s court, J97197.198, J98.100-102
Kambalda, YB93.365–366
“land”, YB96.205
    land purchase, YB99.327
    land use conflict, YB99.326
lease—see Mining lease
    leases, see mining lease
legal character of resource titles, J98.57-70
New Zealand, YB93.419–433
rights conferred by, YB94.320
legislative amendments (NT), J03.128, (WA), J03.142-145
legislative controls on, YB95.12-15, YB95.34-36
approvals process, need for efficiency in, YB95.13
conflict between, YB95.38–40
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (NSW)—see Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (NSW)
historical development of, YB95.14–15
Mining Act 1992 (NSW)—see Mining Act 1992 (NSW)
philosophy of, YB95.15
licences, YB94.315, J98.210-212
marine parks and reserves, J97.192, J97.279-291
mine management, J98.364
mine planning, YB97.310-311
design and layout, YB97.310
production schedules, YB97.311
reserves and resources, YB97.310
mine safety officers and investigators (NSW), J99.4
mineral processing—see Mineral processing
minerals programme, YB93.429–431
mines inspection, J98.87-88
    Mining Act 1978 (WA), J04.48-55
        in open court, meaning of, J04.49-50
        Mining Act Amendment Bill (WA), J04.234-236
        prospecting licence, J04.50-52
        warden’s court jurisdiction, see warden’s court
mining lease, YB96.214-217
mining leases, see Mining leases
mining purposes lease, YB96.220
    mining titles, YB96.207-208, YB99.326
ministerial discretion, J98.28-29
    ministerial statement (Vic), J04.30-31
national code, J97.21-26
    native title agreements, see native title
natural justice, J97.197-198
New South Wales
nature and extent, YB95.58–59
turnover, YB95.52
    NSW Department of Mineral Resources, new policies, J99.5-6
NSW legislation amendments, J99.4-5
NT legislation amendments, J99.12, J99.211-212
objections to application, J03.129-131
objections to leases, see Mining leases
objectives, YB96.200-201
    occupational health and safety, see safety
offshore, J98.89
offshore exploration—see Exploration
Offshore Minerals Act 1994 (Cth), YB94.239–246
Olympic Dam, YB93.366–368
open pit, YB97.312-314
blasting, YB97.312
drilling, YB97.312
haulage, YB97.314
loading, YB97.313
optimisation analysis, YB93.371–372
order to transfer tenements, J98.376-378
ore processing, YB93.377–379
origins, YB96.166
Papua New Guinea, development in—see Papua New Guinea
partial surrender, J98.20-22
permits, YB93.427–428
petroleum—see Petroleum
    Philippine mining law, J04.7-9
planning focus meetings
initiation of, YB95.44
procedures, improvement of, YB95.56
planning legislation, conflict with, YB95.38–40
pollution control offences, J98.212.214
preconditions to activity, YB97.309
preliminary site investigations, claims in relation to—see Mining contracts
private mines, J97.11
procedural fairness, J98.28-29
proposed changes to SA Mining Act 1971, J97.10-11
    prosecution of health and safety law breaches (NSW), J99.104-105
    prospecting licence, J04.236-237
prospecting licences (WA), J99.13-15
    protected areas, YB99.325
regional forest agreements, J97.1
    registrar, J04.17-18
rehabilitation of site, YB95.4
expenditure on, YB95.426
rent on titles, time for payment (NT), J99.211-212
resource management, YB93.424–425
retention lease, YB96.218-220
royalty, J97.201
    royalties, see Royalties, YB99.325-326
    safety, see safety
    safety issues (NSW), J99.4-5
safety provisions, YB93.431, YB93.433
security of costs, J98.102-103, J98.375-376
sentencing, J98.214-215
smelting, YB95.9–10
sovereign risk, effect on decisions to invest, YB95.46–48
sovereignty, YB99.325
State Environmental Planning Policy (SEPP) (NSW), right to continue under, YB95.23
States, role of, YB96.182-183
State versus uniform legislation, YB96.198
surface mining, YB95.5–6
surface subsidence, J98.196-200, J98.355-362
surrender, J97.11
Tasmania’s regional forest agreement, J98.22
taxation—see Mining taxation
taxation legislation, changes to
balancing adjustment provisions, YB95.426–427
deductible capital expenditure, YB95.418–419
property, disposal of, YB95.421
termination value, YB95.420–421
capital expenditure, deductions on, YB95.425
allowable, definition, YB95.410
deductions before 19 July 1992, YB95.409-410
cash bidding, YB95.426
Commissioner, discretion of, YB95.422
deductions for expenditure, key principles in, YB95.425–427
depreciation of plant, YB95.409
excess deductions, YB95.413-414, YB95.426
allowable capital expenditure, of, YB95.414–415
exploration or prospecting
definition, YB95.407–409
expenditure on, YB95.425
housing and welfare, expenditure on, YB95.411–413
information, sale of, YB95.425–426
partial changes in property ownership, YB95.415–417
property, definition, YB95.417–418
rehabilitation of site, expenditure on, YB95.426
remaining issues, YB95.422–423
right, sale of, YB95.425–426
transportation, expenditure on, YB95.426
    temporary land use, YB99.325
time limit for appeal of warden’s court, J97.92-93
title audit steps under Native title Act, J98.251-272
treatise on mining law, J97.96-97
town planning, J97.20
underground, YB93.375–377, YB95.6–8, YB97.314-316
mine access, YB97.316
stoping methods, YB97.315
ventilation, YB97.316
United Nations’ Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982, YB94.237
United States, YB96.168-169
unit operations, YB97.311
uranium, J97.2, J97.100, J97.105—see also Uranium
valuation techniques, J99.95-96
Warden—see also Warden
discretion to hear, J97.258-257
    warden’s court, see warden’s court
        treatment and disposal of, YB04.431, YB04.435–6
    water licences
        New South Wales, YB04.432–4
        Queensland, YB04.430–1
        Victoria, YB04.434–7
World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983, YB94.235
work requirements, J97.199
work safety, J97.202
Mining Act 1971 (SA)
amendment by Statutes Repeal and Amendment (Development) Act 1993
copy of application for mining lease to be sent to land owner, B94.10
Minister to publish application for mining lease, B94.10
amendment by Mining (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994, B94.58–59, B94.146
jurisdiction of Environment Resources and Development Court in native title matters, B94.146
native title amendment, B95.24–29, B95.99, B95.175, B95.239
power of Minister to suspend or cancel mining lease, B95.174
power of Minister to suspend or cancel miscellaneous purposes licence, B95.174
review of, B94.10
royalties amendment, B95.13
special enterprises amendment, B95.174–175
Mining Act 1978 (WA)
aerial surveys, B96.12–13
amendments, B96.11–14
amendment by Mining Amendment Act 1993
commencement, B94.12, B94.110
environmental inspectors, B94.110
exploration licences, B94.110
extension of limits and restrictions on mining leases for gold with consent, B94.110
prospecting licences, fixed term, B94.110
retention licences, B94.110
special prospecting licences, B94.110
applicants complying with s 105A(3) “at the same time”, B95.15
compensation for lease granted over private land, B95.106
discretion of Minister to grant or refuse application wider regarding mining lease, B95.16, B95.21
effect of non-compliance with s 118, B95.15–16, B95.17
exemption from expenditure conditions under s 102, B95.19, B95.21–23, B96.113–115
exemption of land by Minister, B96.11
exploration licences, B96.13, B96.111–112
limitation periods for prosecutions, B96.14
mineral exploration reports, B96.12
miscellaneous licences, B96.13
plaints for forfeiture, B96.176–177
private land, B96.11
“project status”, B96.113–114
regulatory power, B96.14
reform of registration system, B96.173–174
security, B96.13
special prospecting licences under s 70(1), B95.20, B96.12, B96.174
State forest and timber reserves, B96.175
summary refusal by Minister of applications for mining tenement under s 111A
definition of public interest, B95.115–116
introduction and content of s 111A, B95.113–114
natural justice, B95.114
precedents, B95.117–123
protection of public interest, B95.124
purpose of Act as fetter to discretion, B95.114–115
repeal of section, B95.125
role of Warden in public interest, B95.116–117
scope of discretion, B95.123–124
surrender of land in accordance with s 65, B95.107–108
tenement applications
ballots, B96.13, B96.110–111
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
transitional provisions, B96.14
Mining Act 1980 (NT)
amendment by Mining Amendments Act 1994
assent, B94.119
compensation, B94.121
exploration licence applications, B94.120
jurisdiction of Warden’s Court, B94.119–120
“land”, B94.119
non-monetary compensation, B94.121
“occupier”, B94.119
“owner”, B94.119
Part IIA (to deal with native title issues), B94.119–120
“private land”, B94.119
purpose, B94.119
Mining Act 1992 (NSW)
approvals, YB95.34
assessment lease, YB95.15
authority to prospect or mine, YB95.15
compensation, YB95.19–20
development consent, YB95.21–22
exempted areas, YB95.18–19
agricultural land, YB95.18
improvements to land, where, YB95.18
exploration lease, YB95.15
mineral allocation areas, creation of, YB95.15–16
mining lease, YB95.15
provisions under, YB95.15
public consultation, YB95.20–21
shortcomings in, YB95.42–43
Mining activities
    codes of environmental compliance, J00.182
    definition, J00.181
    environmental authority (Qld), J00.181
        amendment, J00.184
        assessment process, J00.183-184
        audit, J00.184-185
        environmental management documents, J00.183
        public notification, J00.183
        surrender, J00.184
        transfer, J00.184
    environmental impact statement process, J00.182-183
    environmental performance, regulation of (Qld), J00.180-185
    environmentally relevant activities, J00.181, J00.202
    GST Joint Venture provisions, J00.253
    “land rich” stamp duty, J00.196-197
    100 metre rule, J00.203
    standard and non-standard activities, J00.181-182
    water law, J00.279-281
Mining agreements, YB96.117
Mining Amendment Act 1994 (WA)
aerial surveys, B96.12–13
exemptions of land by Minister, B96.11
exploration licences, B96.13
limitation periods for prosecutions, B96.14
mineral exploration reports, B96.12
miscellaneous licences, B96.13
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
private land, B96.11
prospecting licences, B96.12
regulatory power, B96.14
security, B96.13
tenement applications
ballots, B96.13, B96.110–111
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
transitional provisions, B96.14
Mining Amendment Bill 1996 (WA), B96.173–175
special prospecting licences, B96.174
State forest and timber reserves, B96.175
reform of registration system, B96.173–174
Mining Amendment Regulations 1995 (WA), B96.11–14
Mining and Minerals and Sustainable Environment and Development (MMSD project)
    best practices for sustainable development, YB04.64, YB04.65
    contemporary good governance ideas, YB04.65
    final report, YB04.66
    funding, YB04.64
    improved regulatory reform, YB04.65
    informed consent, YB04.65
    initiation, YB04.64
    integrated impact assessments, YB04.65
    “social license to operate”, YB04.64
Mining applications
accompanying statement of work, J97.91
ballot, J97.90
challenging the warden’s discretion, J98.164-190
excess land, J97.144, J97.204
exploration licences, J97.89-91
general purpose lease, J97.204
mining lease, J97.124
miscellaneous licence, J97.205
objections, J97.258-257
power to refuse, J97.11
priority “at the same time”, J97.90
public interest, J97.254-257
standing, J97.256-257
mining claim
objection as improvements, J01.206-208
    unauthorised mining, J01.221-222
Mining claims (Qld)
    Land and Resources Tribunal constitution, J99.78-79
Mining company
aim of, YB95.1
Mining companies
    approval process for new projects, YB00.230-233
        legal approaches, YB00.232-233
    consolidation, tax issues, YB00.476-481
        due diligence, YB00.482-483
        mergers and acquisitions, YB00.481-482
    disclosure by, see Disclosure by companies
    environmental codes of conduct, YB00.58-61
    environmental harm by
        compliance/enforcement distinction, YB00.227
        foreign country, in, see Environmental harm in foreign
        Great Southern energy case, YB00.225-226
        prosecutions in Australia in last decade, YB00.223-224, YB00.235-245
        prosecutorial risk, YB00.222-223
        statutory penalties, YB00.222, YB00.224-225
        Trade Practices Act breaches, YB00.224-225
    environmental issues, response to, YB00.221-245
    environmental management systems, YB00.225, YB00.226, 227
        assessing adequacy, YB00.227-230
        ISO 14001 standard, YB00.225, YB00.226
    Fundraising, see Corporate fundraising
    initial public offer, see Initial public offer (IPO)
    international code of conduct for multinationals, YB00.35
    national pollution inventory reports, YB00.59
    native title agreements, see Native title agreements
    prospectus, see Prospectus
    tax reforms relevant to, see Taxation
Mining contract
    administration, YB03.429–430
    alliancing, YB03.416–417, YB03.440–442
    best model, YB03.418
    control, YB03.420–421
        liability and, YB03.421–422
        limitation of, YB03.428
        liquidated, YB03.428
    dispute resolution, YB03.428
    documentation, YB03.433, YB03.434
    dynamic nature, YB03.432
    essential elements, YB03.419–428
    force majeure, YB03.425
    form, YB03.415, YB03.439–440, YB03.444–445
    framework, YB03.444
    fundamental nature, YB03.419–420
    good faith, obligation of, YB03.424
    implementation, YB03.449
    insurance, YB03.425–426
    latent condition clause, YB03.446
    measurement, YB03.422–423, YB03.446
    mining schedules and programs, YB03.426
    negotiation, YB03.429–430
    operation of, YB03.431
    owner operation and, YB03.414
    partnering, YB03.415–416
    practical examples, testing, YB03.429
    pricing assumptions and representations, YB03.427
    procedures and manuals, YB03.434
    purpose, YB03.429
    record keeping, YB03.433
    remuneration, YB03.422
    rise and fall, YB03.423, YB03.447
    risk allocation, YB03.423, YB03.437–439, YB03.447–449
    safety, YB03.427–428
    sale of mine, YB03.425
    specific contract, YB03.419
    specification and scope of work, YB03.447
    stand alone document, as, YB03.430
    standard form contracts, YB03.418–419, YB03.445–446
    systems, setting up, YB03.431
    termination for convenience, YB03.424
    traditional contract delivery, YB03.417–418
    training, YB03.450
    understanding, YB03.431
    variations, YB03.426, YB03.432
Mining contracts
claims and disputes, latent conditions clauses
contract, under the, YB95.94–95
defences available to the principal, YB95.96–97
negligence, YB95.95
preliminary site investigations—see preliminary site investigations infra
scope to claim, YB95.93–94
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), s 52, misleading or deceptive conduct under, YB95.95–96
commencement of, YB95.99–100
expense and loss, distinguished, YB95.112–114
prolongation costs, YB95.111–114
contract period, commencement of, YB95.99–100
costs, YB95.111–114
Form AS2124-1992, clauses in, YB95.62–63
liquidated damages, YB95.102
penalties, YB95.102–107
practical completion, time of, YB95.100–102
extension of time
construction and mining industry, distinction between, YB95.127–128
Form AS2124-1992, clauses in, YB95.62–63
prevention or “Peak principle”, YB95.107, YB95.108
prolongation costs, YB95.111–114
variations, entitlement where, YB95.109–111
warranty, principal subject to, YB95.107–108
Form AS2124-1992, significant changes in, YB95.62–64
certification and payment, YB95.63–64
delays, YB95.62–63
extensions of time, YB95.62–63
security, YB95.62
variations, YB95.63
Form AS4300-1995, new directions taken in, YB95.64–69
design and construct conditions, YB95.64–65
R W Miller & Company Pty Ltd v Krupp (Australia) Pty Ltd, decision in, YB95.65–67
design, warranties relating to, YB95.68
extensions of time, YB95.69
legislative requirements
definition, YB95.68–69
satisfaction of, YB95.68–69
superintendent, role of—see superintendent infra
forms of contracts, influences on, YB95.61
insurance clauses, YB95.125
latent conditions clauses
claims in relation to—see claims and disputes supra
definition, YB95.91
delay caused by, YB95.92
elements of, YB95.91
notification of, YB95.92
time bars
interpretation, YB95.97–99
recovery claims, limitations where, YB95.92–93
mining development schedules, YB95.129–130
partnering—see Partnering
penalties, YB95.102–107
practical completion, time of, YB95.100–102
preliminary site investigations, claims in relation to
allocation of responsibility, YB95.88–89
assessment of ground conditions, uncertainty in, YB95.90
disclaimers, YB95.90
exclusions, YB95.90
geotechnical data, representation of, YB95.89–90
limitations of liability, YB95.90
qualifications of investigators, YB95.90
site, identification of, YB95.87–88
production, influence of cost of, YB95.123–124
risk allocation, YB95.128–129
safety clauses, YB95.122–123
administrator, role as
delegation, YB95.78–79
supervision, YB95.76–78
contract, duty to the, YB95.75–76
fairness, duty of, YB95.70–73
Form AS4300, contractual role outlined in, YB95.67–68
immunity, YB95.73–74
mutuality, function to ensure, YB95.69–70
natural justice, professional responsibility of, YB95.74–75
use of, YB95.125–126
time bars
latent conditions clauses
interpretation, YB95.97–99
recovery claims, limitations where, YB95.92–93
partnering, where, YB95.119
variations, YB95.79–86
breach of contract, YB95.85
construction and mining industry, distinction between, YB95.127
estoppel, YB95.83–85
extension of time where, YB95.109–111
Form AS2124-1992, clauses in, YB95.63
implied promise to pay, YB95.81–82
power to direct, YB95.85–86
reasonableness, concept of, YB95.86
recovery in absence of written direction, YB95.81
separate contract, use of, YB95.82
waiver of writing requirement, YB95.82–83
Mining contractors
    pre-qualification, YB03.449
    role of, YB03.443–444
    warranties as to skill and experience, YB03.446
Mining industry
community perceptions, YB96.447-448
Codes of Practice, YB96.461-462
importance of mine closure, YB96.465
position on conservation, YB96.205
position on multiple land use, YB96.205
unionisation, YB96.602-603
    water trading markets
        mining industry, NSW, YB01.499-500
        recommendations for mining industry, YB01.500
        transferable water entitlements, see Transferable water entitlements (TWEs)
    water use, in WA, YB01.475-476
        deficiencies in statutory framework, YB01.476-478
        proclamation of groundwater areas, YB01.485
        statutory licensing systems, YB01.476
Mining Industry Ombudsman
    arguments for establishment of, YB00.61
Mining lease, see also Mining tenement
    access, J04.19
    access to
        land, YB02.199
        minerals, YB02.110, YB02.111
    additional area, J01.224-225
    alleged agreement to transfer, breach of (WA), J00.9-10
        proprietary estoppel, J00.11
        specific performance, J00.10, J00.11
    application, J04.18, J04.19-20, J04.120, J04.224-225
        restoration, for, J04.31-34
    applications, J03.40-43    
    blockade of access to, J00.188-190
        injunctions, J00.188-189
    caveatable interest, J01.112
    compensation agreements, J04. 121-122
    compensation for loss or impairment of, J00.44-53
    compensation, see compensation, YB02.199
    disclosure on application, J01.113
    environmental objections, J00.118-120, J01.26-28
    equitable interest, J01.38-42, J01.112, J01.192
    exclusive possession, whether, YB02.199
    exemption application, J03.36-39, J03.135-137, J03.139-142
    exemption from expenditure, J02.47-50, J02.51-53
    expenditure, see Expenditure
    expenditure conditions exemption, J01.25-26
    extinguishment of native title, J00.91-92
    forfeiture, J00.198-200, J02.47-50, J02.142-144, J03.137-138, J03.427-430
        Corporations Law, J00.199-200
        Creditors’ rights, J00.200
        plaint for, J04.135-139, J04.142-43,  J04.232-234
        plaint for, withdrawal of, J04. 35-36
        winding up, J00.198
    grant of, YB02.151
    holder of, rights of, YB02.110
        definition, J00.191
        discretion of court to determine, J00.192
    inappropriate past performance, J03.406
    interpretation of, YB02.110
    invalidity, J01.111, J01.124-126, J01.191
    jurisdiction of tribunal, J01.15-17
    landholder, rights of, YB02.111
    late objection, J01.15
    legislation, YB02.111
    lodging caveats over, J04.16-17
    mineral development (Vic), J00.201-202
    mineralisation, J01.225-227
    native title
        extinguishment of, YB02.110, YB02.190, YB02.191, YB02.194, YB02.198-202, YB02.241
        inconsistent with, YB02.110-111
    native title claims, see native title
    no depth restriction, J02.12-15
    no formal lease, J02.12-15
    non-compliance with EPAct, J02.129-130
    non-consent caveat, extension of, J00.106-107, J00.195-196
    notice of application, J01.223
    objections to grant, J00.118-120
    objections, validity of, J03.12-14    
    past performance, J01.113-114
    pastoral lease, on, where native title claim, J00.108, J00.261
    property, as, J00.197
    public interest objections, J00.118-120
    renewal, J02.36-40
    right to negotiate, YB02.245
    transfer, J02.36-40
    transfer of, J04.26-28        
    validity, J02.12-15
    validity of, YB02.199-201
    workmen's lien, J01.217
Mining leases, YB94.313
abuse of, B95.94
    amendment of Mining Act (WA), J99.36
application for, YB95.15, YB95.17-18, YB96.214-215
application for exemptions, B94.156
application where no surface land is applied for, B96.169
assignment (Qld), J99.109-110
ballot used to determine priority of applications (WA), B96.110–111
caveats, YB04.252, YB04.254–5, YB04.257–8
certificates of application, B96.7–8
coal mining lease, ground subject of (WA), J99.120-121
compensation of land owner by lease holder, B95.106
compensation of occupier by lease holder, B95.180–181
conversion from exploration licence, B96.15–17, B96.111–112, YB96.212
conversion from prospecting permit, B96.165–167
costs of parties to an application, B96.124–125
defective marking-out, B96.123
definition of “holder”, B96.178
“environmental audit” with regard to any proposed plan, B95.166
forfeiture, B96.177–178
forfeiture of application for breach of requirements (WA), J99.121-122
grant, YB96.215-216
hearing of application by Warden, B94.64
interaction of Mining and Environment Protection Acts (WA), J99.19-20, J99.36-38, J99.39
invalid if containing more land than reasonably necessary for mining purposes, B95.93–94
Land and Resources Tribunal (Qld) constitution, J99.80-81
marking out of application (WA), J99.119-120
Minister’s public interest discretion, J99.32-24
native title, see Native Title
development application, suspension for four to six months, YB94.13
extinguishment by grant of (WA), YB94.48
non-extinguishment principle, YB94.12
North America, in—see Native title: the North American experience
renewal of, YB94.12
right to negotiate, effect of, YB94.13
right to negotiate system, YB95.445–449
s 29 notices, issuing of, YB95.450–451
non-compliance with expenditure conditions, B95.17–19, B95.107
notice of application, B94.62–63
notice of applications to landholders (NSW), J99.106
objections, B96.15–17
time limitations
Queensland, B96.3–8
Western Australia, B96.15–17
    objections to grant of
        environmental issues (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41, J99.214-217
        ground subject of coal mining lease (WA), J99.120-121
        improvements by landowner (NSW), J99.208-210
        interference and adverse effect on viability, J99.120-121
        late, power of Warden to consider (Qld), J99.267-273
        public interest issues (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41, J99.214-217
        right of objectors to be heard, J99.18-19
    Warden’s power to consider (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41
objections to of environmental nature, B94.62
precludes application for mineral development licence, B96.169–170
Queensland, YB94.314
    readvertisement of application (Qld), J99.268-269
“real estating” (making dormant asset), B95.92–94
    reconciling mining and competing land uses, J99.34-36
rent increase averted on renewal of lease, B94.53
reporting requirements, YB96.217
required by refineries, B95.232–236
rights, YB96.216
rights of title under, B94.63
royalty agreements and
        New South Wales, YB04.254–5
        Queensland, YB04.252–3
        Victoria, YB04.256
        Western Australia, YB04.257–9
size and shape, YB96.216
South Australia, YB94.313
split commodity arrangement (WA), J99.115-118
term, YB96.216
what constitutes, YB94.313
Mining licences
    licence area, exploration outside, YB03.592–593
Mining (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA)
compensation, B94.59
deadlock conference, B95.99
explorations licence
maximum term, B94.59
notice of grant to be published, B94.59
introduction to House of Assembly, B95.24
jurisdiction of Environment Resources and Development Court, B94.58
jurisdiction of Warden’s Court, B94.58
mining lease, B94.59
“native title”, B94.58
“owner”, B94.58
powers of Director of Mines, B94.59
precious stones claim, B94.59
publication of Bill, B94.146
retention lease, B94.59
“right to negotiate”, B94.60
right to prospect or mine, B94.60
summary of changes, B95.26–27
Mining operations
    native title agreements, see Native title agreements
    new technologies, YB00.343-344
        intellectual property issues, YB00.342-358
    objections, see Objections to natural resource projects
    traditional methods, problems with, YB00.342-343
Mining (Precious Stones) Regulations 1996 (SA), B96.171
Mining project
    feasibility study, YB03.145–149
Mining purposes lease, YB96.220
Mining Regulations 1930 (Tas)
amendment to rental fees, B95.101
Mining Regulations 1972 (SA)
fees amendment, commencement, B94.10
Mining Regulations 1974 (WA)
amendment by Mining (Amendment) Regulations 1994
affidavits in Warden’s Court, B94.114
amalgamation of mining tenements, B94.111
commencement, B94.110
cool-off period on surrender, forfeiture or expiry of mining lease, B94.114
fixed term prospecting licences, B94.111
powers of environmental inspectors, B94.110
retention licences, B94.111–112
secondary tenements, B94.111
special gold prospecting licences, B94.113
surrender of tenements subject to plaints of forfeiture, B94.114
surveys, B94.115
tailings, B94.114
amendment by Mining Amendment Regulations (No 2) 1994
commencement, B94.153
amendment by Mining Amendment Regulations (No 3) 1994
commencement, B94.154
Mining Regulations 1981 (WA)
amendment increasing fees, B95.241
extent, B96.14
security, B96.13
Mining Regulations 1996 (SA), B96.171
Mining reports, need for in Queensland, B96.8
Mining taxation
abandonment, YB94.262
absorption costing, YB94.526
Australian Taxation Office, approach of, YB94.525
bona fide prospectors, exemption of income of, YB94.527, YB94.539
capital expenditure not deductible, YB94.520, YB94.530
capital gains tax uncertainties, YB94.512, YB94.538
compensation payments to landowners, YB94.524
demolition expenditure, YB94.521, YB94.530
development allowance, YB94.259
disposals of property, YB94.260, YB94.508
Draft Taxation Determinations
TD 94/D7, YB94.526, YB94.533
TD 94/95, YB94.527
TR 93/D11, YB94.526
elections to claim deductions, YB94.527
equality, certainty and simplicity as principles of, YB94.502
farm-outs, treatment of, YB94.518
historical background, YB94.502
infrastructure bonds, tax concessions for, YB94.258
Mabo compensation, YB94.524
mining information, disposal of, YB94.508, YB94.535
mining tenement, problems arising on disposal of, YB94.506
overburden removal in open-cut mining, YB94.526, YB94.533
regional headquarters of foreign company, attraction of, YB94.257
rehabilitation expenditure, YB94.262
resource rent tax, YB94.261
self-assessment system, YB94.504
stamp duty, YB94.536
Taxation Ruling TR 92/19, YB94.527, YB94.539
upgrading public access roads, YB94.523
Mining tenement, see also Mining lease
access to minerals, YB02.110
aerial exploration, for, YB94.316
    aggregation of expenditure within project, J00.73-74, J00.75-76, J00.80
ballots, B96.13, B96.110–111
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
authorisation to mine Native Title land (SA), B95.27–28
    boundaries, marking out, J00.230-231
        compliance with legislative requirements, J00.231-232
            common law test, J00.233-234
            degree of, J00.235
            failure, potential consequences of, J00.236, J00.242-243
                substantial compliance (Qld), J00.237-240, J00.243
        identification by a “reasonable person”, J00.244
        Mineral Resources Act (Qld), s 392, J00.237-246
        permit, J00.236
        strict compliance versus substantial compliance, J00.240-242
        technical breaches, J00.232
    constructive trust, J00.115-118
    equitable interests in, J00.115-118
exemption from expenditure commitments, B96.113–115
    exemption from expenditure requirements, J00.70-81
    expenditure, see Expenditure
    extinguishment of native title, J00.91-92
four broad categories of, YB94.313
    grant of, validity of, YB02.111
    implied trust, J00.115-118
    Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA), J00.264
lease—see Mining leases
licence, YB94.315
mining legislation, rights conferred by, YB94.320
nature of, YB94.313, YB94.348–357, YB94.383
objections to, grounds of
forum for consideration of, YB94.616
French, Re; Ex parte Serpentine-Jarrahdale Ratepayers and Residents Association—see French, Re; Ex parte Serpentine-Jarrahdale Ratepayers and Residents Association
traditional usage, YB94.47
petroleum exploration
offshore, YB94.317
onshore, YB94.318
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
profits a prendre, YB94.315
    project, whether part of, J00.70, J00.74-75, J00.76-77
public interest, power of Minister to review applications, YB94.611
rights of traditional usage, objection on ground of (WA), YB94.47
special procedure for hearing, YB94.47
    resulting trust, J00.115-118
scope of rights, YB94.316, YB94.358–362
    stamp duty, inclusion in land value for purposes of, J00.105-106
subsurface activities, YB94.323
summary refusal of application—see Mining Act 1978 (WA)
surface activities, YB94.316
    trust, held in, J00.115-118
    vendors’ statements, disclosure in (Vic), J00.112
Mining valuation
    techniques, J99.95-96
    Valmin Code, J99.96
Ministerial Council on Energy (MCE)
access, development of national approach to, YB04.417
    energy market reform, report on, YB04.415–16
        recommendations, YB04.416
    establishment, YB04.388
    joint marketing approach, YB04.417
    proposed establishment, YB01.305
role of, YB04.369–70, YB04.388–9
        future agenda, YB04.417
ministerial decision-making
    bias, J03.93-97
Mirima National Park
    native title issues, J00.88, J00.90
Miscellaneous licence
considerations in determining applications, B95.181–183
environmental objections, J01.241-243
grant of over existing tenement, B94.13
improvement, J01.243-244
water, J01.247-248, J01.249-250, J01.250-253
    public office, in, YB02.424-428
        damages for, YB02.421, YB02.444
        elements of, YB02.428
Misfeasance in public office
    regulators’ liability, YB01.229
Misleading and/or deceptive conduct
    carrying on a business, YB02.439
    causation, YB99.311-314, YB04.150-2
    corporations, by, YB02.451
    damages for, YB02.421, YB02.438
exclusion of claims, in joint venture context, YB04.144–7
    expectation losses, YB04.152–4
    innocent third party carrier, YB99.307
    liability for, YB02.438
    loss or damage caused by, YB99.314
    prohibition of, YB02.451
    public bodies, by, YB02.421, YB02.437-440
    reliance on representations, YB99.311-314
    representative proceedings against utilities, YB99.296
        Esso (gas), YB99.303-309
        Sydney Water, YB99.300-302
    silence, by, YB99.307
    statutory liability
        Esso (gas), YB99.303-309
        Mercury Energy (NZ), YB99.316-317
        Sydney Water, YB99.300-302
    trade or commerce, in, YB02.438
    vendor, by, in sale of coal assets, YB01.130
Misrepresentation—see Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth)
    coal supply contract, J01.78-81
    fraudulent, liability for, YB02.452
    reliance on, YB02.452
msf packages, YB96.358-360, YB96.367
purchase of Amgas, YB96.355-357
Money laundering
    guidelines on prevention of, YB04.52
    gas transmission, YB02.293-294
    service providers, YB02.407
    access arrangements, see Access
    energy market regulation, YB04.358
    facilities of national significance, YB04.181–2
    natural, YB04.182
    Trade Practices legislation, YB04.181, YB04.183–4
        reforms, YB04.182
Moomba-Adelaide Gas Pipeline System (MAPS)
    access arrangement, review of, YB04.396–8
Moomba-Sydney Gas Pipeline System
    coverage, YB04.390–2
    credit rating, YB04.402–3
    initial capital base, YB04.400–1
    optimised replacement cost (ORC), YB04.400
        contingency, YB04.402
Moomba-Sydney gasline, disposal of
access regime, YB95.339—see also Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth)
definition, YB95.338
Pipelines Act 1967 (NSW), under, YB95.338
negotiation model, implementation of, YB95.374
Australian Gas Light Company (AGL), Letter of Agreement, YB95.329–330
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), in relation to, YB95.334–338
Authorisation A90424, YB95.348-349
Trade Practices Commission, review by, YB95.336–338
declaration and orders of court, B95.59
effect of change in government policy on contract, B95.41–42
foreign ownership, YB94.232
historical background, YB95.328–332
original contractual arrangements, B95.42–58
Pipeline Authority, establishment of, YB95.330
privatisation of, YB94.232
sale of, YB95.332–334—see also Moomba- Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth)
Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth)

access regime
parties to, YB95.344
Trade Practices Commission, settlement by, YB95.344–346
Pt IIIA scheme, similarity to regime under, YB95.385–388
capacity, increasing, YB95.341–342
financial issues in relation to, YB95.341–342
interconnection, YB95.340–341
United States, cases in, YB95.340
national competition policy, effect, YB95.346–347
spare capacity, definition, YB95.339
tariffs, setting of, YB95.342–344
third party access, scheme for determination of, YB95.339
power of sale, exercise of, YB03.94
royalty agreements, YB93.254
Mortgage duty, YB02.686-687
    offshore units, J99.23
Moura inquiry, B96.93–99
coronial report, B96.97
government response, B96.125
mine-safety management plans, B96.95
spontaneous combustion management, B96.95
Mt Lyell
award of copper mining licence, B94.109
revegetation, B94.9
MRET Scheme (RECS), see Renewable energy
Multilateral treaties

    compromise formulas, YB04.75
    free trade agreements, see Free trade agreements
    loss of relevance, YB04.55
Multinational companies
    attitudes towards, YB04.56
    international standards, role in, YB04.56–7
    license to operate, YB04.56–7
    NGOs, alliance with, YB04.57
    OECD guidelines, YB04.52, YB04.77
    transparency and disclosure, YB04.52
Multi site franchising, see Downstream petroleum industry
Multi-user services corridor, YB03.129–130
Mutual interest provisions, YB93.221–242
drafting, YB93.240–241
effect of provision, YB93.229–231
enforcement, YB93.231–236
contractual requirements, YB93.232–233
obligations, YB93.231–232
remedies, YB93.236, YB93.241
restraint of alienation, YB93.233
restraint of trade, YB93.233–236, YB93.240
fiduciary duties, YB93.236–240
purpose, YB93.222–223
scope, YB93.223
acquisitions by related parties, YB93.228–229, YB93.240
dimensions of area, YB93.223–226, YB93.240
period, YB93.228, YB93.240
types of property interest, YB93.227–228, YB93.241

Consolidated Index: N

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Nation states
    dilution of sovereignty, YB04.55
    less monolithic nature of, YB04.54
    subnational actors, YB04.54–5
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders’ Land Fund, YB94.10, YB94.49
National access regime
    Access Code for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems, J99.93
    certification, J99.146-147
        declaration criteria, J99.147-151
    certified access regime, J99.129, J99.147-151
    Competition Principles Agreement (CPA), J99.129, J99.146, J99.147
    declaration of services
        applications, J99.129, J99.130-137
        criteria, J99.137-146
        good faith in application, J99.136-137
        “service”, definition of, J99.132-136, J99.169-173
    gas pipelines access, J99.93, J99.196
    gas transmission, see Gas transmission
    national competition policy and, J99.127-153
    NCC role, J99.130
    Pt IIIA Trade Practices Act, J99.128-153
    production process, J99.170-171
    rail services, J99.146-147, see also Rail line access
        certification declaration criteria, J99.147-151
        declaration applications, J99.131-136
        declaration criteria, J99.138-146
    review of, YB02.317-318
    undertakings, J99.129
National Competition Council (NCC)
    access regime and, J99.127-153
    aim, J99.127
establishment of, YB95.254
outline, J99.127-128
National competition policy, YB95.354–356
access to essential facilities and natural development, B96.75–84
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), establishment of, YB95.254
Competition Policy Reform Bill 1995 (Cth), introduction of, YB95.254
Competition Principles Agreement—see Competition Principles Agreement
gas industry, in relation to, YB95.355–356
Hilmer Report, YB95.354–355
Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth), effect, YB95.346–347
national access regime, YB95.254
Competition Principles Agreement—see Competition Principles Agreement
Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline Scheme, distinguished, YB95.373–385
essential services, declaration of, YB95.374–376
Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement, comparison with, YB95.389–391
Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth), similarity to regime under, YB95.385–388
National Competition Council, establishment of, YB95.254
third-party access regimes, B96.62–74
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), Pt IIIA, implementation of—see national access regime supra
National Electricity Code
administration, YB03.272
    amendments, YB02.272
chapters, YB03.271
    enforcement of, YB02.263
    establishment of, YB02.263
    industry access code, YB02.263
    objectives, YB02.258
    procedures, YB02.263
    regulation of interconnectors, YB02.270
    summary, YB02.263-264
National Electricity Law, YB03.271
National Electricity Market (NEM), see also Electricity market
ACCC, role of, YB96.39-40, YB96.44, YB96.48-49
ACT, YB96.47
ASC, role of, YB96.40
background, YB03.271
beginnings of, YB96.26-27
benefits, YB96.54
bilateral contracts, YB96.20
commencement of, YB02.259, YB03.271
Commonwealth payments to States, YB96.50
Competition reforms, YB96.50
Constitution, YB96.48
delays, YB96.26
    demand, YB02.259-260
    development of, YB02.289
    dispatch process, YB02.259
    dual ownership situation, YB01.187
    establishment of, YB01.179, YB01.181
    expansion of, YB02.258
    improvement proposals, YB02.284-285
interconnectors see Electricity interconnectors
guidelines for contracts, YB96.22-23
Hilmer Report, YB96.26
implementation, YB96.27, YB96.30-31
inter regional trading, YB96.16-17
initial legislation, YB96.39
ISDA/AFMA Pt 19A, YB96.22-23
jurisdiction, YB02.258, YB02.259
jurisdictions participating in, YB01.181
key structural features, YB03.272
market regulation, YB96.35
National Electricity Code (NEC), YB96.32, YB96.34-35, YB96.38, YB01.181
        distribution pricing rules in, YB01.189
National Electricity Law, YB96.38, YB96.39
National Electricity Market Management Company (NEMMCO), YB96.27, YB96.32, YB96.40-41, YB01.181
objectives, YB96.42-43, YB96.51-53
operation of markets, YB96.11-16
payments to, YB96.18-19
reallocation, YB96.17-18
National Electricity Tribunal, YB96.42
national grid, operation of, YB02.259
NECA, YB96.27, YB96.32, YB96.40-42, YB96.51-53
    network augmentations, YB02.272-274
        classification of, YB02.272-273
        determination, YB02.274
    notices, YB02.273-274
NGMC, YB96.26, YB96.49
    notional electricity pool, YB02.259-260
    operation of, YB02.260
NSW, YB96.46
objectives, YB96.33, YB96.38
participation, YB96.34, YB02.258, YB02.259, YB02.261
policy issues, YB96.51-53
pricing, YB96.16-17
Qld, YB96.47
reallocation, YB96.17-18
recent developments, YB96.22-28
reform, YB02.290
reform process, as part of, YB01.181
    regions, YB02.260-261, YB02.282
        approval of, YB02.260
        determination of, YB02.260
regulation, YB96.36, YB96.53, YB03.271
regulators, recent criticism of, YB01.189
    regulatory regime, YB02.258, YB02.262-266, YB02.318
        code, see National Electricity Code
        legislation agreement, YB02.267
        national, YB02.262-263, YB02.282
        National Electricity Code, see National Electricity
        national regulatory and administrative bodies, YB02.264, YB02.265
    state-based, YB02.265-266
relationships between players, YB96.37
SA, YB96.46-47
sale options, YB03.274
security of supply
        capacity to maintain, YB01.188
        improvements in, YB01.184
short term forward market, YB96.15-16
spot market, YB96.11-15, YB02.259
        setting of prices, YB02.260, YB02.261
    spot price, YB02.259-260
    State and Territory differences, YB01.181, YB01.186
States, role of, YB96.27
supply, YB02.259-260
swap or two way hedge contracts, YB96.21-22
swaptions, YB96.22
system operator, YB02.259
timetable for implementation, YB96.30-31
Trade Practices Act, YB96.48, YB96.49
trading, YB96.34, YB02.258, YB02.259
transition to, YB96.44
types of transactions, YB96.10
uncertainty, YB02.282-284
unknown factors, YB96.53-54
vesting contracts, YB96.20-21
Victoria, YB96.45-46
        electricity trading, YB02.259
        market, YB02.259
        purchasers, YB02.259
National energy strategy
    development of, YB01.305, YB01.306-307
National Environment Protection Authority (NEPA), YB93.416–418—see also Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment
National greenhouse strategy

implications for energy, J97.126-133
National interest
    foreign investment applications
        ground for rejecting, as, YB01.9
        Shell/Woodside decision, YB01.11-14, YB01.137
        what constitutes, YB01.10-11
National jurisdiction
continental margin, B95.2
delimitation of, B95.3
EEZ, B95.2
seabed, B95.1
National Mining Code, see also State Mining Codes
benefits of State based system, YB96.185, YB96.190, YB96.193
Canadian position, YB96.169-170
commonality between States, YB96.190
Commonwealth acquisition of State land, YB96.180-181
convenience, YB96.188
cooperative versus centralist, YB96.182
difficulties, YB96.188-189
diversity of existing law, YB96.183
existing federal legislation, YB96.170-176
external affairs power, YB96.180
leases, YB96.186-188
need for, YB96.165-166
ownership of minerals, YB96.180
problems, YB96.192
pros and cons, YB96.181-185
reasons for different Codes, YB96.190-192
royalties, YB96.194
single mineral tenement, YB96.195
support from mining industry, YB96.182
title to minerals, YB96.185-186
trade and commerce power, YB96.177
“trading” laws
US position, YB96.168-169
Whitlam government, YB96.183
National Native Title Register
    prescribed body corporate, registration of, YB02.112
National Native Title Tribunal, YB94.3
administrative process
Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, proposed amendments in response to decision in, YB95.472
flow chart, YB95.473
anthropological research, YB95.431
applications, YB95.429
acceptance of, YB95.432–435
challenges to, YB95.435
assistance with, YB95.461–463
claimant, YB95.429, YB95.437
“interest”, definition, YB95.436
non-claimant, YB95.429, YB95.437
adjournment, optional procedures for, YB95.479
notification of, YB95.435–437
parties to, YB95.436–437
received in first nineteen months, YB95.449–450
s 29 notices, in relation to, YB95.451–452
refusal of, YB95.433–434
appeals in relation to, YB95.434–435
unopposed, determination where, YB95.437–438
arbitration by, YB02.122
case manager, function of, YB95.43
community liaison, YB95.431–432
criticisms of, YB94.31
decisions, binding effect of, YB02.185-186
agreements in relation to, YB95.453-454, YB95.472
Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, decision in
role of Tribunal, effect on, YB95.504
proposed amendments in response to, YB95.472
registration of, YB95.439–441
establishment of, YB95.429, YB95.431-432
expedited procedure process, B96.85–87
expenditure, YB95.432
Federal Court
appeals on points of law to, YB94.8, YB94.78
decrees registered in, YB94.8, YB94.78
determinations, registration of, YB95.439–441
refusal of applications, appeals in relation to, YB95.434–435
future of, YB95.504–506
grant of mining rights on native title land
        arbitration on, YB00.537
        conditions, imposition of, YB00.537, YB00.540
indigenous land use agreements, YB95.457–460
inquiry, provision for, YB95.438–439
jurisdiction, YB94.8
legal research, YB95.432
location, YB95.432
mediation by, YB02.119
mediation process
clarification of concepts, YB95.455–456
conferences, provision for, YB95.438, YB95.454-455
geographical distances, strategies for managing, YB95.457
imbalance of power between parties, addressing, YB95.456–457
interests and objectives of applicants, identification of, YB95.455
pre-existing conflicts between parties, resolution of, YB95.456
membership, YB94.8, YB95.429-430, YB95.464
Mission Statement, YB95.430–431
National Native Title Register, YB95.430
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)—see Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
    native title claims
        arbitration of, YB02.122
        mediation of, YB02.119
    referral of, YB02.119
Native Title Registrar, functions of, YB95.430
objectives, YB95.429–430
powers, YB00.71
powers, constitutional validity of, YB94.77
pseudo-litigation, YB94.31
recent decisions, YB96.74-75
recommendations for changes to, YB95.504–506
Register of Native Claims, YB95.430
right to negotiate procedures, YB96.65, YB96.72
role in right to negotiate cases, YB96.86
workload, YB95.449–453
National Parks
    mining, J02.36- 40
    native title, J02.195, J02.282-293
National Privacy Principles
    application of, YB02.508
    collection of information, YB02.502, YB02.503
        consent for, YB02.503
    compliance, YB02.502
    personal information
        collection of, YB02.502, YB02.503
        handling of, YB02.501, YB02.502
        minimum handling standards, YB02.501, YB02.502
        regulation of, YB02.502
        use of, YB02.502, YB02.503
National Third Party Access Code for National Gas Pipeline Systems, YB02.296
Native Title—see also  Aboriginal cultural heritage; Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA); Mabo; Mining Act 1980 (NT); Mining (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA), Wik people’s claim
aboriginal representative bodies, YB96.116-117
abandonment, J01.82-86
aboriginal rights, see Aboriginal rights
    access agreement, J02.23-25, J02.299-301
    access rights, YB02.169, YB02.170, YB02.193, YB02.199, YB02.242
    statutory, YB02.116
Act Interpretation (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA), B94.146
acquiescence, YB02.128
administrative system for, YB94.31
        access, J04.225-226    
        pro forma, J04.81-89
        right to negotiate, J04. 81-89
agreements, see Native title agreements, YB02.128, YB02.245
        enforcement of, YB02.245
        regulation of, YB02.245
    validity of, YB02.245
agreements between mining companies and Aboriginals, J97.198, J97.200
difficulties, YB96.95
agricultural  and cultivation leases, YB04.516–17
    airspace, right to, YB02.120
alienability of land subject to, YB94.35
    alternative procedures, YB02.246-247
    alternative schemes (Qld), J00.275-276, J00.277-278
        federal endorsement, J00.276
alternative state procedures inoperative, J02.98-103
applications, see also National Native Title Tribunal, YB02.118
compensation, YB94.7
existence or non-existence, to determine, YB94.7
        group, YB02.118
        individual, YB02.118
non-claimant, YB02.120
revision of title determination, YB94.7
arbitration, see National Native Title Tribunal
at common law, B94.125, B94.164
audit, YB04.513–14
implications of North American experience for, YB94.127, YB94.128
objective, identification of, YB94.134
background of, YB02.96-102
Bass Strait claim, B96.102
    biological descent requirement, J00.84
    book review, J00.100-102
Broome region claims, B96.190–193
Canada, J01.291-299
Canadian experience, YB96.89, YB96.91-94, YB96.104-106
Cape York Land Council, response to proposed changes—see Cape York Land Council
case law, YB02.134-189
    ceremonial purposes, for, YB02.136
certainty, YB02.245-246, YB02.250, YB02.251, YB02.254
charitable trust for proceeds from claim, B96.190–193
claim process in Wand report, J02.59-61
burden of proof, YB94.19
        group, YB02.118, YB02.144, YB02.160, YB02.171-172, YB02.181
identification of, YB94.11, YB94.21, YB94.55
        individual, YB02.118
        prescribed body corporate, YB02.118
        registered, YB02.182, YB02.185-186
specific tract of land, identification with, YB94.21
statutory rights of, YB02.182
    claims, YB02.109, J04.17
        funding of, YB02.129
        Native Title Act, under, see Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
        referral of, YB02.119
        strike out, YB02.207
        test of, YB02.111
        withdrawal of, YB02.207
Coalition response, B96.155–160
    co-existence, YB02.95, YB02.109, YB02.112, YB02.119, YB02.126-128
    legal relationship, YB02.110
commencement of, YB02.125
commercial implications, J98.77-78
commercial rights, J01.306-311
common law, at, YB02.95-100, YB02.102, YB02.104, YB02.109, YB02.111, YB02.112, YB02.132, YB02.155, YB02.156, YB02.158, YB02.240, YB02.250, YB02.252
        concessions to, YB02.129
        confirmation of, YB02.117
    extinguishment of, YB02.174-175
Commonwealth, role of, YB96.85
 “community life”, B96.175–176
compensation, see also Compensation, J01.286-305, J02.243
compensation applications, YB94.7
compensation assessment, B96.48–53
    compensation for loss or impairment of, J00.44-53
        agreement-based compensation, J00.44, J00.46-49
        commercial payments distinguished, J00.44-46
        different dimensions of native title, J00.50-52
        legislative frameworks, J00.45
        value of act’s effect on native title, J00.49
    compensation for loss or impairment of rights, J99.253-266
        future acts, provisions for, J99.255
        intellectual property, J99.259
        just terms, calculating, J99.255-257, J99.264-265
        Native Title Act provisions, J99.253-255
        personal injury and damages, J99.259-260
        property law principles, J99.257-259
        property valuation methodologies, J99.260-265
        similar compensable interest test, J99.265-266
concept of, YB02.192-194
conditions attaching to future acts, J98.200-202
    confirming extinguishment, J01.198-202
    connection, YB02.158, YB02.160, YB02.171, YB02.193, YB02.196-196
        loss of, YB02.135    
connection, maintenance of, J04.28-30
    connection, proof of, J00.83-84, J00.95
connection to particular piece of land, YB94.35
    consent agreements, J03.421-422
    consent determination of rights, J00.259-260
    consent determinations, see Consent determinations
    constitutional validity of Commonwealth Act, B95.109–110, J98.216-227, J98.283
    content, J00.84-85, J02.189, J02.219-220, J02.225-235
content of, J98.43-56, J98.415-416
content of rights,  J03.57-459
context of, YB02.192-194
    continuing connection, J03.22-25, J03.99-107, J03.457    
    continuity, YB02.132, YB02.158, YB02.160, YB02.193, YB02.195-196
        abandonment of, YB02.132, YB02.153
        loss of, YB02.132, YB02.135
        proof of, YB02.124-125
        requirement of, YB02.109, YB02.124-125
    creation of, YB02.116
Crescent Head agreement, B96.194–201
    Croker Island appeals, J00.13-20
Crown, meaning of, YB94.32
    cultural knowledge, protection of, J00.85
cultural title, B94.102–103
current position, YB96.113-114
    customs, see Aboriginal customs
    Daniel v Western Australia, YB04.517–19, YB04.524–5, J03.453-467    
    deemed consent, J01.5
    defined in Native Title Act (Cth), B94.16
    definition of, YB02.116, YB02.193
determination, YB96.58, J98.18-19, J98.200-202, J98.413-420
    determination, claim for, J00.108
        Limitation Act, application, J00.95
        privilege of spiritual material, J00.134-136
determination of, J04.90-97
determinations, YB02.112, YB02.116, YB02.135, YB02.142-172, YB02.176-178, YB02.180-181, YB02.191-192, YB02.195-198, YB02.234-289
            consent,  see Consent determinations
            credibility process, YB02.250
            Federal Court of Australia, see Federal Court of Australia
            jurisdiction for, YB02.119, YB02.182, YB02.183
        National Native Title Tribunal, see National Native Title Tribunal
        Native Title Act, under, see Native Title Act
        procedures, YB02.118-119
        process, YB02.208, YB02.247-248, YB02.250
development of law in Australia, J99.197-198
disclosures by mining companies, YB00.515
effect of roads on title (Qld)
definition of road, B95.30–31
extinguishment by road, B95.33–35
extinguishment generally, B95.31–32
validation of discriminatory extinguishment, B95.35–40
enforcement of rights by legal proceedings, YB94.36
Environment, Resources and Development Court (Native Title) Amendment Bill 1994 (SA), B94.146
    environmental protection, YB02.154
establishment of, YB02.156-157, YB02.182, YB02.197
access to, YB94.22
cross-examination, YB94.23
entitlement of forbears, B95.11–12
expert, YB94.22
lay or traditional, YB94.22
required to establish, B94.15
requirements of proof summarised, B95.11
sufficient for recognition of title, B95.10–12
evidence of continuing traditional connection to land, J99.8-11
    exclusive possession, YB.02.108, YB02.117, YB02.125-126, YB02.134-136, YB02.149, YB02.150, YB02.152, YB02.153, YB02.158-160, YB02.164-169, YB02.188
        ceremonial purposes, for, YB02.136
        exclusions, YB02.136
    exclusive rights, J01.306-311
    existence of, YB02.125, YB02.243
expedited procedure applied to exploration licences, B96.175, J98.331, J02.124-125
expert evidence, YB94.22, YB94.25
    exploration protocol, J02.44
extinguishment, see also Extinguishment of native title, YB94.5, YB94.37, YB96.85, B95.7, J99.8, B96.52–53, J97.29-31, J97.35, J97.43, J97.57-60, J98.18-19, J98.228-241, J98.248-250, J98.416-420, J03.401-403, J03.459-460, J04.20-21 
general principles, B95.216–217
        non-extinguishment, J04.278-281
        Supreme Court jurisdiction to declare, J99.11-12
    extinguishment by pastoral lease, B95.89–92, B96.1–2, B96.15, B96.91
    extinguishment of, YB02.107-111, YB02.117, YB02.126, YB02.132, YB02.134-135, YB02.144-150, YB02.152, YB02.155, YB02.158, YB02.159, YB02.161-167, YB02.169, YB02.171, YB02.172, YB02.176-178, YB02.188-191, YB02.194-197, YB02.201-206, YB02.241, YB02.242, J02.190, J02.255-267
            absolute, YB02.117
            agreement, by, YB02.207
            common law, at, YB02.174-175
            compensation, YB02.108, YB02.111, YB02.117, YB02.121
            compulsory acquisition, YB02.121
            effect of, YB02.108
            grants, by, YB02.194, YB02.202-203
            inconsistencies, for, YB02.117, YB02.201-202
            leases, by, YB02.194, YB02.198, YB02.207, see also Mining lease; Pastoral lease
            legislation, by, YB02.195-197
            limitation of, YB02.111
            major project, by, YB02.205
            mineral and petroleum rights, for, YB02.110, YB02.195-197, YB02.205
            mining lease, by, see Mining lease
            partial, YB02.174, YB02.190, YB02.194, YB02.241
            pastoral lease, by, see Pastoral lease
            power of, YB02.108
            prevention of, YB02.116
            proof of, YB02.144-145, YB02.147
        reserves, by, YB02.203-205
        test for, YB02.194
        transparency process, YB02.250
extinguishment, statutory, YB04.482–3, YB04.513–14 
        prior land titles, YB04.512
    fairness, YB02.247
fauna, YB02.126, YB02.161, YB02.176
Federal Court
refusal of applications, appeals in relation to, YB95.434–435
determinations, registration of, YB95.439–441
fiduciary duty, J97.37
financiers, J97.63-64
    fishing, J00.14, J00.15, J00.16, J00.85
    fishing rights, YB02.117, YB02.120
    fossicking, J01.4
    freehold equivalent, J00.84
future acts, protection of rights under, YB95.441–445, J98.332
    future acts, see Future act regime; Native Title
        Act 1993 (Cth)

future directions, YB02.255-256
gas pipelines, implications for, YB95.239
extinguishment of title, YB95.273–274
new projects, YB95.275–276
old pipeline corridors, YB95.274–275
governments, J97.62-63
    grant of, YB02.117, YB02.132
    effect of, YB02.147
grants of freehold, YB96.58
guidelines from Coe v Commonwealth, B94.167–168
Gurubana-Gunggandji Peoples Native Title Determination Application, YB04.515–16
harm, irreparable, YB97.480
Hayes v Northern Territory, YB04.516–17
    heritage, protection of YB02.154, YB02.193
    holder, YB02.110, YB02.112, YB02.132
        common law, at, YB02.112
        conglomerate of members, YB02.112
Hopevale agreement, J97.198
    hunting rights, YB02.126, YB02.161, YB02.176
    impairment of, YB02.175
    inconsistency of rights, YB02.194-195, YB02.198
indefeasibility provisions, YB04.517, YB04.518
    Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA), J00.263-265
indigenous land use agreements, J99.255, J98.300-310, J01.197-198
infrastructure facilities, J98.338-339
injunctive relief, YB97.476-484
“interest”, definition, YB95.436
interlocutory injunction, YB02.183-184, YB02.187
intermediate period acts, J01.202-203
international treaties, YB96.105
invalidity of existing titles, YB04.514–15, YB04.522–3
        case law, YB04.515–19
        “curing” invalidity, YB04.521–2
        procedural invalidity conclusions, YB04.519–21
        tables, YB04.524–5
issues in native title cases, YB94.20
issues, resolution of, YB02.123
joinder of party, J02.118-119
Kalkadoon case—see Kalkadoon People v North Queensland Electricity Commission
        acquisition of, YB02.98, YB02.121
        compulsory acquisition, YB02.121
        exclusive rights, YB02.108
        occupation of, YB02.108, 111
        possession of, YB02.171
Land Acquisition (Native Title) Bill 1994 (SA), B94.146
Land Resources Tribunal (Qld) jurisdiction, J99.71, J99.72
law, generally, J04.112-117
legal protection of, YB94.35
    legislation, YB02.95, YB02.132
        agreements, YB02.245
        discrimination, YB02.132
        effectiveness of, YB02.243
        Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), see Native Title Act
            1993 (Cth)
        purpose of, YB02.243
        regulation of conduct, YB02.161
    statutory code, YB02.122-123
    licence, J04.238-239    
    litigation of, see Federal Court of Australia; National Native Title Tribunal
loss of, YB04.482
loss of connection, J01.82-86
low impact  exploration licence, J01.5-7
Mabo, see Mabo, effect of, J99.253
Mabo v Queensland (No 2), YB97.385 387
McArthur River Project Agreement Ratification Amendment Act 1993 (NT), B94.40
meaning of, YB94.3, YB96.109
mediation, see National Native Title Tribunal, J98.322-339
mineral rights, see Minerals and petroleum
    minerals, J00.14-17, J00.82, J00.84, J00.90, J00.192, J02.189, J02.194, J02.196, J02.210, J02.215, J02.218, J02.233-234, J02.236-243, J02.297, J03.461-464
Mines and Energy South Australia “Guidelines for Exploration on Native Title Land”, B96.172
mining and petroleum tenements, J97.41, J97.48
mining lease application, J98.93-95
mining lease, see Mining lease
mining leases, J02.194-195, J02.211, J02.236, J02.243, J02.296
model access agreement, J97.200
national park, J02.195, J02.282-293
    national park, Keep River, J00.87
    Native Title Act, YB04.481
Native Title Amendment Bill, YB97.406-432
extinguishment, YB97.410-413
compensation for, YB97.412
complete by exclusive possession, YB97.410
compulsory acquisition, YB97.412
partial by inconsistent rights, YB97.411
future acts, YB97.413-419
classes of valid, YB97.413
determinations, criteria for, YB97.430
exercise of options, YB97.418
freehold test, acts passing, YB97.419
indigenous land use agreements, YB97.414
alternative procedure agreements, YB97.417
area agreements, YB97.416
body corporate agreements, YB97.415
procedures indicate absence of native title, YB97.417
right to negotiate, YB97.419-431
exclusions, YB97.420
exploration, right to, YB97.425
single right, YB97.427
good faith, negotiation in, YB97.428
intervention, ministerial, YB97.429
single right, YB97.427
small-scale acts, approved, YB97.428
parallel processing, YB97.428
pastoral leases, YB97.421
project acts, YB97.428
public reserves, YB97.421
registration test, YB97.422
merits of claim, YB97.423
procedural conditions, YB97.424
timing, YB97.429
transitional provisions, YB97.431
validation of existing titles, YB97.408-410
intermediate period acts, YB97.409
Native Titles Bill 1993 (NSW), B94.40
Native Title Tribunal
summary of decisions, B95.167–170, B95.245–249
nature and extent, determination of, YB94.21
    nature of, YB02.192-194
    negotiated settlement, J00.259-260
        benefits of, J00.266-267
    negotiation, see Right to negotiate regime
    negotiations in good faith, J99.112-113, J99.153-166
New South Wales amendments, J98.349-351
non-exclusive possession, YB02.117, YB02.135
North America, in—see Native title: the North American experience
Northern Territory amendments, J98.362-364
Northern Territory of Australia v Lane (the Miriuwong Gajerrong case), YB96.67-72
North Ganalarja Aboriginal Corp v State of Queensland (Waanyi), YB96.57-58, YB96.68, YB96.73
not extinguished by statutory grants to Aborigines, B94.137
notice, J03.393-394
notice requirements, J01.101, J01.223, J01.227-230
occupation, YB02.154
offshore, J98.311-321
    offshore waters, J00.13-20
    Ord River Project, J00.89-90
origins, YB96.87-89
over Crown land, YB96.60
overlapping claims, J98.281, J98.367
past acts, J98.93-95, J04.55-62
pastoral leases, B94.125, B95.89–92, B95.221–224, B96.1–2, B96.15, B96.91, B96.162–163, J97.29-34, J97.36, J97.39, J97.189, J00.86-87, 89-90, J00.190-191, J00.261, J00.262-263, J02.192, J02.265, J02.268-275, J02.295, J04.55-62
access protocols, J00.265
exploration titles (NT), B96.109
mining leases on, J00.108, J00.261
non-exclusive lease, grant of, J04.55-62
Northern Territory, B96.108–109
production tenements (NT), B96.109
Waanyi Peoples’ Native Title Application—see Waanyi Peoples’ Native Title Application
Western Lands Lease, J00.190-191
Wik Peoples v the State of Queensland and Ors—see Wik Peoples v the State of Queensland
    permit to enter, J03.422-424
    permit to mark out, J02.57-58
    permit to occupy, J00.87
petroleum exploration, YB96.295-296
petroleum exploration licence agreements, J02.33-35
petroleum rights see Minerals and petroleum
pipelines, J97.23
possessory title, distinguished, YB95.502–504
powerlines, construction of, YB97.479
prescribed bodies corporate, J02.303-311
prescribed body corporate, YB02.112-113
Previous Exclusive Possession Act (PEPA), YB04.513–14, YB04.522–3
principles, YB94.33
priority of mining tenements, J97.105
procedures for registration, J98.273-283
    project agreements, J01.289-291
    proof, YB04.481-2, J01.82-86, J01.238-239, J02.189, J02.240-242
    proof of, YB02.131, YB02.143-145, YB02.147, YB02.154, YB02.161, YB02.188, YB02.192-193, YB02.197
        continuity, of, YB02.124-125
    proof of connection, J00.83-84, J00.95
    protection of aboriginal areas and objects, J03.395-397, J03.397-398, J03.398-400, J03.400-401
proving, YB94.18, J98.367-369, J98.415
public roads, to, YB02.170-171
public works, J00.194
Queensland Department of Minerals and Energy guidelines regarding procedures, B94.168
    Queensland Land and Resources Tribunal, J00.275-276
Queensland legislation
s 144B Native Title Act 1993 (Qld), B95.223–224
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), B94.125, B94.159, J02.191, J02.213-214, J02.239, J02.245-254, J02.221, J04.55-62
recognition and protection, YB94.3
    recognition of, YB02.103, YB02.105-107, YB02.115, YB02.132, YB02.161, YB02.178, YB02.243
reconciliation, YB02.104
regional or local agreements in relation to, YB95.506
register of, YB94.12
“registered native title claimant”, B95.248–249
registration, YB02.129, J98.273-283, J98.335, J03.464
registration test (SA), J99.212-213
renewal and “as of right” issue of mining tenements, J98.224-248, J98.334, J98.418
renewals, J97.60
representative bodies, J02.303-311
requirements for, YB02.132, YB02.192-193
reserve land, J98.334
reserves, J00.88-89, J02.192, J02.212, J02.276-281, J02.297
resources, rights to, see Resources
review of negotiations (Western Australia), J01.131-132
revival, YB02.108, YB02.153, J97.34
revocation of, YB02.152
Reynolds plea, B95.89, B95.91
“right to fish”, B95.11–12
“right to negotiate”, B95.6, B96.156–158, YB94.5, YB95.445–449, J98.93-95, J98.282, J98.284-299, J98.330-331
registration test, B96.158
    right to negotiate regime
        NT, J00.106
        SA, J00.110
    rights, YB02.95, YB02.96, YB02.99, YB02.102, YB02.192
        access, YB02.116
        airspace, to, YB02.120
        characterisation of, YB02.95
        classification of, YB02.95, YB02.125-126
        co-existing, YB02.95, YB02.109, YB02.112, YB02.119
        common law, at see common law, at above
        enforcement of, YB02.182
        exclusive, YB02.108, YB02.125-126
        exercise of, YB02.201
        extinguishment of see extinguishment above
        fishing, YB02.117, YB02.120
        hunting, YB02.126, YB02.161, YB02.176
        identification of, YB02.193
        inconsistency, YB02.110-111, YB02.117, YB02.198, YB02.201-202
        lease inconsistent with, YB02.110-111, YB02.117
        mineral, YB02.110
        occupation of land, YB02.111
        proof of, YB02.192-193, YB02.197
        protection of, YB02.193
        recognition of, YB02.115
        resources, to, see Resources
        waterways, YB02.117, YB02.120
roads, J00.87, J00.194
sea claim, J97.106
    self-government, YB02.95
settlement, subject to, YB02.106
South Australian legislation, B96.107, B96.171
amendment to Mining Act, B95.26–29, B95.99, B95.175, B95.239
amendments to bills, B95.25
authorisation to mine, B95.27–28
cabinet subcommittee, B95.24
compensation for economic loss, B95.29
interaction with mining industry, B95.25–26
introduction to house of Assembly, B95.24
power of Minister to override agreements, B95.29
right to negotiate scheme, B95.26–27
summary determination, B95.28
specification of rights, J00.84
State agreements, YB96.341
State and Territory
exercise of constitutional functions, burdens imposed on, YB94.70
legislative and executive functions, interference with, YB94.72
responses to Commonwealth legislation, YB94.14, YB94.40
New South Wales, YB94.18
Queensland, YB94.15
South Australia, YB94.18
Tasmania, YB94.18
Western Australia, YB94.17, YB94.41, YB94.66, YB94.73
state-developer agreements, J97.36, J97.42
state legislation (South Australia), J01.196-204
state responses to Native Title Amendment Act (Cth), J98.421-427
statewide model agreement, J01.234-235
strike-out applications, J98.281
succession, YB02.124-125
surrender to government at common law, B94.164
suspension, YB02.194, J98.228-241, J02.190, J02.262-263
Technical Task Force on Mineral Tenements (WA), J02.53-56
test for claim, B94.165
threshold test, J98.273-283
title audits, J98.251-272
title brokers, YB94.11
traditional law and customs, J03.99-107
traditions see Aboriginal traditions
    transfer of, YB02.95, YB02.124-125
treated like freehold, B94.162
trust, YB02.112
“usufructory right”, B95.12
“valid”, meaning of, YB04.520–1
valid grants of land, subject to, YB02.127
validation of invalid acts, J98.242-244, J98.336
valuation, J97.65-66
variation of, YB02.152
vesting, J02.193, J02.223, J02.263-264, J02.280-281, J02.287-290
views of community, YB96.112, YB96.121
Waanyi peoples claim, B95.211–224, B96.1, B96.91
background, B95.211, B95.214, B95.218
concept of native title, B95.213–214
connection with land, B95.215–216
extinguishment of title, B95.89–92, B95.216–224
key issues of judgment, B95.212
no constitutional limitation of grants, B95.218–220
pastoral lease implies no reservation in favour of aboriginal people, B95.222–223
prima facie case, B95.90, B95.212–213
succession, B95.214–215
tenure history, B95.218–223
Ward, see Ward
water resources, J98.334-335
water rights, see Water
Western Australia v Commonwealth, B95.102–105, B95.243–244
Western Australia v Ward, J02.187-197, J02.207-224, J02.294 301
Western Australian legislation, B95.241–245
Acts Amendment and Repeal (Native Title) Bill 1995, B95.242–245
inconsistency with Racial Discrimination Act, B95.108–109
invalidity of Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA), B95.102–104, B95.108–112
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) operative, B95.102, B95.108
Titles Validation Act 1995, B95.241
Titles Validation Bill 1995, B95.102
validity of titles granted, B95.104–105, B95.110–112
Wik, see Wik
Wik people, B95.7, B96.1, B96.91, B96.162, YB96.58
Wongatha Claim, J03.43-46
Yorta-Yorta, J01.82-86
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
Aboriginal representative bodies, YB96.104
aboriginal rights, YB02.95
alternative State provisions, B94.88–89
amendment of, YB02.111
AMPLA submission on Native Title Bill 1993, B94.41–49
determination of native title, B94.47
future grants, B94.44–45
National Native Title Tribunal, B94.46, B94.47–48
“past acts”, B94.42–43
potential for ambit claims, B94.45
potential for compensation, B94.43
validation of existing titles, B94.42
validity of grants, B94.43–44
application of, YB02.95
application to Native Title Registrar, B94.31
“arbitral body”, B94.86–88
    authorisation of future acts, YB02.119-122
    background, YB02.111-113
    CERD Committee, consideration by, YB00.69-73
        Government response, YB00.72-73
checklist for party considering investment project, B94.166, B94.170
claims for mineral ownership, YB96.203
claims under, YB02.95, YB02.111
commencement, B94.29, B94.162
    common law, YB02.113-115, YB02.128
        confirmation of, YB02.117
        incorporation of, YB02.114
    relationship, YB02.113-115
Commonwealth legislation, YB02.111
Commonwealth preferred land rights model, YB96.88
existing titles, B94.162
how paid, B94.35
when payable, B94.34
who pays, B94.35, B94.161
compensation claims, YB02.133
compulsory acquisition of native title, B94.131
confirmation of existing rights, YB02.117
constitutional basis, B94.30
constitutional ramifications, YB94.32
constitutional validity of—see Constitutional validity
continuity of use, proof of, YB02.124
conversion of exploration title to production title, B94.132
creation of native title, YB02.116
deficiencies, YB96.98-99
determination of application, B94.86–87
    determinations under, YB02.111, YB02.116, YB02.118-119
        procedures, YB02.118-119, YB02.133
    discriminatory, whether, YB00.72
effect of, YB02.95
effect on existing titles, B94.125
enactment of, YB94.2, YB94.32, YB94.49
expedited procedure, B94.89, B96.85–87, B96.175–176
extinguishment, B94.80–81, B94.126, B94.165
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.133
    prevention of, YB02.116
factors influencing effectiveness, B94.29
    framework, YB00.70
“freehold test”, YB96.85-86
    future act regime 
        establishment of, YB02.133
    validation of, YB02.133
“future acts”, B94.35, YB95.441–445
compensation, B94.35, B94.36
definition of, YB95.442
determinations, YB96.78
extinguishment of title by, B94.36
“low impact”, B94.36, B94.83–84
negotiation, B94.36, B94.90–91
notice from government of intention, B94.36
permissible, B94.35, B94.82–83, B94.84
permissible and impermissible, distinguished, YB95.443–445
procedures, flow chart, YB95.474
right to negotiate under—see right to negotiate system infra
government right to overrule determination, B94.88
holder of native title, B94.31
impairment of native title, YB02.133
“interest”, B94.31
interpretation of, YB02.95
issues raised by Coe v Commonwealth, B94.168
land acquisition fund, YB94.10
“minimal effect”, grant or renewal, B94.107
mining leases, B94.34
National Native Title Register, B94.31
    National Native Title Tribunal powers under, YB00.71
“native title” (s 223), B94.16, B94.30
Native Title Tribunal
appeal, B94.131
arbitration where no agreement can be reached, B94.133
establishment of, YB95.429
“expedited procedure”, B94.37
overruling decisions of, B94.37
leave to re-open decided issues, B94.130
mediation, B94.99
negotiation, B94.86
“negotiation/arbitration”, B94.158
non-extinguishment principle (s 238), B94.81
power to exclude a party, B94.133
role in negotiations, B94.37
statements of President re purpose, B94.104
    native title under, YB02.95
    definition of, YB02.116
“negotiation/arbitration”, B94.158, B94.165, B94.171
negotiation for extension of title, B94.90–91
negotiation time frames, B94.162–163
negotiation with surviving native title holders, B94.163
non-claimant application for determination, B94.131, YB96.98, YB96.103-194
notice, B94.86
objects, B94.30, YB94.3, YB94.49
offshore areas, extension to, YB94.3, YB94.11
offshore places, application to, YB02.121
operation of, YB02.95, YB02.113-115
origins, YB96.87-89
overview of, YB94.3
past acts
categories of, YB94.4
concept of, YB94.4
remedies for, YB94.10
validation of, YB94.4
“past acts”, B94.32–33, B94.75–80, B94.132, B94.164
pastoral leases, B94.100, B94.133
pastoral leases held by native title holders, B94.34, B94.73
permitted activities of native title holders, B94.34
practical effect, YB02.128
Preamble, YB94.3, YB94.49
    procedures, YB02.133
proceedings under, YB02.117
proposed amendments, YB96.81-82, YB96.99-104
purpose, B94.158–159
Racial Discrimination Act, B94.29
recognition of native title, YB02.133
recommendations for changes to, YB95.504–506
s 21(4), regional or local agreements, YB95.506
“recognised State/Territory bodies”, B94.37
    reform of, YB02.122
    requirement of, YB02.124
Register of Native Title Claims, B94.31
registered native title holder, B94.163
renewal of licences, B94.106, B94.131–132, B94.165, B94.166
resource development problems, YB96.120
“right to mine”, YB96.58, YB96.61, YB96.75
“right to negotiate”, B94.84–85, B94.105, B94.130, YB95.445–449, YB96.55, YB96.86
at two stages, B94.129–130, B94.131
breadth of application, YB96.57
compulsory acquisition, YB95.445
consideration of interests of legitimate native title claimants, B94.162
criteria for determination, YB96.77
exclusion of grant and renewal of exploration licences, B94.106, B94.131
determination period, YB96.77
mediation process under, YB95.449
Gove land rights case, YB96.87
“government party”, YB96.64
impermissible future acts, YB96.96
intent, YB96.56
limits of a State or Territory, YB96.62
mining lease, grant of, YB95.445, YB95.447-448
s 29 notices, issuing of, YB95.450–451
origins, YB96.87-89
permissible future acts, YB96.57, YB96.59, YB96.60, YB96.73, YB96.79, YB96.96
powers of Commonwealth Minister, YB96.61
procedures under, YB95.452
flow chart of, YB95.474
“registered native title body corporate”, YB96.66
registered native title claimant, YB96.67, YB96.77
renewal of mining tenement, YB96.63
requirements to initiate, YB96.62
requirement to negotiate, YB96.77
s 26(2), YB96.57, YB96.60, YB96.61, YB96.73
subsequent renewals, B94.131–132
s 12 constitutionally invalid, B95.110
s 13, YB96.58
s 21 agreements, YB96.78-79, YB96.97, YB96.103
s 22, YB96.60
s 24, YB96.80-81
s 31, YB96.75-76
s 35, YB96.76
s 225, YB96.58
s 235(5), YB96.59
s 253, YB96.61, YB96.62
scope, B94.160
security of title, B94.159, B94.161
security over land, B94.167
severance provisions in, YB94.82
shortcomings of Act
Aboriginal point of view, B94.104
Australian Mining Industry Council, B94.124, B94.130, B94.134
Western Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy, B94.124
special measure, as, YB94.50
indicia of, YB94.60
States, binding of, YB94.3
status of native title, B94.30
    statutory access rights, creation of, YB02.116
statutory scheme, YB02.113, YB02.135
subsequent titles, B94.90
surrender of title, B94.37
test for claim, B94.165
tradition, definition of, YB02.155
unopposed grants, B94.90
        future acts, of, YB02.133
        grants, of, YB02.133
        previous acts, of, YB02.117-118
validation by, YB94.4
validation of titles, B94.32, B94.73–74, B94.133, B94.162, B94.165
validity, B94.160–161, B95.102–105, B95.108–112
weakness of, YB02.95, YB02.128
Western Australia, challenge to validity in—see Western Australia v the Commonwealth
Western Australian Act, inconsistency with, YB94.83
    Wik decision, amendments based on, YB00.70-71
who is bound, B94.38
Woodward recommendations, YB96.88-89
Native Title Act 1994 (NSW), B94.102
Native title agreements
    Aboriginal community involvement in project contracts, YB00.554
    Aboriginal cultural awareness, YB00.555
    access conditions, YB00.553
    assignment, YB00.555
    authority to enter, YB00.550-551
    compensation, YB00.538-543
        amount of, YB00.538
        continuing compensation exposures, YB00.542-543
        full satisfaction, YB00.551
        impact on land during life of mine, YB00.541
        NNTT conditions, YB00.540
        non-monetary compensation, YB00.542
        `price of consent', YB00.541-542
        relevant principles, YB00.538-539
        State principles, YB00.538-539, YB00.540-541
    cultural heritage conditions, YB00.551-553
    employment and training conditions, YB00.553-554
    environmental conditions, YB00.555
    legal issues, YB00.537-556
    liaison committees, YB00.554-555
    native title claims
        agreed terms of determination, YB00.548
        granted rights and native title rights, relationship, YB00.549
        implications of determination, YB00.546-547
        nature and extent of granted rights, YB00.548-549
        response to, YB00.546-549
        support for, YB00.547
    project guarantee, YB00.550-551
        authority to enter agreement, YB00.550-551
        full compensation, YB00.551
        securing project rights, YB00.550
    right to negotiate process, YB00.537
    standard commercial clauses, YB00.555-556
    trusts established for community benefit, YB00.543-546
        advantages, YB00.543
        beneficiaries, YB00.545
        categories of distribution, YB00.545
        charitable purposes, YB00.544
        custodian trustee, YB00.545-546
        transparency, YB00.546
        trust deed, YB00.543
        trustees, YB00.544-545
Native Title Amendment Bill 1996 (Cth), B96.162–163
Native Title (Queensland) Act 1993, YB94.15
appeal from Tribunal, B94.101
assent, B94.98
when payable, B94.161
who pays, B94.161
Land Appeal Court, B94.101
outstanding issues with Commonwealth, B94.168
participation in national scheme, B94.98
Preamble, YB94.15
provisions complementary with Commonwealth Act, B94.71
purpose, B94.158–159
Queensland Native Title Tribunal, B94.89, B94.100–101
appeals from, YB94.16
establishment of, YB94.15
President, YB94.16
“right to negotiate”, B94.89, B94.99
security of title, B94.161
validity, B94.161
Native Title (South Australia) Bill 1994
amendments, B95.25
assent to Act, B95.99
introduced to House of Assembly, B95.24
submissions, B95.25
validating provisions, B95.25
Native title: the North American experience, YB94.85
adjudication of claims, YB94.127
aid and funding for social and economic development, YB94.109
Alaska, YB94.111
Canada, YB94.111
treaties and agreements, YB94.109
Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act, YB94.94
aid and funding, YB94.111
grants of fee simple land, YB94.107
traditional rights, YB94.109
Russia, ceded by, YB94.94
implications for, YB94.127, YB94.128
objective, identification of, YB94.134
Aboriginal land, area and nature of, YB94.102
British Columbia, YB94.101
comprehensive land claims policy, YB94.102
funding for social and economic development, YB94.111
grants of freehold title, YB94.107
Northern Quebec, YB94.100
Ontario, YB94.97
Prairies and the North, YB94.98
recognition of native title, YB94.111
resource development on Aboriginal lands, YB94.120
contemporary settlements, YB94.125
terms of settlements, YB94.105
traditional rights throughout traditional lands, YB94.109
constitutional framework, YB94.87, YB94.130
contemporary land settlements, YB94.94
early British policy in North America, YB94.89
eastern land claim settlements, YB94.94
exclusive federal jurisdiction, YB94.87, YB94.131
extinguishment of native title, YB94.112
future interests
ceded land, on, YB94.116
reservation and granted lands, on, YB94.117
Indian lands, area and nature of, YB94.95
dwellings with more than one person per room, YB94.137, YB94.153–154
education, YB94.136, YB94.148–149
employment rates, YB94.137, YB94.150
government transfer payments, YB94.137
incomes, YB94.137, YB94.151–152
mineral ownership, YB94.132
Newfoundland, history of, YB94.88
Quebec, French sovereignty in, YB94.88
area and nature of, YB94.95
future interests on, YB94.117
purpose of, YB94.105
treaties and agreements, set apart by, YB94.106
resource development on Aboriginal lands, YB94.118, YB94.128
Australia, implications for, YB94.127
Canada, YB94.120
contemporary settlements, YB94.125
settlement of native title with, YB94.86
United States, YB94.118
settlement process, history and development of, YB94.88
State and Provincial governments, role of, YB94.127
surrender of title, YB94.112
terms of settlements, YB94.103, YB94.128
Canada, YB94.104
United States, YB94.104
traditional rights throughout traditional lands, YB94.108
treaties and agreements
aid and funding for social and economic development, YB94.109
hunting and fishing, rights to, YB94.108
recognition of native title, YB94.111
setting reservations apart, YB94.106
United States
Indian Claims Commission, YB94.93
area and nature of, YB94.95
establishment of, YB94.92
resource development, YB94.118
terms of settlement, YB94.104
treaties with Indian tribes, YB94.90
ratification by Senate, YB94.92
Whitehorse Mining Initiative, YB94.129, YB94.133
Native title claims
    Maori claims to petroleum, see Maori claims to petroleum
Native Title Tribunal
native title extinguished by grant of Homestead Lease, B95.167
opening date, B95.167
“registered native title claimant”, B95.248–249
review under Administrative Decisions Judicial Review Act, B95.245–247
unopposed, non-claimant application, B95.168–169
Natural gas, see also Gas industry
    access regime, see Gas access regime
    access to pipelines, J03.81-88, J03.440-443
        access to existing infrastructure, YB01.355
        allocation, YB01.365
        attribution, YB01.363-364
        blending, YB01.364
        contents of, YB01.350
        gas balancing agreements, YB01.351-354
        midstream, YB01.354-361
        offtake, YB01.348-351
        processing, YB01.357-359
        production, affecting, YB01.361-365
        substitution, YB01.362-363
        tie-in, YB01.355-356
    allocation agreements, YB01.365
    aluminium industry, YB01.285
assessing access arrangements, J03.83-84, J03.440-443    
attribution agreements, YB01.363-364
    Australian reserves, YB01.346-347
    authorisation of conduct, YB01.371-372
    blending agreements, YB01.364
    coal seam gas regime, J02.145-152
        development possibilities, YB01.346
        drivers for, YB01.346-347
    competition, YB01.368
        concept of, YB01.367
        joint venture monopolies restricting, YB01.181
        major elements, YB01.367-368
        past restrictions on, YB01.181
    consumption forecasts, YB01.284
    contamination, see contamination
    demand trends, YB01.284-286
    eastern Australian market
        issues surrounding supply to, YB01.282
        power generation prospects, YB01.295
        shortfall in supply, prospect of, YB01.281, YB01.286, YB01.295
        transcontinental pipeline to haul gas to, YB01.286
    Eastern Gas Pipeline (EGP) coverage decision, YB01.304-305
    electricity generation, in, YB01.287-288
exploration, see joint ventures    
gas access arrangements (Victoria), J02.131-133
    gas balancing agreements, YB01.351-352
        content, YB01.352-354
    greenfields projects, YB01.297
        access to existing, agreements about, YB01.355
        facilities, definition, YB01.347
        increased sharing of, YB01.346
        licence, YB01.347
        negative impact of regulators, YB01.297-298
        ownership, YB01.359-361
        taxation depreciation provisions, YB01.303
        transcontinental to eastern states, YB01.286
        under-development, YB01.297
        what is required, YB01.359
    Indonesia, see Indonesia
    joint venture agreements, see joint ventures
joint ventures
        gas balancing agreements, YB01.351-354
        infrastructure arrangements, YB01.359-361
        midstream agreements, YB01.354-361
        offtake of product, YB01.348-351
        processing agreements, YB01.357-359
        scope of, YB01.348
        third party use of facilities, YB01.348
        tie-in agreements, YB01.355-356
        unincorporated, YB01.139, YB01.347-348, YB01.360-361
    legislative amendments (Vic), J03.32-33, (Tas), J03.418-419
    liquefied facility environmental impact assessment, J02.123
    LNG export opportunities, YB01.296-297
    major sources, YB01.282-284
    market, J04.195-200
        definition, YB01.366
        development, YB01.372
        trade practices issues, YB01.366-367
    midstream agreements, YB01.354-361
    national energy policy, YB01.295
    national market for, YB01.280-282
    New South Wales market, YB01.292-293
    offtake agreements, YB01.348-351
    Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Bill 2004 (Qld), J04.128-130
    pipelines, J03.421-422
    power generation, in, YB01.287
    processing agreements, YB01.357-359
        duration, YB01.359
        key operative provisions, YB01.358
        parties, YB01.357
        risk allocation, YB01.358-359
    producers, arrangements between, YB01.347-354
    Queensland market, YB01.288-290
        failure to understand transmission business, YB01.299
        impact of, YB01.297-298
        principle of participants’ approval, YB01.300
        taxation depreciation provisions, YB01.303
        threat to existing contracts, YB01.299
    residential customers, YB01.285
    review of access regime (Cth), J04.12-15
    sales agreements, substitution within, YB01.364
significant producer, (Vic), J03.134-135    
South Australian market, YB01.293-294
    State markets for, YB01.288-294
        agreements, YB01.362-363
        gas sales, within, YB01.364
    Tasmania, J02.40-41
    Tasmanian market, YB01.294
    tie-in agreements, YB01.355-356
    title to facilitate gas gathering, YB01.347
trade practices, see restrictive trade practices        
Trade Practices Act issues, YB01.366-372
        authorisation of conduct, YB01.371-372
    value-added applications, YB01.285-286
    vehicles, take-up of, YB01.286
    Victorian market, YB01.290-292
Natural resources
    objections to projects, see Objections to natural resource projects
    `property in', nature of, YB00.250-256
        quasi-public spaces, YB00.254, YB00.255
    public ownership in Australia, YB00.248-256
    meaning of, YB02.33
Negative pledges
    corporate financing arrangements, YB03.93
causation and, YB04.149–50
    compensation for loss caused by, YB02.430-431
damages, YB02.421, YB02.430
definition, YB94.164
    duty of care, YB03.563
        breach of, YB02.430, YB02.435-437
        establishment of, YB02.431-435
exclusion of claims, in joint venture context, YB04.143–4
exemption clauses for
joint operating agreements, in, YB94.164
third party contracts, in, YB94.172
gross negligence
AIPN Model Form, clauses in, YB94.184
joint operating agreements, in, YB94.165, YB94.187
meaning of, YB94.165
    international environmental harm, domestic claim, YB00.38
    limitation clause, YB02.447-448
        Longford case, YB03.571, YB03.574
        rise and fall of, YB03.563–564
    public bodies, of, YB02.430-431
    public officer, of, YB02.421, YB02.430, YB02.431
    public utility providers, YB03.579–581    
reasonable foreseeability, YB03.573
    regulators’ liability in, YB01.228
solicitor’s professional liability, J99.173-176
Negligence and nuisance, actions
    noxious emissions, J00.187-188
    agreement to, see Agreement to negotiate
    arbitration body, by, see National Native Title Tribunal
    duty to, see Duty to negotiate
    good faith, in, YB02.122
    lease agreement, of, YB02.15
    notification of, YB02.122
    right of, see Right to negotiate regime
    withdrawal from, YB02.14
Negotiation and mediation
    aboriginal cultural heritage issues, YB04.509–11
Neighbouring mine owners
obligations, B95.100
Net present value (NPV), YB03.95
    impairment testing and amortisation, YB04.540–1, YB04.544
Net profits, YB93.257–258
Net smelter returns, YB93.246, YB93.249, YB93.259–261
Netting, YB93.92, YB93.105–106, YB03.289
Network service providers, YB02.261-262
    categories, YB02.261-262
    definition of, YB02.261
    distribution, YB02.261-262
    market, YB02.262
    obligations of, YB02.282
    regulation, YB02.292-293
    transmission, YB02.261, YB02.272, YB02.292-293
        annual planning report, YB02.272-273
        responsibilities, YB02.272
New South Wales
gas, supply of
competition in, YB95.349–350
Moomba-Sydney pipeline—see Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline
native title, response to Commonwealth legislation, YB94.18
New South Wales Coal Compensation Review Tribunal
appeal against Board determination where claim wrongly assessed, B95.10
appeal may be withdrawn before hearing, B95.9
claims for pecuniary loss pursuant to s 128 Coal Acquisition Act, B95.171
establishment and structure, B95.8
no appeal from Board determination of rate of interest, B95.9
not bound by rules of evidence, B95.9
right to compensation for pecuniary loss by virtue of s 5 Coal Acquisition Act, B95.9–10, B95.171–173
ruling regarding calculation of moisture content of coal, B95.9
summary of decisions, B95.171–173
New South Wales Department of Mineral Resources
discussion paper on exclusion of grant and renewal of exploration licences from right to negotiate under Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), B94.106
new policies, J99.5-6
New Zealand
    Auckland power crisis, J99.42, J99.43, J99.47-48
    deregulated electricity market, YB01.175
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.251
    Maori claims to petroleum, see Maori claims to petroleum
    ownership of petroleum, YB01.427-429
Ngalakan v Northern Territory
    access rights, YB02.170
    determination of native title, YB02.170-172
        claimant group, YB02.171-172
        connection, YB02.171
        customs, YB02.171, YB02.172
        possession, YB02.171
        traditions, YB02.171, YB02.172
    exclusive possession, YB02.136
        exclusions, YB02.136
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.171, YB02.172
    public roads, YB02.170-171
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.251
NOGSAC, YB96.479
Nominee directors
    classification as, YB03.532
    duties of, YB03.533–534
    independence of, YB03.551
    nominators, giving preference to, YB03.534–539
    obligations, difficulties in meeting, YB03.532
    personal liability, expanding scope of, YB03.530
    primary duty, YB03.533
    public interest, giving preference to, YB03.539–542
    specific interest groups, giving preference to, YB03.534–539
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
    function in global society, YB04.58
    international standards, YB04.47, YB04.57–60
    investigative journalism, YB04.58
    multinational companies, alliances with, YB04.57
    nature of, YB04.57–8
    new players, as, YB04.50
    public opinion pressure, YB04.58
    range of, YB04.57–8
Noongoora Burr Quarantine Area
    native title, effect of regulations on, J00.95
Northern Territory
application of laws to Ashmore and Cartier Islands, B95.176–179
powers in relation to mining, J98.13-15
North Flinders Mine Ltd v Conn
dore, production of, YB95.509
facts of case, YB95.509
gold, methods of valuation, YB95.510–511
relevant mineral commodity, determination of, YB95.511–512
sales contracts, relevance of, YB95.514–516
mineral, definition, YB95.510
mineral commodity, definition, YB95.510, YB95.516
saleable, definition, YB95.516
Mineral Royalty Act 1982 (NT), amendments to, YB95.516
production unit, definition, YB95.510
definition, YB95.510
calculation of, YB95.510–512
removal of ore without sale, where, YB95.512–514
NSCWG, YB96.479
NSESD, YB96.445
No shop agreements
    anti-competitive, YB01.51
    exclusivity arrangements, YB01.51-52
    ``lock-up’ characteristics, YB01.48
    takeover targets, by, YB01.48
    Takeovers Panel, YB01.51
    future acts, YB02.181
    negotiate, right to, see Right to negotiate regime
    reasonableness, YB02.13
    termination, see Termination of contract
breach of environmental requirements, YB93.26
environmental matters, YB93.48
Noxious emissions
    personal injury claim, J00.187-188
Nuclear energy, YB00.313
    international environmental harm, domestic claim, YB00.38
    solar access rights, effect of law of, YB00.322

Consolidated Index: O

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

mining lease, B96.15–17
time limitations
Queensland, B96.3–8
Western Australia, B96.15–17
prospecting licences, B96.135
tenement applications, B96.133–135
Objections to natural resource projects, YB00.246-281
    City of Enfield case, YB00.266-268
    class actions, YB00.278
    classes of objectors, YB00.258-259
    conditions of approval, non-compliance, YB00.276-277
        agency enforcement, YB00.276-277
        common law action for damages, YB00.277-280
        injunction, YB00.277
    declarations, actions for, YB00.263, YB00.265-270
    draft plans, YB00.262
    environmental impact assessment requirements, non-compliance,YB00.263-264, YB00.268-270
    equitable remedies, YB00.265-268, YB00.277
    formal assessment stage, at, YB00.263-276
    forum of public opinion, YB00.280-281
    implementation stage, at, YB00.276-280
    injunctions, actions for, YB00.263, YB00.265-270, YB00.277
    Jabiluka project, see Jabiluka uranium mine
    judicial review proceedings, YB00.265
    mining projects, YB00.270-276
    native title holders, YB00.258, YB00.259
    parliamentary scrutiny, YB00.261-262
    political lobbying, YB00.271
    post-approval objections, YB00.276-280
    private landowners, YB00.258
    project formulation stage, at, YB00.260-262
    `property in' natural resources, YB00.250-256
    public consultation, YB00.257, YB00.280-281
    public health actions, YB00.278-279
    public interest, YB00.264-265, YB00.266, YB00.270, YB00.273
    public or political objections, YB00.260-261
    public ownership of natural resources, YB00.248-256
    re-classification objections, YB00.261
    rezoning objections, YB00.261
    right to object, YB00.246-281
        Australian culture, YB00.246-247
        common law, YB00.247
        constitution, YB00.247
        importance, YB00.256-258
        judicial view of public power, YB00.248
        legal right, YB00.256-258
    sectional environmental groups, YB00.259-260, YB00.271-272
    Serpentine-Jarrahdale case, YB00.270-275
    standing to sue, YB00.264-265
    strategic planning stage, YB00.262
Occupational health and safety (OHS),  YB96.521-523, YB96.524-525
breaches, YB04.231–2
        defences, YB04.233
        increased personal liability, YB04.232–5
        penalties, YB04.235–6
    contractors, YB04.242–3
    corporate responsibility, YB04.227–8, YB04.237–8, YB04.244–5
        elements, YB04.228
        liability, conditions for, YB04.228–9
        personal liability, increased, YB04.232–5
    industrial manslaughter, YB04.226–7, YB04.236–9
    legislative reform, YB04.226–7
        States and Territories, YB04.228
    negligence YB04.238–9
    non-compliance, reducing the risk of, YB04.241–3
    organisations,  cultural change within, YB04.239–41, YB04.244–5
        individual focus, YB04.241
        organisational focus, YB04.240–1
    performance monitoring and reporting, YB04.240
    response strategies and procedures, YB04.243–4
        testing, YB04.244
        assessment, YB04.241–2
        contractors, YB04.242–3
        reducing, YB04.242
silica, health risks, J00.137-144
    statutory duty of care, YB04.229–31
        onus of proof, YB04.233
    strategic commitment, YB04.240
Occupational health and safety legislation
compliance with, officers responsible for, YB95.206
corporate officers, liability of, YB95.205–208
employees, responsibilities of, YB95.208
employers, duties of, YB95.208
Occupation health, welfare and safety 
duties under Mines Safety and Inspection Bill 1994 (WA), B94.151–152
health and safety representatives (WA), B94.153
Occupiers, YB93.297
“control”, YB93.11
liability—see also Lenders’ liability
contaminated land, YB93.10–11
Oceans Policy
    aims and objectives, J99.2-3
    announcement of Australia’s, J99.1
    National Oceans Advisory Group, J99.2
    National Oceans Ministerial Board, J99.2
    National Oceans Office, J99.2
    Regional Marine Plan Steering Committee, J99.2
OECD Convention Against Bribery, YB00.1, YB00.12, YB00.13, YB00.15
    Australian compliance, YB00.20
        corporate programs, YB00.24-34
        Criminal Code, YB00.15, YB00.16-18, YB00.20
    implementation, YB00.18-20
    review of compliance, YB00.18-19
OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational
    Enterprises, YB00.59
OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, YB00.59-60, YB00.62
OECD Recommendations on Bribery in International Business
    Transactions, YB00.11
environment protection legislation, under—see Environment protection legislation
contaminated land, YB93.7–10
New Zealand, YB93.425
meaning of, YB94.190
mens rea, YB94.190
strict liability, YB94.190
Offer information statements, YB00.410, YB00.421-429
    advertising restrictions, YB00.420-421
    ASIC policy, YB00.421-423
    content, YB00.415-416
    Corporations Law requirements, YB00.413-421
    defences to liability, YB00.417-418, YB00.426-427
        due diligence investigations, YB00.426-427
    description of use of funds, YB00.415, YB00.423-424
    disadvantages, YB00.423-427
    exposure period, YB00.418-419
    financial report, YB00.416-417, YB00.421-423, YB00.424-425
    five million dollar limit, YB00.414-415, YB00.423
    liability provisions, YB00.417-418, YB00.426-427
    limited disclosure requirements, YB00.425-426
    lodgment, YB00.421
    market responses, YB00.427-428
    misleading or deceptive statements, YB00.417-418
    omissions, YB00.417-418
    publicity restrictions, YB00.420-421
    replacement, YB00.419
    small and medium enterprises (SMEs), YB00.411, YB00.413, YB00.428-429
    supplementary, YB00.419
    criminal liability, J02.104-110
    North Sea petroleum licences, J03.146-153    
    Petroleum, see petroleum
    seabed claims, see also Timor Sea, J02.185-187
    Timor Sea treaty, J02.198-2000
Offshore Constitutional Settlement, YB00.114, YB00.115
Offshore Infrastructure Code of Practice (UK)
    application, YB99.189
    Australian code based on, YB99.180
    dispute resolution, YB99.193-194
    maintenance, YB99.193
    non-discrimination principle, YB99.189-192
    objectives, YB99.189
    procedures, YB99.192-193
    summary, YB99.189-194
Offshore Minerals Act 1994 (Cth)—see Mining
Offshore mining, YB96.182
compensation for cancellation of part of exploration permit by government, B94.69–70
Offshore mining platform removal
Commonwealth context, B95.230–231
international context, B95.229–230
international guidelines for abandoned or disused installations, B95.229–231
liability for damages resulting from platform remains, B95.231
Offshore mobile craft
    FPSO, whether classified as ship, YB00.81-90
    legal concepts applicable, YB00.82
    mortgages, registration of, YB00.84
    oil pollution, liability for, YB00.87-88
    proposed convention on, YB00.81-82, YB00.89-90
        arguments for and against, YB00.83-84
    registration, YB00.84-86
Offshore oil exploration
Constitutional protection of resource rights under Commonwealth laws, B96.149–154, B96.163
environmental impact assessment, B96.117
policy, B96.116
Offshore oil rigs
    IMO safety resolutions, J00.35-38
    protection in international law, J00.35-43
    safety zones around, J00.35-38
    State legislation to protect, J00.41-42
    terrorism, protocol against, J00.38-40
Offshore petroleum
jurisdictions, YB96.531-532
offshore constitutional settlement, YB96.512-513
oh&s, YB96.521-523, YB96.524-525
operator versus regulator, YB96.527-529
PSLA, YB96.513-516, YB96.533
directions power, YB96.516-518
safety, YB96.513-516
specific requirements, YB96.518-520
States versus Commonwealth, YB96.512-513, YB96.529-531
COSOP recommendations, YB96.508-511
Piper Alpha, YB96.507-511
proposed changes, YB96.523-525
recent developments, YB96.507
safety case, YB96.525-527
Offshore petroleum operations
    adjacent areas, concept of, YB00.176, YB00.180
    administration, YB00.93, YB00.113-117
        Commonwealth role, YB00.93, YB00.113-114, YB00.116-117
        in coastal waters, YB00.115
        outside coastal waters, YB00.115
        States and Territories, YB00.93, YB00.113-115, YB00.174-175
    approval of dealings, YB00.131-135
    Australian economy, contribution to, YB00.120
    Commonwealth sovereignty, YB00.93, YB00.113-114, YB00.176
    criminal offence without licence, YB00.95
        replacing with civil remedies, YB00.99-100
    environmental regulation, YB00.121
    joint operating agreement, YB00.133-134
    licences and permits, see Petroleum titles
    1979 Agreement, YB00.177
    petroleum resource rent tax, YB00.117-118
    registration of dealings, YB00.131-135
    safety management, YB00.121-122
    seismic survey techniques, YB00.128
    statutory regime, see Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth)
    technology, changes in, YB00.120
    Timor Gap
        operations prior to Treaty, YB00.174-177
        Treaty, see Timor Gap Treaty
        Zone of Cooperation, see Timor Gap Zone of Cooperation
    Titles, see Petroleum titles
    unitisation arrangements, YB00.103-107, YB00.122-123
    wells, YB00.128
    work programme
        bidding, YB00.123-124, YB00.127
        failure to fulfil, YB00.129-120
Offshore petroleum regime
    administrators, discretionary powers of, YB04.36–8
    Australian regime
        administrative authorisations, YB04.7
        allocation of power between different level of rules, YB04.5
        Commonwealth and States, disputes between, YB04.6–7, YB04.32
        complexity of, YB04.8
        exclusive exploration titles, YB04.11
        executive discretion, YB04.9
        federal system, YB04.32
        forms of offshore title, YB04.8
        litigation, YB04.10
        over-regulation, YB04.8
        UK regime, comparison with, YB04.4–5
        unilateral administrative grants, YB04.4
        work program bidding and administration, YB04.11–18
    Canadian regime
        awards process, YB04.17–18
        federal regime, YB04.34–5
        forms of offshore title, YB04.8
        less discretionary regime, YB04.29
        statutory decision-maker, YB04.9
        title administration, YB04.8
    comparative approach, YB04.4–5
    development, authorising, YB04.18–25
    exploration permits
        assessment criteria, YB04.13
        exclusive title, YB04.11
        financial capability tests, YB04.15
        guidelines, YB04.13–14
        judicial review proceedings, YB04.15
        objective in awarding, YB04.13
        past performance test, YB04.14
        threshold issues, YB04.14
    industry's attitude to discretion, YB04.38–42
    legislators, discretionary powers of, YB04.30–6
    Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, see  Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act (PSLA)
    production licence, YB04.18–25
        consent powers, YB04.24
        discretion, YB04.19
        second renewal, power to grant, YB04.27
        current practice, YB04.24
        title boundaries, across, YB04.20
    recovery rates, direction to increase or reduce, YB04.19
    retention lease discretions, YB04.28
    royalties, see Royalties
    UK regime, YB04.4–5
        awards process, YB04.15–17
        civil service, YB04.36–7
        enlargement of control powers, YB04.29
        forms of offshore title, YB04.8
        industry's attitude to discretion, YB04.40–42
        production authorisations, YB04.20–3
        statutory decision-maker, YB04.9
        title administration, YB04.8
        unitary structure of government, YB04.32, YB04.35
        unitisation, YB04.24
        work program bidding and administration, YB04.11–18
    US regime
        awards process, YB04.18
        discretion, restriction of, YB04.29
        federal regime, YB04.34
        forms of offshore title, YB04.8
        statutory decision-maker, YB04.9
        title administration, YB04.8
Offshore places
    compulsory acquisition, YB02.121-122
    Native Title Act, application of, YB02.121
Offshore units
    application of maritime laws, J99.22-27
    civil arrest, rights of, J99.24
    civil jurisdiction, J99.24
    Comité International Maritime, role, J99.21, J99.26
    draft Convention on Offshore Mobile Craft, J99.21-22
    Exclusive Economic Zones, J99.24, J99.242, J99.250-252
    financing and mortgages, J99.23
    flag, J99.23
    maritime liens, J99.24
    mobile units, registration as ships, J99.22, J99.23
    International Maritime Organisation, role, J99.21, J99.26, J99.243, J99.248
    international convention, proposal for, J99.21-27
    laws of costal State in territorial sea, J99.243-246
    limitation of liability, J99.25
    need for international regulation, J99.21
    ownership, J99.23
    penal jurisdiction, J99.24-25
    pollution, liability for, J99.25-26
    protection in international law, J99.21-27, J99.241-252
    registration as ships, J99.22, J99.23
    removal of decommissioned structures and wrecks, J99.26
    safety zones around oil rigs, J99.246-252
        breadth, J99.247-248
        history, J99.246-247
        States’ legislation relating to, J99.250-252
        types of rigs protected, J99.248-249
    salvage, J99.25
    UN Conferences on the Law of the Sea, J99.244, J99.246-248
    UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, J99.23, J99.24, J99.242-249
Offshore waters
    fishing, hunting and gathering rights, J00.14-16
    minerals, right to, J00.14-17
    native title rights, J00.13-20
    non-exclusive native title, J00.14-16
    oil rigs, see Offshore oil rigs
    radical title, J00.18-19
Offtake risks
    definition, YB03.126
    offtake contract
        events of default, YB03.127
        termination of, YB03.127, YB03.128
    place of incorporation of offtake entity, YB03.127
Oil,  see also Petroleum YB96.237, YB96.238
India, projects in, J99.221-240
    offshore rigs see Offshore units 
Oilcode, see Downstream petroleum industry
Oil industry
    access arrangements, YB04.205
    discretion, attitude to, YB04.38–42
    maritime transportation, YB04.282–3
    water management, YB04.432
Oil pollution
    IOPC Fund, YB00.87, YB00.88
    liability for, YB00.87-88
        FPSO, whether classified as ship, YB00.88
Oil spills
    international conventions, J99.25
    offshore units
        civil jurisdiction, J99.24
        liability, J99.25-26
    Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement, J99.26
Ok Tedi
action against BHP, YB96.555-556
application of “Mozambique principle”, YB96.561-563
implications of decision, YB96.564-565
jurisdiction of Australian courts, YB96.557-564
in personam, YB96.557-558
“Mozambique principle”, YB96.559-561
Philips v Ayre, YB96.563-564
jurisdiction of Victorian Supreme Court, YB96.556
Philips v Ayre rule, YB96.563-564
reasons for Australian litigation, YB96.556
Olympic Dam, YB93.365
    alternative dispute resolution, YB99.357-358
    energy industry, see Energy Industry Ombudsman NSW
    industry-based ombudsmen, YB99.358
Onshore mining, YB96.166
    prospecting licences, J01.3
Opal mining
land rehabilitation, J97.107
legislative regime, J97.107
repeals of Mining Act 1971 (SA), J97.107
OPEC, YB96.235
Operating and technology risk
    O&M agreement, YB99.10, YB99.21
    project rating, YB99.10-12
    resource projects, YB99.11-12
    vulnerability to sponsor insolvency, YB99.10-11
Options, YB93.76–77, YB93.82–84, YB93.106–107, YB93.122—see also Derivatives
futures—see Futures, types
participating, YB93.82–84
pricing, YB93.98
Ord River Project
    native title issues, J00.89-90
Ore—see Tailings
definition, YB95.1
identification of, YB95.2–3
types of, YB95.2
Orebody risk
    projection rating, YB99.12
Organised crime
    international cooperation against, YB04.52
    absolute, YB02.177
    commodity, of, YB02.178
    meaning of, YB02.177
    minerals, of, YB02.197
    petroleum, of, YB02.197
    private, YB02.178

Consolidated Index: P

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.252
Pancontinental Mining Ltd v Goldfields Ltd
facts of case, YB95.565–566
Part A Statement
DCF valuation, YB95.568, YB95.569-571
definition, YB95.569
method of valuation, limitations on, YB95.569
requirement to include, whether, YB95.570–571
disposal of non-gold assets, YB95.578
earnings forecast, provision of, YB95.571-572
financial assistance, possible, YB95.580–581
material omissions from, YB95.575
ounce multiple method of valuation, YB95.582–583
Papua New Guinea, risks associated with mining in, YB95.572–574
post-acquisition action, whether sufficient details of, YB95.581–582
premium, attraction of, YB95.583
Prospectus, withdrawal of, effect, YB95.575
subscription share price, calculation of, YB95.574–575
supplementary information, order for provision of, YB95.575–578
underwriting agreement, provisions of, YB95.581
Papua New Guinea
approval for development, YB95.141
banking system, regulation of, YB95.158–160
offences under, YB95.158–159
compensation agreement, YB95.145
Mining Act 1992, under, YB95.144–148
land, ownership of, YB95.167–168
Porgera Mine, development of—see Porgera Mine
relocation agreement, YB95.145
royalties, payment of, YB95.146
traditional social tool, as, YB95.144
trusts, establishment of, YB95.146
development forum, reconciliation of interests through, YB95.146–148
employment programmes, adoption of, YB95.173–174
environmental concerns, YB95.171–173
litigation in respect of, YB95.173
OK Tedi Mine, problems associated with, YB95.172–173
Porgera Mine, negotiations on, YB95.172
exploration licence, YB95.140
foreign capital, access to, YB95.148–150
foreign currency, retention of, YB95.159–160
foreign expertise and technology, access to, YB95.150–151
insurance industry, YB95.162
Investment Promotion Act, registration by foreign concerns, YB95.162–163
joint venture company, establishment of, YB95.133–134
access to, YB95.143–148
traditional ownership of, YB95.167–168
compensation—see compensation supra
equity in mining projects, YB95.138
law and order, issues of, YB95.174–177
inter-tribal conflict, YB95.174–175
security forces at mines, use of, YB95.176
Lihir project, establishment of, YB95.136–137
local business, development of, YB95.174
mineral resources, access to, YB95.139–143
Mining Act 1992, government control under s 5(1), YB95.139–140
mining development contract
provisions of, YB95.141–143
requirement for, YB95.141
mining project, elements of successful, YB95.132–133
Porgera Mine—see Porgera Mine
project company, establishment of, YB95.134
risks associated with mining
Pancontinental Mining Ltd v Goldfields Ltd, lack of information in Part A Statement, YB95.572–574
sovereign risk, YB95.177
special mining lease, YB95.140
state equity in mining projects, YB95.135–139
advantages and disadvantages, YB95.137
conflict with environment regulation, YB95.138
landowners, entitlement to equity, YB95.138
Mining Act 1992, statutory recognition in, YB95.135
Porgera Mine, confrontation in relation to, YB95.155–156
statutory discretions, undertakings in relation to, YB95.161–162
taxes, YB95.134
additional profits tax on mining, YB95.137
foreign contractor, withholding taxes, YB95.150-151, YB95.163
Income Tax Act 1959, amendment of, YB95.158
Mineral Resources Stabilization Fund, moneys paid into, YB95.156–158
mining development, calculation in relation to, YB95.156–158
Parer Report,YB04.389, YB04.404
    upstream issues, YB04.387, YB04.413
            access to facilities, YB04.414–15
            acreage management, YB04.415
            separate marketing, YB04.413–14
Parliamentary Treaties Committee
proposed agreement with Kazakhstan, J98.2-4
report on convention on combating bribery, J98.79-80
Part A Statement, YB96.404-406
content requirements, YB95.566–568
Pan Continental Mining Ltd v Goldfields Ltd, examination in—see Pan Continental Mining Ltd v Goldfields Ltd
for, YB95.584
Australia, use of concept in, YB95.130
contract, aims and objectives in, YB95.116
facilitation of project, YB95.116
good faith, concept of, YB95.117
agreement by parties, definition and codification in, YB95.118–119
codification by government, YB95.117
enforcement, YB95.118
performance, YB95.117
Renard Constructions (ME) Pty Ltd v Minister for Public Works, decision in, YB95.117
major projects, relevance to, YB95.114–116
time bars in contract, approach to, YB95.119
definition, YB03.102
    fiduciary duty, see Fiduciary duty
fiduciary duties, YB04.116, YB04.120
joint venture distinguished, YB94.369
jurisdiction of wardens Court, J01.17-19
project vehicle, as, YB03.102–103, YB03.161
    public private, see Public private partnerships
termination, J02.19-20
Pastoral lease, B96.1–2, B96.15, B96.91, B96.162–163, J00.86-87
aboriginal occupied, J00.87
access protocols, J00.265
    access rights, YB02.105
        statutory, YB02.116
    authorisation for, YB02.120
    co-existence, YB02.109, YB02.112, YB02.119
        legal relationship, YB02.110
    common law, at, YB02.109
    effect of, YB02.142, YB02.143, YB02.150, YB02.152, YB02.165
exclusive possession, YB02.109, YB02.198, YB02.207
exploration titles (NT), B96.109
extinguishing native title, B95.89–92, B95.221–224
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.135, YB02.143, YB02.146, YB02.161, YB02.165, YB02.167, YB02.175, YB02.190, YB02.191, YB02.194, YB02.198, YB02.200-202, YB02.207
    grant of, YB02.109, YB02.147
    land subject to, YB02.109
mining leases on, where native title claim, J00.108, J00.261
native title, effect on, J00.86-87, J00.190-191, J00.262-263
Native Title (Queensland) Act 1993, extinguishment under, YB95.501–502
recent issues in relation to—see Waanyi Peoples’ Native Title Application; Wik Peoples v the State of Queensland
non-exclusive possession, YB02.117
Northern Territory, B96.108–109
Ord River Project, J00.89-90
production tenements (NT), B96.109
    title, YB02.109
        priority of, YB02.109
    validity of, YB02.147, YB02.152, YB02.200-201
    Ward, under, see Ward    
    Western Lands Lease, J00.190-191
    Wik case, J00.86-87, J00.190-191
    Wik, under, see Wik
Patents, YB00.346-347
    see also Intellectual property rights
    new mining technologies, YB00.342-358
    debt recovery, YB04.170
    dispute resolution, see Dispute resolution
    legislative reforms, YB04.157, YB04.176
        New South Wales, YB04.158
        “no contracting out”, YB04.177–8
        performance of contract and, YB04.179–80
        Queensland, YB04.159
        Victoria, YB04.158–9
        Western Australia, YB04.159
    “pay when paid” clauses, YB04.164
        abolition, YB04.164–5
        claiming, YB04.167–9
        responding to claims, YB04.169
        right to, YB04.165–7
    suspension of work, YB04.170–1
Penal jurisdiction
    international conventions, J99.24-25
    offshore units, J99.24-25
Penalties, YB93.5–6
environmental offences
New Zealand, YB93.425
pollution offences, YB93.297, YB93.331
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
    advice on China related matters, YB03.201
    arbitral awards, enforcement of, YB03.195–198
    arbitration, YB03.191–195
    Australia-China trade, background to, YB03.200–201
    breach or anticipatory breach
        liability for, YB03.186
        where breach occurs, YB03.215
    choice of law
        Australian law, YB03.202
        issue in contracting, YB03.208
    contract language, YB03.184–186
        Chinese language versions, YB03.185
        English language versions, YB03.184
        execution in English and Chinese, YB03.185
        Australian companies doing business in China, YB03.210
        Australian jurisdiction and, YB03.214
        export of Australian goods to China, YB03.209
        when and where made, YB03.215
    damages, YB03.188
    dispute resolution, YB03.190–195
    energy demand, YB03.169
    enforcement of Australian court judgments in, YB03.216–217
    force majeure relief, YB03.187
    foreign invested enterprises (FIE)
        domestic trading activities by, YB03.211
        international trade from China, YB03.212
    foreign investment
        encouraged categories, YB03.170
        investment structures, YB03.171
        levels of investment, restrictions on, YB03.171
        restricted categories, YB03.170
        restriction on, YB03.170
    foreign-related trading, YB03.207
    freedom of contract, YB03.208
    governing law, YB03.182–184
        failure to specify, YB03.184
    joint and several liability, YB03.189
        Australian, YB03.214
        choice for export of goods contracts, YB03.216
    legal framework on transnational contracting, YB03.203–205
    legal risks, managing, YB03.199–218
    liquidated damages, YB03.188
    mediation, YB03.190
    negligence, liability for, YB03.189
    oil and gas industry
        exploration and production, YB03.173
        importing and exporting, YB03.173
    Open door policy, YB03.207
    PRC Law
        contract requirements, YB03.183
        liability regime under, YB03.186–190
        preference of foreigners for law other than, YB03.183
        remedies, YB03.187
    price regulation, YB03.176
    project approvals, YB03.173–176
        construction, YB03.175
        environmental, YB03.175
        feasibility study report, YB03.174
        joint venture project company, establishment of, YB03.174
        land, YB03.174
        proposal approval, YB03.174
        safety, YB03.176
    project rate of return, YB03.176
    regulatory regime, YB03.172–177
    risk management
        contracting, of, YB03.201
        legal risks, YB03.199–218
    specific performance, YB03.187
    tendering, YB03.177–182
        tendering and bidding law, YB03.177–182
    Vienna Convention on International Sale of Goods
        adoption as governing law of contracts, YB03.217–218
        application in China, YB03.205–206
        contract of special project involving supply of goods and services under, YB03.213
        costly and humiliating errors, YB03.202–203
        cross-border contracts, YB03.206
        ‘‘goods’’, contracts involving, YB03.206
        opting out of, YB03.210
        scope of application, YB03.206–207
        WTO commitments in oil and gas industry, YB03.172
Performance bonds
    construction contractors, from, YB03.117
    definition, YB03.111
    project finance, in, YB03.111
environmental requirements, YB93.22–23
mineral, YB93.427
    petroleum exploration, see Petroleum exploration
rule against, YB93.230–231, YB93.232, YB93.233, YB93.240
Personal information
    access to, right of, YB02.506
    collection of, YB02.502-505
        consent for, YB02.503
    determination of, YB02.502-503
    employment records, YB02.504
    handling of, YB02.500, YB02.502
        minimum standards for, YB02.499, YB02.502
    overseas transfer of, YB02.505-506
    privacy of, YB02.499
        application of legislation, YB02.508
        exemptions, YB02.503-506
        National Privacy Principles, see National Privacy Principles
        Privacy Act, see Privacy Act
    transborder data flow, YB02.500
    transfer between related bodies corporate, YB02.503-504
    use of, YB02.502, YB02.503
    what constitutes, YB02.502-503
Petroleum—see also Exploration; Downstream petroleum industry; Offshore petroleum; Petroleum exploration
    access arrangement, J04.145-146
accessibility, YB96.579
accumulation, YB96.241, YB96.242
acquisition of property, J98.7-10
administration reforms offshore, J98.82-83
    alien tort claims, see tort
amendments to Victorian regime, J98.371-372
appraisal drilling, YB96.265-267
Australian Offshore Petroleum Strategy, J99.99-100
Cth legislation amendments, J99.100-101
    Compensation, see compensation
compensation acquisition of property, J98.7-10
compensation for loss, J98.86
    contamination, see contamination
criminal liability offshore, J02.104-110
definition, YB96.235, YB96.285
development drilling, YB96.272-273
development drilling statistics, YB94.227
energy charter agreement, J97.97-98
environment, J02.106-107
environmental protection, YB96.462-463
exploration, YB96.243-253
production and practices, YB96.462-463
exploration application, YB96.288-290
exploration drilling, YB96.256-264
exploration drilling and seismic statistics, YB94.229
exploration licence, YB96.290-296, YB96.312
non compliance, YB96.298
exploration licence rights, J01.4
exploration permits
offshore petroleum, YB94.317
property, whether, YB94.550
onshore petroleum, YB94.318
Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth—see Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth
export, YB94.237
field abandonment, YB96.282
field depletion, YB96.274
Floating Production, Storage and Offtake Services Agreements, J03.68-484
foreign investment
Senate Select Committee recommendations, YB94.233
statistics, YB94.231
gas, YB96.238-239
generation, YB96.239-240
    indigenous groups
        American Indian tribes, YB01.426
        Maori claims to see Maori claims to petroleum
    Indonesia, see Indonesia
Indonesia maritime boundaries, J97.99
infrastructure licences, J99.100
joint venture agreements, see joint ventures    
joint ventures, see also joint ventures
        offtake of product, YB01.348
        scope of, YB01.348
        third party use of facilities, YB01.348
        unincorporated, YB01.139, YB01.347-348
legal character of resource titles, J98.86
LPG contract, YB96.309
Maori claims to, see Maori claims to petroleum
marine parks and reserves, J97.192, J97.279-291
    market, J04.195-200
    ministerial statement (Vic), J04.30-31    
    National Offshore Petroleum Authority, J04.213-214
    native title agreements, see native title
natural gas contract, YB96.308-309
New Zealand, YB93.421–422
Northwest Shelf project authorisation, J98.379-390
occurrence, YB96.241
    offshore facilities 
        occupational health and safety, J04.133-134
offshore industry, J03.468-484
offshore legislation, J98.346
offshore petroleum exploration strategy, YB94.248
offtake agreements, YB01.348-349
oil, YB96.237, YB96.238
ownership, YB96.286-287
ownership, in Australia and New Zealand, YB01.427-429
offshore units see Offshore units
onshore application, J98.85-86
Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth), YB94.246–248
    Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Bill 2004 (Qld), J04.128-130
    Petroleum and Other Legislation Amendment Bill (Qld), J04.223-224
    Petroleum (Submerged Lands) (Amendment) Bill (Vic), J04.133-134
pipeline access, J97.196
pipeline easements, J97.191
pipeline licences, J99.101
production, YB96.269
production licence, YB96.304-306
products, YB96.307-308
    quality standards, J03.28-32
refining, YB96.282
registration, J98.86
regulation of offshore installations and seabed activities, J98.109-137
reserve estimates, YB96.269-271
resource rent tax, J97.14
risk assessment, YB96.254-256
safety, J02.107-109
safety regulations, J97.15
sale of interest, YB96.298-303
seismic policy, J97.2
statutory regulation, YB96.287-288
taxation—see Mining taxation
tenement, YB96.298-299
Timor Gap, J97.191
Timor Gap Agreement, J01.132-136
    Timor Sea concession area, see Timor Sea
    trade practices, see restrictive trade practices
transportation, YB96.271, YB96.309-311
treatise on petroleum law, J97.96-97
treatment, YB96.274
value, YB96.235
well stimulation, YB96.268-269
Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth—see Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth
work programs, waiver of, J99.1, J99.99
World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983, YB94.235
Petroleum Act 1940 (SA)
amendment by Petroleum (Pipeline Licences) Amendment Act 1993
commencement, B94.11
“pipeline”, B94.11
“pipeline licence”, B94.11
“to construct”, B94.11
“to operate”, B94.11
Petroleum Act 2000 (SA)
    approval of dealings, YB00.576-577
    comparison with other petroleum legislation, YB00.558-560
    consistency between jurisdictions, YB00.559-560
    gas supply, security of, YB00.564-566
    geothermal energy regulation, YB00.567
    history, YB00.557
        government audits, YB00.572
        ministerial use of, YB00.573-574
        provision of, YB00.572-573
        registers, YB00.573
    objective regulation, YB00.560-561
        environmental impact, levels of, YB00.562-563
        levels of regulatory intervention, YB00.561-566
        ministerial discretion, YB00.563-565
        official supervision, levels of, YB00.561-562
    one window to government approach, YB00.566
    purpose, YB00.558
    registration of dealings, YB00.576-577
    resources regulated by, YB00.567
    third party access provisions, YB00.574-576
        gas storage reservoirs, YB00.574-576
        transmission pipelines, YB00.574
    titles, see also Petroleum titles
        commerciality requirements, YB00.571-572, YB00.578
        information regarding, YB00.572-574
        minor licences, YB00.570-571
        new forms of, YB00.567-571
        production licences, YB00.569-570
        registers, YB00.573
        retention licences, YB00.567-569
    transfers, approval and registration, YB00.576-577
    underground gas storage, regulation of, YB00.567, 578
Petroleum Act 1984 (NT)
amendment by Petroleum Amendment Act 1994
access authorities, B94.148
assent, B94.147
obligations on surrender at cessation of title, B94.149
production licence renewal, B94.147–148
release of information, B94.148–149
royalty calculation, B94.149
security for environmental rehabilitation, B94.149–150
standards, B94.149
term of exploration permit, B94.147
amendment in accordance with Native Title (Consequential Amendments) Act 1994
application to Warden for compensation, B94.122
assent, B94.121
compensation, B94.122
intention, B94.121
“land”, B94.121
non-monetary compensation, B94.122
“private land”, B94.122
Petroleum Amendment Act 1995 (Qld)
access principles, YB96.584-585
access to petroleum assets, YB96.581
application, YB96.582-583
Australian competition law, YB96.582
commencement, YB96.582
critique, YB96.592-594
Hilmer Report, YB96.580, YB96.590-591
information duty, YB96.585-586
key features, YB96.587-590
“natural monopoly characteristics”, YB96.580
negotiation, YB96.586-587
open access to pipelines, YB96.580
other States, YB96.591-592
outline, YB96.583
Pt 8, YB96.583-584
reasoning behind Act, YB96.581-582
Trade Practices Act, Pt IIIA, YB96.590-591
Petroleum (Australia-Indonesia Zone of Co-operation) (Consequential Provisions) Act 1990 (Cth)
constitutional validity of, YB94.556
Petroleum companies
    directors’ liability under legislation, YB03.524–525
    maritime boundary disputes, YB03.403–404
Petroleum exploration
    Administrative Guidelines for grant of permit, YB01.445
        legality of, YB01.445-447
        new, YB01.449, YB01.450
East Spar and Wandoo, B96.202–214
alternative permit systems, YB01.454-455
developing nations, system in, YB01.454
environmental impact assessment and off-shore oil, B96.117
expenditure commitment by permittees, YB01.455
    Joint Authority
        power to cancel permits, YB01.444-445
    new guidelines, YB01.449, YB01.450-451
        integrity of system, YB01.453
        uncertainty under, YB01.453
    new regime
        administrative, YB01.450-451
        legislative, YB01.451-453
offshore oil policy, B96.116
        cancellation, power of Joint Authority, YB01.444-445
        cash bidding for, YB01.443
        enforcement, YB01.444-447
        failure to comply with condition, YB01.444
        process for grant, YB01.443-444
        requirement for, YB01.443
        work obligation bidding system, YB01.443-444
    Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Acts
        administration, YB01.443
        application, YB01.443
        co-operative scheme, YB01.443
Schedule of Specific Requirements, B96.102–103
Shell’s Cornea problem, YB01.447-449
        debate on Cornea application, YB01.448
        resolution, YB01.449-453
resource access rights, B96.91, B96.149–154, B96.163
    United Kingdom, system in, YB01.454
    United States, system in, YB01.454
    work obligation bidding system, YB01.443-444
        sample work obligation set, YB01.444
Petroleum industry
        Cth, see Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth)
        consistency between jurisdictions, YB00.559-560
        SA, see Petroleum Act 2000 (SA)
        uniformity, YB00.559-560
    licensing, see Petroleum titles
    lifts, GST issues, YB00.454
offshore operations see Offshore petroleum operations
taxation legislation, changes to—see Mining
Petroleum Industry Liaison Committee (SA), B94.146
Petroleum lease
net profits interest, B95.60, B95.61–62
reservation of interest in net profits, B95.61–62
Petroleum legislation
    coal seam gas, in relation to (Qld), J00.6-7
    overlap with mining legislation, J00.6
    Petroleum Bill 1999 (SA), J00.109-110
    royalties, J00.193
    Victoria, J00.200-203
Petroleum licences
    access authorisation regimes, YB03.593–594
    licence area, exploration outside
        New South Wales, YB03.590
        Northern Territory, YB03.589–590
        Queensland, YB03.590–591
        Victoria, YB03.589
        Western Australia, YB03.590
    offshore, YB03.591–592
Petroleum pipeline
    compensation test case (Qld), J00.4-5
        impact of pipeline, J00.5
        valuation methodologies, J00.5
    pipeline survey licence (SA), J00.109
    third party access (SA), J00.110
Petroleum Regulation 1987 (WA)
amendment by Petroleum Amendment Regulations 1994
commencement, B94.154
“federal duty”, B94.154
Petroleum Royalties Legislation Amendment Act 1994 (WA)
assent, B94.154
“royalty value”, B94.154
Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth) (PSLA)
action discretion, YB04.3
    administrative authorisations, YB04.7
    Administrative Guidelines, YB04.27
    amendments, YB00.114-115, YB00.191
    breaches, penalties for, YB00.107-108
    Commonwealth-State negotiations, YB04.32    
complex detail in, YB04.2, YB04.6
    complexity of regime, YB04.8
    comprehensive statutory code, as, YB00.92-95
    `concessionary' regime, YB00.93-94
content discretion, YB04.3
    contractual regime compared, YB00.100-101
definitions, YB04.2–3
    delegation in, YB04.6
    directions under s 101, YB04.7
        action, YB04.3
        content, YB04.3
        definition, YB04.2–3
        discretionary powers, YB04.1, YB04.2
        face of the Act, on, YB04.9–25
        industry's attitude to, YB04.38–42
        judicial review, YB04.10
        practice, in, YB04.9–25
        research hypotheses, YB04.3–4
        trend to reduce, YB04.26–30
            who wants discretionary powers, YB04.30    
    effectiveness, YB00.107-110, YB00.119-121
    environmental regulation, YB00.121
    evaluation, YB00.91-137
extent of, YB04.4
    Federal-State rivalry, YB04.32
    flexibility of regime, YB00.100-107
    future of, YB00.119-121
    German regime compared, YB00.101-103
    Government perspective, YB00.112-124
guidelines, YB04.13, YB04.37–8
    history, YB00.113-115
low level of Parliamentary interest in administration of, YB04.33
    mirror State legislation, YB00.93, YB00.175
    negotiated behaviour, allowing for, YB00.109
occupational health and safety powers, YB04.28
    Offshore Constitutional Settlement, YB00.114, YB00.115
    origin, consequences of, YB04.6–7    
    overview, YB00.92-95, YB00.126, YB00.175-176
    ownership of offshore petroleum, YB00.95
    penalties for breach, YB00.107-108
plain English, YB04.42
    plain English, re-writing in, YB00.92, YB00.137
        Commonwealth Department guidance as to exercise of, YB04.27
        new, YB04.28
        removal of, YB04.27
        definition, YB04.3
        prescriptive provisions, YB04.2
    proposed re-write, YB00.124, YB00.137
    purpose statement, YB00.136
regulation making power, YB04.28
        reviews, YB00.115-119
        competition policy principles, against, YB00.118-119
        petroleum resource rent tax, YB00.117-118
        Stakeholder Survey (1997), YB00.116-117
rewriting, YB04.2, YB04.42
    safety management, YB00.121-122
    security of titles under, YB00.96-100, YB00.130
Senate Committee review of, YB04.32–3
    structural deficiencies, YB00.126
    UK approach contrasted, YB00.92-111
Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Legislation Amendment Act 1994 (Cth)
companies, liability for operations, B94.97
consolidation of fees Acts, B94.97
inconsistency in territorial sea boundary created by Zone of Co-operation, B94.97
Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Regulations 1990 (WA)
amendment by Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Amendment Regulations 1994
commencement, B94.154
Petroleum titles
    associated facilities licence (SA), J00.109, YB00.570
bidding agreement, YB00.132
cash bidding, YB00.127, YB00.129
commerciality requirements (SA), YB00.571-572, YB00.578
conditions, YB00.105-106
criminal offence of exploring or exploiting without, YB00.95
    replacing with civil remedies, YB00.99-100
dealings, approval of, YB00.131-135
dealings in, J00.59-66, J00.110
        application for approval, J00.59-60
        approval, J00.59-66, J00.110
        dealing constituted by more than one instrument, J00.62-63
        definition of dealing, J00.60-61
        instruments with more than one dealing, J00.62-63
        notice, J00.68-69
        oral dealings, J00.63-64
        Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth), under, J00.59-66
        registration, J00.59-66, J00.110
        s 81, effect of, J00.64-66
    exploration permits, basis for granting, YB00.127-128
    extension, YB00.103-104
    grant by Joint Authority, YB00.94, YB00.105-106, YB00.127-130
        basis for, YB00.127-128
        discretionary, whether, YB00.106, YB00.107, YB00.128
    infrastructure licences, YB00.116, YB00.135-136
    joint operating agreement, YB00.133-134
    minor licences (SA), J00.109, YB00.570-571
    Petroleum Act 2000 (SA), new forms under, YB00.567-571
    pipeline survey licence (SA), J00.109
    priorities, J00.66-69
        applicable rules, J00.66-68
        contractual rights, J00.69
        notice of transfers and dealings, J00.68-69
    producer responsibility for security of supply, J00.110
    production licence
        development outside area of, YB00.135-136, YB00.570
        requirements (SA), YB00.569-570
    register of, J00.54, J00.68
    registers (SA), YB00.573
    retention licences (SA), J00.109, YB00.567-569
    revocation by Commonwealth, YB00.96-97
        application of s 51(xxxi) of Constitution, YB00.97, YB00.98
    rule of rupture, YB00.104
    security, YB00.96-100, YB00.130
    special access authority (Vic), YB00.570
    speculative survey licence (SA), J00.109, YB00.570
    statutory regime
        Cth, see Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth)
        SA, see Petroleum Act 2000 (SA)
    transfer, J00.54-59
        becoming registered holder, J00.56-58
        co-holder, rights, J00.59
        mortgage, by, J00.57-58
        notice, J00.68-69
        Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth), under, J00.54-59
        registered holder, importance of being, J00.54-55
        rights of holders inter-se, J00.58-59
        unregistered transfer, J00.58
    transfer of title, YB00.130-131
        approval, YB00.131-132
    unitisation, YB00.103-107, YB00.122-123
    work program bidding, YB00.123-124, YB00.127, YB00.129-130
Picketing, J00.128-133
    court, taking claim to, J00.130-133
        balance of convenience, J00.130-131
        evidence gathering, J00.132-133
        identification of participants, J00.131-132
    enterprise bargaining, use in, J00.129
    general guidelines, J00.128-129
    police, role of, J00.133
    tortious, J00.129-133
sale of assets
Authority of South Australia, B95.99
Commonwealth, B95.41–59
Piper Alpha disaster, YB96.476, YB96.507-511, YB96.534-535
Piracy, see also Maritime terrorism
    bulk cargo, YB04.282–3
    choke points, YB04.281–2
    force majeure clauses, YB04.317, YB04.319
    impact, YB04.280–1
        economic, YB04.281–2
    insurance, YB04.319–20
    international agreements and conventions, YB04.283–4
        Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA), YB04.283–4
        International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, YB04.284
        South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO), YB04.285
        United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, YB04.284
    maritime trade, importance of, YB04.276, YB04.317
    recent history, YB04.279–81
    smuggling and, YB04.280
    targets, YB04.280
    vessels in distress
        pretence of, YB04.318–19
        seafaring law, YB04.318, YB04.320
    late changes to, YB03.20, YB03.21
Pohokura gas field
    joint marketing authorisation, draft determination on, YB03.623–624
        Australia, impact on, YB03.641
        background, YB03.624–625
        benefits of joint marketing, YB03.635
        competition, substantially lessening, YB03.629–635
        competitive market, development of, YB03.633–634
        conditions, YB03.635–638
        evolution of market, YB03.628
        feasibility of separate marketing, YB03.626–627
        future exploration and production, impact on, YB03.638–641
        intrinsic detriments, YB03.633
        market characteristics, YB03.627–628
        preference for separate marketing, YB03.630–631
        process, YB03.624–625
        specific competition detriments, YB03.632–633
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.252
Political risk, YB03.152–153
Pollution,  see also Contaminated land
definition, YB93.296
international conventions, J99.25-26
offences, YB93.297, YB93.331
    offshore units
        civil jurisdiction, J99.24
        liability, J99.25-26
Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement, J99.26
Pollution control licences
certificates of compliance (NSW), B96.9
load-based licensing (NSW), B96.10
Porgera mine (Papua New Guinea)
agreements, development of, YB95.146
compensation for development, YB95.169–170
development forum, reconciliation of interests through, YB95.146–148
employment programme, adoption of, YB95.173–174
environmental plan, negotiation of, YB95.172
financing of project, YB95.170–171
foreign capital, access to, YB95.148–150
joint venture, establishment as, YB95.135–136
land, access to, YB95.142–143
local business, development of, YB95.174
mining development contract, YB95.141-143, YB95.153, YB95.165
additional equity, YB95.154
gold, provision for refining of, YB95.166–167
infrastructure facilities, provision of, YB95.165–166
security of tenure, YB95.153
sovereign risk, YB95.177
state equity in, confrontation in relation to, YB95.155–156
taxes, calculation of, YB95.156–158
Portfolio investment theory, YB93.131, YB93.132
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.252
Poverty eradication
    extractive industry projects, YB04.72–3
    World Bank, goal of, YB04.72
Power generation, see Electricity supply
Power projects
Indian power projects, J98.428
Power purchase agreement (PPA)
    credit risk
        IPP, YB03.363
        offtaker, YB03.363
    development phase provisions, YB03.338–344
        commissioning and acceptance tests, YB03.341
        conditions precedent, YB03.338
        core technical requirements, YB03.340
        failure to achieve acceptance target date, YB03.342
        IPP’s development responsibilities, YB03.340
        project milestones, YB03.340
        re-rating, YB03.343
        remedies for default, YB03.342
        step-in right, YB03.344
        term, YB03.339
        termination rights, YB03.343
    force majeure, YB03.348–349
        risk, YB03.362
    general provisions, YB03.348–349
    key provisions, YB03.337
    law, change in, YB03.349
        risk of, YB03.361
    limitations of liability, YB03.349
    miscellaneous clauses, YB03.349
    operations phase provisions, YB03.344–348
        available capacity, YB03.345
        commencement and term, YB03.344
        default during, YB03.347
        IPP’s capacity and supply obligations, YB03.345
        ongoing tests, YB03.346
        outages, YB03.346
        power station, operation and maintenance, YB03.346
        tariff provisions, YB03.346
        title and risk, YB03.346
    risk allocation, YB03.356–363
        cost overruns, YB03.361
        delay in demand risk, YB03.358
        delays in power station construction/commissioning, YB03.357
        electricity demand risk, YB03.356
        electricity transmission risk, YB03.363
        financing risk, YB03.362
        force majeure, YB03.362
        fuel supply risk, YB03.359
        gas transport risk, YB03.360
        IPP credit risk, YB03.363
        law, change in, YB03.361
        offtaker credit risk, YB03.363
        permitting/approvals risk, YB03.358
        tax, change in, YB03.361
        unavailability, YB03.360
    types, YB03.337
    regulators, of, see Regulators
    separation of, YB04.89–90
Precious metals
    definition, J99.58
    GST, J99.58
Preliminary Environment Assessment
extraneous matter, B95.6
ulterior motives, B95.6
Prescribed body corporate
    agent, as, YB02.112
    establishment of, YB02.112
    functions of, YB02.112
        performance of, YB02.112
    native title 
        claims by, YB02.118
        holder, YB02.112-113
        holder in trust, YB02.112
    political entity, YB02.113, YB02.118
    purpose of, YB02.112
    registration of, YB02.112
    role of, YB02.112
    system of laws, YB02.113
    trustee, as, YB02.112
Price fixing
    joint venture exception, YB01.368-369
    joint ventures, issues for, YB03.60–62
    access arrangements, YB04.213–14
        Competition Principles Agreement, YB04.214–15
        individual access regimes, YB04.216
        Productivity Commission, recommendations of, YB04.215
        Trade Practices Act, YB04.215
    “building block” approach, YB04.217
    customer expectation and capital expenditure, YB04.218
    electricity sector, YB04.216–19
    gas industry, YB04.219–22
        joint ventures, YB04.418–20
        LNG contracts, YB04.333–5
        price reviews, YB04.336–7
Privacy Act
    application of, YB02.500-501, YB02.508
    binding effect, YB02.502
    breach of, YB02.500
    compliance, YB02.517
    co-regulation, YB02.502
    effect of, YB02.517
    enforcement of, YB02.500, YB02.506-507
    exemptions, YB02.503-506
    memorandum of understanding, YB02.507
    operation of, YB02.501
    penalties, YB02.500
    personal information, handling of, YB02.500
    transborder data flow, YB02.500
    transitional provisions, YB02.508
Privacy Code
    approved, YB02.502
        development of, YB02.502
        process, YB02.502
        requirements for, YB02.502
Privacy of information
    Contract, see Privity of contract
    Legislation, see Privacy Act; Privacy Code
    National Privacy Principles, see National Privacy Principles
    Personal, see Personal information
    public interest, YB02.503
    right of, YB02.503
    sensitive, see Sensitive information
Privatisation, YB03.143
British Gas, YB95.294–297
    electricity market, see Energy industry reform
        Victoria, in, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
    facilities of national significance, YB04.181–2
private land
    a reserve, J01.127-128
    mine inspection reports, J99.5
Privity of contract
    acquisition contract, YB02.515-516
    application of, YB02.500-501
        employees, YB02.509
        government departments and agencies, YB02.500
        indigenous communities, YB02.513
        individuals, YB02.508-509
        neighbours, YB02.512-513
        private sector organisations, YB02.500
        shareholders, YB02.512-513
        third party service providers, YB02.510
    breach of, YB02.500
        penalties, YB02.500
    confidential agreements, YB02.514-515
    due diligence agreements, YB02.514-515
    enforcement of, YB02.500
    joint venture and operator agreements, YB02.510-512
    personal information, see Personal information
    resource contracts, YB02.508-516
    transborder data flow, YB02.500
Proceeds account, YB03.99
procedural law
    jurisdiction, see Land and Resources Tribunal
process engineering
    contracts, J03.49-66
    risk allocation, J03.49-66
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Production licence, J00.55
    commerciality criterion (SA), J00.109
    licensee, definition, J00.55
    restriction on area (SA), J00.110
    transfer and dealings, see Petroleum titles
Production of documents
    ASIC's power to compel, YB04.85
    Discovery, see Discovery
    Environment Protection Authority's power to compel, YB04.86
    limiting disclosure after, YB04.92–5
    subpoenas for, see Subpoenas
    WorkCover, YB04.86
Productivity Commission
    access regimes, review of, see Access regimes
    review by, YB02.415-416
Professional indemnity insurance, YB03.123
Profit a prendre
trespass, right of holder to sue in, YB94.325
what is, YB94.315
    completion test, YB03.99–100, YB03.155–157
    incorporated joint venture, YB03.102
    insurance, YB03.123–126
    joint venture
        incorporated, YB03.102
        unincorporated, YB03.103–104
    partnership, YB03.102–103
    politically volatile areas, in, YB03.152–153
    project vehicle, choice of, YB03.101–107, YB03.161–162
        process and design, YB03.116–118
        technology, YB03.116–117
    unincorporated joint venture, YB03.104–107
    unit trust, YB03.103–104
Project developers
    international standards, role of, YB04.49
Project development
    regulation of contamination
        New South Wales, YB04.462–3
        Northern Territory, YB04.477–8
        Queensland, YB04.459–60
        South Australia, YB04.471–2
        Tasmania, YB04.468–9
        Victoria, YB04.465–6
        Western Australia, YB04.474–5
Project finance
accounts, YB03.98–99
Asia-Pacific, J03.112-115
background to, YB03.143–144
    banks, YB99.2
    capital markets lenders, YB99.2
cash flows of project, YB03.95
        distribution of, YB03.97–98, YB03.160–161
    consent deed, see Consent deed
    corporate style financing, distinguished, YB03.85
    credit rating, YB03.114–115, YB03.162–163
    debt instruments, YB03.107
    definitions, YB03.84–85, YB03.142
    direct payment obligations, YB03.112–114
    equity injection by sponsor, YB03.110–111
    feasibility studies, YB03.144
    finance planning, YB03.91–116, YB03.151
    finance techniques, YB99.3
growth in, YB03.143
    hedging, YB03.159–160
    insurance, J01.255-257
interest on subordinated loans, YB03.107
    internal cash flows, from, YB03.92
    letters of comfort, YB03.111–112
    market flex clauses, YB03.115–116, YB03.163–164
    material adverse change, YB03.115–116
    negative pledges, YB03.93–95
    non-recourse financing, YB99.3
performance guarantees, YB03.111
    project bankability, YB03.85–91, YB03.144–149
project financier, J01.158-160, J01.254-255
project ratios, YB03.95–97, YB03.158–159
    project revenues and assets, recourse to, YB03.85
    qualified institutional buyers (QIBs), YB99.2-3
raising, YB03.92
    ratings for, see Project rating
reasons for use of, YB03.151–154
    risk allocation and modification, J01.50-57, J01.155-158, J01.160-163
risk assessment, YB03.85
security, YB03.94, YB03.162, J01.151-152
        external collateral, YB03.110
        personal covenants, YB03.94
    requirement by financiers for, YB03.108–114    
        contribution of funds, YB03.107–108
        covenants, impact on, YB03.95, YB03.154
        credit worthiness, YB03.142
        equity injection by, YB03.110–111
        foreign, YB03.108
    restrictions impacting on, YB03.93–95, YB03.154
statement of principles, YB03.149
    true equity, YB03.107
    types, J01.148-150
    weaker joint venture partner, YB03.153
    what is, YB03.142
Project rating
    analytical components, YB99.5-12
    choice of law risk, YB99.21-22
    collateral risk, YB99.15-17
    commodity price volitility, YB99.6
    construction risk, YB99.6-10
        breach of duty, YB99.7
        delay in completion, YB99.7-8
        design risk, YB99.7
        early completion, YB99.8
        force majeure, YB99.8
        independent engineer's role, YB99.6-7
        investment grade contractor as `equity', YB99.9
        mining industry, YB99.9
        no blanket contract, YB99.7
        resource projects, YB99.9-10
    credit rating agencies, YB99.3, YB99.30
    criteria for project finance transactions, YB99.1-28
    enforceability and collateral risk, YB99.15-17
    environment and heritage risk, YB99.19-20
    foreign currency rating, YB99.17-18
    future flow transactions, YB99.1, YB99.22-26
        ability to produce, YB99.24-25
        financial performance of company, YB99.24
        importance to industry, YB99.24
        importance to sovereign, YB99.24
        legal framework, YB99.25-26
        local currency issuer credit rating, YB99.23
        operating performance of company, YB99.25
        other companies, treatment of, YB99.25
        structure of company, YB99.25
        structure of finance, YB99.22
        willingness to produce, YB99.24-25
    heads of risk, YB99.4
    host country risk, YB99.17-18
        economic troubles, YB99.18
        environment/heritage issues, YB99.19-20
        foreign currency rating, YB99.17-18
        tax issues, YB99.20-21
    in-house credit assessment, YB99.4
    investment banker's perspective, YB99.29-41
    investment grade, YB99.1, YB99.3
        resource companies, YB99.31-32, YB99.37
    legal and political regime, YB99.4
    legal risk, YB99.13-22
    long term ratings, YB99.30-31
    nationally recognised statistical rating organisation (NRSRO), YB99.3
    need for, YB99.2-3
    non-investment grade, YB99.3, YB99.31
        resource companies, YB99.37
    operating and technology risk, YB99.10-12
        O&M agreement, YB99.10, YB99.21
        resource projects, YB99.11-12
        vulnerability to sponsor insolvency, YB99.10-11
    ore body risk, YB99.12
    physical nature of project, YB99.5
    project economics, YB99.5-6
    ratings committee presentation, YB99.27
    resource projects, YB99.1, YB99.37-41
        case study, YB99.38-41
        company credit ratings, YB99.29-41
        construction risk, YB99.9-10
        debt service resource funds, YB99.12
        investment grade companies, YB99.31-32
        investors' use of ratings, YB99.35-36
        labour problems, YB99.12
        operating and technology risk, YB99.11-12
        ore body risk, YB99.12
        project economics, YB99.6
        ratings process, YB99.34-35
    sovereign risk, YB99.17-18
        economic troubles, YB99.18
        environment/heritage issues, YB99.19-20
        foreign currency rating, YB99.17-18
        government incentives, YB99.18
        tax issues, YB99.20-21
    special purpose entity (SPE), YB99.13
        anti-filing mechanism, YB99.14-15
        bankruptcy-remote, YB99.3
        definition, YB99.13
        merger with lower-rated entity, YB99.14
        prohibition of lower-rated debt, YB99.14
        single purpose restriction, YB99.13
    Standard & Poor's rating process, YB99.27-28
    structural risk, YB99.13-15
    tax and regulatory risk, YB99.20-21
    technology risk, YB99.10-12
    what is, YB99.1, YB99.2
PRMFA, YB96.351, YB96.354, YB96.376
    breach of, YB02.14
        damages, YB02.14, YB02.16
    express, YB02.40
    reliance on, YB02.14, YB02.16
    specific, YB02.15, YB02.16
Promissory estoppel, YB96.369-371
    breach of duty to negotiate, YB02.14
Proper purpose
    exercise of powers for, YB04.87–8
definition J00.197
Law of reforms (NT), J00.193-194
legal concept of, YB94.543
mining lease as, J00.197
    ownership of, YB02.177
        absolute, YB02.177
vested in the Crown, YB02.177
Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth—see Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth

    mine health and safety law breaches, J99.104-105
Prospecting—see also Mining
permit, YB93.427
Prospecting licences
applications by companies, B96.165–167
application for, in area surrendered from exploration licence, B94.155
exemption from expenditure conditions, B94.115
compliance with expenditure conditions, B96.17, B96.135–136
conversion to mining lease, B96.165–167
environmental objections, J01.126
marking-out, B96.130
objections, B96.135
objection to application where land amalgamated in exploration licence, B94.155–156
plaint for forfeiture (WA), J00.12
under Mining Amendment Act 1994 (WA), B96.12
Western Australia, B96.174
Prospecting licences (WA)
    exemption from expenditure conditions, J99.13-15
    forfeiture, J99.13
    joint venture, J99.13-15
    marking out of application, J99.118-119
    non-judicial function by Warden, J99.13
    special licence, application for, J99.217-219
    objection by existing licence holder, J99.217-219
Prospective licence
application for exemption from expenditure conditions, B95.21–22, B95.22–23
application objected to for collusion, B95.19, B95.184–185
conversion of primary tenement, B95.20
costs where frivolous or vexatious objection to application, B95.19
future expenditure requirements, B95.23
marking out in accordance with Act, B95.19
non-compliance with expenditure conditions, B95.17–19
obligation on applicants to show no detriment to objector if granted, B95.20
objection to application for exemption from expenditure conditions, B95.21
public interest not a criterion for refusal by Warden, B95.184–185
refused where would interfere with development of nearby programmes, B95.20–21
special licences (s 70(1) Mining Act 1978 (WA)), B95.20
cost of, B95.6–7
Prospecting permits (Qld)
    Land and Resources Tribunal constitution, J99.78
    electronic form, YB00.410
    exemptions, YB00.409
        licensed dealers, offers through, YB00.409
        small scale offers, YB00.409
        sophisticated investors, YB00.409, YB00.413
    mining company IPO, YB00.505-511
        consents, YB00.508-509
        contents, YB00.505-506
        expert reports, YB00.508-509
        general disclosure obligation, YB00.505-506
        materiality, YB00.510-511
        projections and forecasts, YB00.506-507
    registration process, abolition, YB00.410
PSLA, YB96.513-516, YB96.533
Public bodies
    carrying on a business, YB02.439
    functions, exercise of, YB02.422
        liability for, YB02.423
    liability of, YB02.423
        cause of action for, YB02.423
        compensation, see Compensation
        contracts, in, YB02.423
        damages, see Damages
        limitation of, YB02.442
        statutory immunities, YB02.440-443
        torts, in, YB02.423
    misfeasance in public office, see Misfeasance
    misleading or deceptive conduct, see Misleading or
        deceptive conduct

    negligence of, see Negligence
    powers, YB02.421
        discretionary, YB02.421
        exercise of, YB02.422-423, YB02.440
        good faith, in, YB02.440
    statutory duty, breach of, YB02.424, YB02.429-430
        damages for, YB02.424, YB02.429
    trade or commerce, in, YB02.439
    unlawful activity by, YB02.423, YB02.425, YB02.443
Public company
    financial reporting, YB02.345-346
Public facilities
    access to, YB02.121
Public interest
access arrangements and, YB04.181–2
        assessment, YB04.197–8
effect on government contracts, YB93.145–150, YB93.182–192—see also 
Sovereign risk, executive necessity
        meaning, J99.215
        mining lease, objection to, J00.118-120
        Minister’s discretion under Mining Act, J99.32-24
    objections to mining leases (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41, J99.214-217
Public interest immunity, YB93.396–400—see also Inspection
Public liability insurance, YB03.123
Public officer
    duty of care, breach of, YB02.430
        damages for, YB02.430
    functions of, exercise of, YB02.422
        liability for, YB02.423
    liability of, YB02.423, YB02.424
        cause of action, YB02.423-424
        compensation, see Compensation
        contracts, in, YB02.423
        damages, see Damages
        limitation of, YB02.442
        statutory immunities, YB02.440-443
        torts, in, YB02.423
    misfeasance of, see Misfeasance
    negligence of, see Negligence
    powers of, YB02.421
        discretionary, YB02.421
        exercise of, YB02.422-423, YB02.440
        good faith, in, YB02.440
    statutory duty of, breach of, YB02.424, YB02.429-430
        damages for, YB02.424, YB02.429
    unlawful activity by, YB02.423, YB02.425, YB02.443
Public officials
    objections to decisions of
        Australian culture, YB00.246-247
        judicial view of public power, YB00.248
        natural resource projects, see Objections to natural resource projects
Public participation
    extractive industry projects, in, YB04.74
Public private partnerships
    asset utilisation, YB03.72
    Australian experience, YB03.73–76
        Commonwealth, YB03.76
        New South Wales, YB03.75
        Northern Territory, YB03.76
        Queensland, YB03.75
        South Australia, YB03.76
        Tasmania, YB03.75
        Victoria, YB03.75
        Western Australia, YB03.76
    benefits, YB03.80–81
    broad spectrum and flexibility, YB03.69
    build own operate transfer (BOOT) model, YB03.68
    catalyst for change to, YB03.70
    challenges of, YB03.81–83
    competition, YB03.73
    contractual structure, YB03.77–79
    definition, YB03.67
    design build finance maintain (DBFM) model, YB03.68
    design construct maintain model, YB03.69
        requirements, YB03.80
        structure, YB03.72
    government, contracting with, YB03.77–78
    history, YB03.73
    joint venture model, YB03.68
    models, YB03.67–69
    optimal risk allocation, YB03.71–72
    outsourcing, YB03.69
    policy documents, content of, YB03.77
    private finance initiative (PFI) model, YB03.68
    privatisation, YB03.69
    public and private roles, reassessment of, YB03.70
    reasons for using, YB03.70
    risk allocation, YB03.78–80
    secrets of success, YB03.83
    summary, YB03.66
    value for money, YB03.70–71, YB03.80–81
    whole of life approach, YB03.72
Public utility providers
    Longford case, consequences of, YB03.579–581
Purchase of coal assets, see Coal assets, sale and purchase
environmental matters—see Risk sharing
special conditions, YB93.44–52

Consolidated Index: Q

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Qualified institutional buyers (QIBs)
    project finance, YB99.2-3
        ratings for, see Project rating

Code of Practice (Tasmania), B94.109
    logging companies, use of (Tas), J00.8
    residences, effect on (Tas), J00.8
Quarrying industry
taxation legislation, changes to—see Mining

environmental protection, YB96.450-454
freedom of information, YB95.524
Environmental Protection Act 1994 (Qld), in relation to, YB95.528
Inquiry into Improper Disposal of Liquid Waste, YB95.524
native title legislation, YB94.14
Queensland Native Title Tribunal
appeals from, YB94.16
establishment of, YB94.15
President, YB94.16
Queensland Cost Island Declaratory Act 1985
inconsistency with Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), B94.72
Queensland Land Tribunal
first report of, B94.137
Melville claim for land rights, B94.137–143
“connection”, B94.140
evidence of connection, B94.140–142
“group”, B94.139, B94.142
“traditional affiliation”, B94.139, B94.142
Queensland Minerals and Energy Department
statement of intention to take firmer line against mining lessees who “real estate” holdings, B95.92–94
Queensland Warden’s Court
compensation proceedings, B96.122, B96.167–168
powers and procedures, B96.122

Consolidated Index: R

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

R v Sparrow
    aboriginal rights, YB02.211, YB02.215, YB02.217
        existence of, YB02.216
        infringement of, YB02.215, YB02.216
        proof of existence, YB02.216
High Court consideration of concept of, YB94.55
Racial discrimination
definition, YB94.37
International Convention on—see International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth)—see also Native title; Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), YB94.37
constitutional validity of provisions, YB94.37
    effect on native title, YB02.132
enjoyment of human rights, equality in, YB94.39
International Convention
legislative effect to provisions of, YB94.38
ratification of, YB94.38
Mabo (No 1), consideration of provisions in, YB94.39
potential to invalidate dispositions of land, B94.29, B94.32
potential to invalidate instruments of title, B94.41, B94.72, B94.74, B94.125, B94.159
prohibition of racial discrimination by s 9, YB94.39
right to compensation, B94.39, B94.72, B94.75, B94.159
section 9, YB94.39
section 10, YB94.39
validity, B94.160
validity of state legislation challenged under
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA), B94.12
Fisheries and Oyster Farms (General) Regulation (NSW), B94.15
Rail access
    Hamersley Iron decision, YB99.539, YB99.541-545
    private and public utilities, YB99.548
    production process
        definition, YB99.548-549
        railway line as part of, YB99.542-544, YB99.548-549
    protected contractual right, YB99.544-545
    Queensland, J02.17
    Rail Access Corp decision, YB99.545-547
    regimes, YB99.549-550
        distinction between facility and, YB99.547-548
        meaning, YB99.542-543
        whether railway line is, YB99.542-543
    Trade Practices Act
        Pt IIIA, YB99.539, 540
        s 46, YB99.549
Rail line access, J99.131-151, J99.169-173
    certification declaration criteria, J99.147-151
    declaration applications, J99.131-136
    declaration criteria, J99.138-146
    Hamersley Iron case, J99.130, J99.169, YB99.539, YB99.541-545
    NSW, J99.146-147
    NT/SA, J99.147
    private and public utilities, YB99.548
    production process, J99.170-171
        definition, YB99.548-549
        railway line as part of, YB99.542-544, YB99.548-549
    protected contractual rights, YB99.544-545
    Qld, J99.147
    Rail Acces Corp decision, YB99.545-547
    regimes, YB99.549-550
        distinction between facility and, YB99.547-548
        meaning, YB99.542-543
        whether railway line is, YB99.542-543
    “service”, what constitutes, J99.132-136, J99.169-173
    Trade Practices Act
        Pt IIIA, YB99.539, YB99.540
        s 46, YB99.549
    WA, J99.147
    third party access to, J04.39-44
Raw material supply
    construction contracts, YB04.163
Realised value, YB93.259
    good faith, for, YB02.32, YB02.35-37, YB02.39, YB02.41-42
    implied term, YB02.32, YB02.35--37, YB02.39
        breach of, YB02.41
Reasons for decisions, YB01.257-260
    Appointment, see also Receivership
        circumstances permitting, YB99.44
        courts' jurisdiction, YB99.44
        holder of security, by, YB99.44
        improper, YB99.131-133
        multiple appointments, YB99.49
        out of court, YB99.44
        prior chargee, by, YB99.134-135
        proper, YB99.130-131
        receiver and manager, YB99.46-48
    duties and obligations, YB99.133
    improper appointment, consequences, YB99.131-133
        aggravated damages, YB99.132
        compensatory damages, YB99.131-132
        consequential loss, YB99.132-133
        exemplary damages, YB99.132
        nominal damages, YB99.132
    indemnity, right of, YB99.54-55
    liability, YB99.51-55, YB99.128
        post-appointment contracts, YB99.53
        pre-appointment contracts, YB99.51, YB99.69-70
        pre-appointment leases, YB99.51-53
        property, in relation to, YB99.69-70
    powers, YB99.55-56
        sale, power of, YB99.134
    qualifications, YB99.50-51
    receiver and manager, YB99.46-48
    registered liquidator, YB99.50
    sale of property, YB99.134-135
Receivers and managers
    consent deed, see Consent deed
    failure to perform contract, YB03.137
    hiring agreements, YB03.135
    leases, YB03.135
    personal liability, YB03.136
    appointment of receiver, see Receiver
    controller, YB99.47
    creditors, effect on, YB99.59-68
        secured creditors, YB99.61-63
    demand for payment, YB99.133
    development of regime, YB99.43
    directors and officers, effect on, YB99.55-57
        dispute as to exercise of powers, YB99.56
        receiver's right to exercise powers, YB99.55-56
        report as to companies affairs, YB99.57
    investigating accountant, YB99.50
    nature of remedy, YB99.128-129
    priority of debts, YB99.129
        Commissioner of Taxation, priority, YB99.129
        employee claims, YB99.129
    procedural requirements, YB99.129-130
    property owners and lessors, effect on, YB99.68-72
        receiver's liability for rent, YB99.69-70
        pre-receivership contract, YB99.68-69
    qualifications of appointee, YB99.50-51
    receiver, see Receiver
    receiver and manager, YB99.46-48
        appointment, YB99.46
        power to appoint, YB99.47-48
        receiver distinguished, YB99.47
    resources company, YB99.128-136
    sale of property
        permitted purchasers, YB99.135
        power of sale, YB99.134
        prior chargee, YB99.134-135
    secured creditors, effect on, YB99.61-63
        disposal of property, YB99.62-63
        mortgages, YB99.62
    timing requirements, YB99.129-130
Reduction of capital
    cancellation of shares, YB01.42
    dual listed company structure, YB01.461
    minority shareholder activity, YB01.44
    requirements for, YB01.42
    special resolutions, YB01.42-43
    takeover effected by, YB01.42-44
referral of questions of law
access agreements, J03.15-16    
refused where no agreement as to facts, J02.127-128
equitable interests, J01.38-42
    indefeasibility, J01.38-44
    Mining Act (WA), J01.36-45
    priority, J01.38
royalty deed, YB93.254
Regulation, see Government regulation
    decisions, review of, YB02.412-415
        energy market review, YB02.417-419
        Productivity Commission, by, YB02.415-416
    efficient, YB02.411-412
        prerequisites, YB02.411
    global economy, YB02.338
    access regimes, of, see Access regimes
compulsory disclosure powers, YB04.81
    contravention of Trade Practices Act, YB01.229
    exercise of regulatory power, YB01.228
    judicial review of decisions, see Judicial review
limits on powers, YB04.87–92
        common law protection, YB04.90
    misfeasance in public office, YB01.229
    negligence, liability in, YB01.228
powers of, YB04.81
        proper purpose, exercise for, YB04.87–8
    regulating a regulator, YB01.228
Rehabilitation,  see Decommissioning and rehabilitation
Related party transactions
AASB 1017, YB96.417-418
AMPLA Conference discussion, YB96.424-430
arm’s length transactions, YB96.421-422
background to legislation, YB96.409-411
“capacity”, YB96.418-419
“child entity”, YB96.413-414
“control”, YB96.417
corporate collapse of 1980s, YB96.410-411
exceptions, YB96.414-415
“financial benefit”, YB96.412-413
general prohibition, YB96.411-412
liabilities, YB96.416-417
object, YB96.408
Pt 3.2A of Corporations Law, YB96.411-417
prohibition, YB96.408
“reasonable remuneration”, YB96.419-420
regulation, YB96.426-428
“related party”, YB96.413
Relational contracts
    agency, YB02.34
    contractual obligations, YB02.34
    good faith, duty of, YB02.34
    relationship, YB02.34
environmental damage, YB93.25–26, YB93.30
breach of confidentiality agreements, YB93.210, YB93.216–217
breach of fiduciary duty, YB93.239–240
claims, distinguished, YB04.124
contravention of mutual interest provisions, YB93.236, YB93.240
equitable, see Equitable remedies
    proprietary and personal, YB04.124
Remote housing
    GST on supply of, YB00.454-455
        `fly in and fly out' accommodation, YB00.454-455
    equitable compensation, YB04.126–130
Renewable energy,     see also Electricity supply
Australian policy, YB03.297
        bagasse, YB00.288
    biomass, YB00.300-302
    certificates, J01.89-95
    comprehensive guide to regulatory issues, YB03.240–296
    current use of, YB00.288
    development of resources, YB00.314
    economically viable uses, YB00.307
electricity, J01.87-99
    eligible, J01.88-89
    emissions, reducing, YB00.291, YB00.306, YB00.307
    energy acquisition statement, YB03.245
    environmental incentive to use, YB00.291
    extractive industry projects, YB04.73    
    geothermal energy, YB00.311-312
    international trends, YB03.297, YB03.302–307    
    legislation, J01.87-99
    MRET Review 2003, YB03.297, YB03.299–300, YB03.307–308
    MRET Scheme (RECS)
        amendments to, YB03.249–256
        duration, YB03.242
        legislation, YB03.242
        mandatory renewable energy target review, YB03.255, YB03.298–299
        overview, YB03.241
        terms of reference for review of Act, YB03.295–296
    new technologies, YB00.297-302
    nuclear energy, YB00.313
    offshore resources, YB00.310-311
        statutory regulation, YB00.310-311
        tidal power, YB00.309-311
    payments, J01.96-98
    predictions as to use of, YB00.288
    proposed Commonwealth legislative scheme, J00.103-105
    registration, J01.87-88
    renewable energy certificates (RECs), YB03.241, J00.104
        accreditation, suspension of, YB03.252–253
        anti-gaming provisions, YB03.252
        calculation of liability, YB03.244
        contract for sale, issues to be included, YB03.280–282
        creating demand for, YB03.242
        demand for, YB03.245
        details of energy source to be included, YB03.251
        documenting transactions involving, YB03.280
        eligible renewable energy sources, YB03.247, YB03.250
        extension of time to create, YB03.251
        information gathering powers, YB03.254
        nature of, YB03.248
        operator, creation by, YB03.248
        overview of transactions involving, YB03.256–257
        persons who can use, YB03.250
        price of, YB03.245
        registration, YB03.248
        renewable energy shortfall statement, YB03.246
        supply, creating, YB03.246
        surrender of, YB03.246
        suspension of registration, YB03.252
        time for lodging returns, YB03.251
        transfer issues, YB03.249
        who is liable, YB03.242
    solar, see Solar energy
    sources, YB00.287
    target to increase supply, J00.103-104
        duration, J00.105
        liable parties, J00.104
        penalty for non-compliance, J00.105
    tidal power, YB00.309-311
    United Kingdom policy, YB03.303–304
    United States policy, YB03.305–306
    weather modification, YB00.340-341
    wind, YB00.299-300
    Arukun Associates Agreement Repeal Act 2004 (Qld), J04.123
    environmental performance, see Environmental reporting
    expert, see Experts' reports
    voluntary administrator, YB99.72-73
Representative proceedings
    case management, YB99.292-293
    clarity of pleading, requirement for, YB99.288-289
    class actions distinguished, YB99.277
    Federal Court Act, under, YB99.282-283
    Longford gas explosion, YB99.295, YB99.203-314
        causation, YB99.311-314
        defence and cross-claim, YB99.310-311
        loss or damage caused, YB99.314
        misleading and deceptive conduct, YB99.304, YB99.306-309
        statement of claim, YB99.306-310
    modern, YB99.282-283
    New Zealand, YB99.365-367
        categories of potential claimant, YB99.367-372
        cause, YB99.372-373
        consent of members, YB99.366
        costs, YB99.367
        direct customer, YB99.367-370
        directions, YB99.366
        exclusion clauses, YB99.373
        indirect customer, YB99.370-371
        judgment, members bound by, YB99.367
        jurisdiction, YB99.365-366
        liability issues, YB99.372-373
        non-customers, YB99.372
        same interest, YB99.366
    opting out, YB99.289
    resource companies, against, YB99.277-293, YB99.356-363
    same, similar or related circumstances, YB99.284
    security for costs, YB99.290-291
    seven or more persons with claim, YB99.283-284
    substantial common issue, YB99.284-288
    Sydney water contamination, YB99.295, YB99.298-302
        false or misleading representations, YB99.300-302
        statement of claim, YB99.299-302
    traditional, YB99.278-281
    utilities, against, YB99.277-293, YB99.295-296, YB99.356-363
        Esso (gas), YB99.295, YB99.303-314
        New Zealand position, YB99.365-367
        Sydney Water, YB99.295, YB99.298-302
Repudiation of contract
    breach of duty to negotiate, for, YB02.18
breach of warranties as to environment, YB93.30–31, YB93.51–52
    aboriginal, YB02.213
    access rights, YB02.203-204
    creation of, YB02.203-204
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.203-205
    inconsistent rights, YB02.204
    invalid, YB02.204
    leases of, extinguishment of native title, J00.93-94
    native title, effect on, J00.88-89
    past act, application of, YB02.204, YB02.205
    prior, YB02.205
    use of, YB02.203
    vesting of, YB02.203-205
Resource access rights, B96.91, B96.149–154, B96.163
Resource contract
    privacy of information, see Privity of contract
“Resource curse”
, YB04.67
Resource development, YB96.115-116
Resource management
    Air, see Airspace
    Fauna, see Hunting
    Fish, see Fishing
    Minerals, see Minerals and petroleum
    native title rights, YB02.195-198, YB02.206
        airspace, YB02.120, YB02.136
        compensation, YB02.206
        determination of, see Native title
        establishment of, YB02.197
        extinguishment, YB02.195-197, YB02.241
        fauna, YB02.126
        fish, YB02.117, YB02.139-141, YB02.161, YB02.166
        minerals, YB02.110
        regulation of, YB02.195
        traditional connection, YB02.195, YB02.196
        water, to, YB02.134, YB02.136-138, YB02.166
    petroleum, see Minerals and petroleum
    water, see Water
Resource(s) companies
    alternative dispute resolution, YB99.357-358
    competition law, see Competition law
    consideration in providing finance to, YB99.161-163
    credit rating, YB99.29-41
        bank facilities, YB99.31
        enhancing, YB99.34
        investment grade, YB99.31-32
        investors' use of, YB99.35-36
        key factors affecting, YB99.33
        maintaining, YB99.34, YB99.41
        National Association of Insurance Commissioner (NAIC) rating, YB99.32
        ratings process, YB99.34-3
    insolvency see Insolvency of resource companies
    international focus, YB01.3
    mergers, see Mergers
    project rating, YB99.1, YB99.37-38, see also Project rating
        case study, YB99.38-41
        construction risk, YB99.9-10
        debt service resource funds, YB99.12
        labour problems, YB99.12
        operating and technology risk, YB99.11-12
        ore body risk, YB99.12
        project economics, YB99.6
    representative proceedings, see Representative proceedings
    Takeovers Panel, relevant themes in, YB01.67-73
New Zealand, YB93.424–425
Restraint of trade, YB93.201–202—see also Confidentiality agreements
mutual interest provisions, YB93.233–236, YB93.240
Restrictive covenants
    solar access, YB00.324-325
        easements compared, YB00.330-331
        express grant of, YB00.331-332
Restrictive trade practices
    joint marketing agreements, see joint ventures 
    market, J04.187-188
        oil and gas, J04.195-200
misuse of market power 289-299
    Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), Part IV, J04.185-209
        authorisation, J04.200-208
        breaches, J04.192-195
        exemptions, J04.189-192
    Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), construction and application, J04.289-299
derivative crown immunity, J04. 295-298
governmental authority, application to, J04.289-299
Retention lease, YB96.218-220
application, YB96.218-219
grant, YB96.219
nature, YB96.218
reporting requirements, YB96.219-220
rights, YB96.219
    forecasts of production, YB01.69-70
Right to negotiate,  see Native Title Act
Right to negotiate regime, YB02.179
    agreements, YB02.185, YB02.191
    application of, YB02.245
    compensation, YB02.186-187
    compliance, YB02.191
    determinations, binding effect of, YB02.185-186
    establishment of, YB02.185
    future acts, YB02.179, YB02.184-185
    mining lease, YB02.245
    National Native Title Tribunal,  see National Native
        Title Tribunal
    native title claims, YB02.122, YB02.185, YB02.208, YB02.242, YB02.249-252
        benefits of, YB02.252
        process, YB02.251
        requirements for, YB02.252
    notices, YB02.184
        compliance with, YB02.180
        issue of, YB02.180
        procedural fairness, YB02.181
        time for, YB02.180
        validity of, YB02.180-181
    participation in, YB02.253
    procedures, YB02.205, YB02.245
    registered claimants
        authorisation of, YB02.185-186
        statutory rights, YB02.185
    use of, YB02.242
assessment, YB04.241–2
changing government policy—see Sovereign risk
    construction contracts, see Construction contracts
contractors, YB04.242–3
contractual allocation, J01.50-57, J01.155-158, J01.160-163
environmental—see Environmental risks
industrial special risks insurance, YB03.123
insurance, J01.57-61
management, J01.46-50
offtake, see Offtake risks
political risk, YB03.152–153
    project finance, J01.152-163
    projects, in, see Project
reducing, YB04.242
    tax risk, see Taxation
    technology risk, YB03.116–117
    terrorism, see Terrorism
Risk allocation
aim of, YB94.157
America, contractual allocation in
AIPN Model Form, YB94.181
gross negligence, YB94.184
indemnity and liability provisions, YB94.181
American Model Form International Operating Agreement
consequential loss, exclusion clauses for, YB94.163
exclusion clauses, YB94.161, YB94.177
gross negligence, YB94.165
operator under, YB94.159
British National Oil Corporation pro-forma JOA
exclusion clauses, YB94.161, YB94.179, YB94.185
wilful misconduct, YB94.165
pollution damage, liability for, YB94.186
consequential loss, exemption clauses for
joint operating agreements, in, YB94.163, YB94.187
third party contracts, in, YB94.171
    construction contracts, see Construction contracts
contract, by, YB94.157
    energy contracting, see Energy contracting
equipment, liability under third party contracts, YB94.169
exemption clauses in joint operating agreements, YB94.160
consequential loss, for, YB94.163, YB94.187
exclusion clause, YB94.160
gross negligence, YB94.165
interpretation of, YB94.161
limitation clause, YB94.160
loss and consequential loss, covering, YB94.162
negligence, for, YB94.164
wilful misconduct, for, YB94.165
force majeure clauses in third party contracts, YB94.175
formation damage, liability under third party contracts, YB94.170
    gas supply contract, see Gas supply contract (GSA)
indemnity clauses
enforceability of, YB94.195
joint operating agreements, YB94.160, YB94.166
rules of construction, YB94.166
service contracts, YB94.171
statutory obligations, for breach of, YB94.196
third party contracts, in, YB94.175
joint operating agreement, under, YB94.158, YB94.186
    mining contracts, YB03.423, YB03.437–439, YB03.447–449
AIPM Model Form, liability for gross negligence under, YB94.184
joint operating agreements
definition, YB94.164
exemption clauses for, YB94.164
gross, YB94.165, YB94.187
third party contracts, YB94.172
appointment of, YB94.159
liability of, YB94.158
indemnification of, by participants, YB94.159
clause, YB94.161
participant, relationship with, YB94.158
personal injury, liability under third party contracts, YB94.168
pollution, liability under third party contracts, YB94.170
    power purchase agreement, see Power purchase agreement (PPA)
resources project, in, YB94.157
risk management distinguished, YB94.181
statutory obligations
allocation of, YB94.191
characterisation, YB94.190
insurance for breach, YB94.196
joint ventures, incorporated and unincorporated, YB94.193
third party contracts, YB94.167
equipment, YB94.169
exclusion clauses
drafting of, YB94.175
fundamental term, breach of, YB94.175
force majeure clauses, YB94.175
formation damage, YB94.170
insurance clauses, YB94.175
negligence, YB94.172
personal injury, YB94.168
pollution, YB94.170
termination of contract, indemnity surviving, YB94.172
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), prohibition of unconscionable conduct by, YB94.174
what is, YB94.157
wilful misconduct
exemption clauses for, YB94.165, YB94.187
meaning of, YB94.165
Risk management, YB02. 629-630
    Derivatives, see Derivatives
electricity market investors, see Electricity market
financial—see Financial risk management
    hedging, see Hedging
purchaser of coal assets, by, YB01.133, YB01.143
risk allocation distinguished, YB94.181
Risk management process, YB93.55–60
director’s liabilities, YB93.57—see also Directors
due diligence, YB93.58–59—see also Due diligence
identification of risks, YB93.55, YB93.56–57
indemnities, YB93.59—see also Indemnity
warranties, YB93.59—see also Warranties
Risk sharing, YB93.61–68—see also Risk management process
consumer protection statutes, YB93.63–64
environmental matters, YB93.31–33
government requirements, YB93.66–68
investigations, YB93.62–64
clients’ responsibilities, YB93.65–66
consultants’ role, YB93.65
parent corporation’s liability, YB93.63
quantifying environmental risk, YB93.61–62
effect of roads on native title (Qld)
definition of road, B95.30–31
extinguishment by road, B95.33–35
extinguishment generally, B95.31–32
validation of discriminatory extinguishment, B95.35–40
    native title rights, J00.87
Royalties, YB93.243–287
advantages over traditional financing, YB04.269
        ambiguity, YB04.260
        compensation, calculation of, YB04.260–2
        creation and protection, YB04.249–50
        drafting, YB04.259, YB04.264–5
        protective measures, YB04.263–4
        recent case law, YB04.259–62
        legislative provisions, application of, YB04.262
        requirements, YB04.272–3
        voiding, YB04.251
assessing value, YB93.257, YB93.263, YB93.264–266
assessment of, YB04.270
        identification of relevant, YB04.250
        sales, YB04.268
    assignment, YB04.264
auditing, YB93.254
calculation, YB95.510-511, YB95.512
New South Wales, in, YB95.517
overseas, YB93.272–275
Queensland, in, YB95.517
removal without sale, where, YB95.512–514
South Australia, in, YB95.517
calculation under Petroleum Act 1984 (NT), B94.149
carrier arrangements, YB04.263
    caveats, YB04.252, YB04.254–5, YB04.257–8, YB04.263
“consent” caveats, B94.26–27
contractual and property rights, distinguished, YB04.249
contractual right, B94.17–18, B94.26, B94.27–28
control by payee, YB93.252
deductions, YB93.267—see also Wellhead value
costs of capital, YB93.269–270, YB93.281–282
cost of fuel gas, YB93.272
costs and expenses, YB93.267–268
depreciation, YB93.269
equity capital, YB93.270–272, YB93.280–281
overheads, YB93.268–269
definition of terms, YB93.247–249, YB93.267, YB95.510
“net profits”, YB93.257–258
“net smelter returns”, YB93.246, YB93.249, YB93.259–261
“realised value”, YB93.259
“wellhead value”, YB93.248, YB93.263, YB93.264–266, YB93.278
disposal of tailings, B94.8
dispute resolution, YB93.254–255
documentation, YB93.244, YB93.257–261
drafting deeds, YB93.255
need for precision, YB93.245–249
equitable lien, B94.23
        bridge, YB04.269
        completion guarantees, YB04.269
        public capital, YB04.269
        seed capital, YB04.269
        strategic alliances, through, YB04.269
    Franco Nevada Royalty Business, YB04.267–8
    government, YB04.268
    grant, by, YB04.247
    gross/net revenue returns, YB04.248
        mineral royalty companies, YB04.268
        New South Wales, YB04.254–5
        Queensland, YB04.252–3
        Victoria, YB04.256
        Western Australia, YB04.257–9
Minister’s power to determine, YB93.263–264
mortgage or charge, protection offered by, YB04.263
nature of, YB04.247, YB04.248
    net cashflow, YB04.267, YB04.274
    net profits interest, YB04.248, YB04.267
        valuation of, YB04.270–1, YB04.274
    net smelter returns, YB04.248, YB04.267
        valuation of, YB04.270–1, YB04.274
North Flinders Mine Ltd v Conn, decision in—see North Flinders Mine Ltd v Conn
not a caveatable interest, B94.17, B94.26
offshore petroleum, YB04.251–2
        New South Wales, YB04.254
        Queensland, YB04.252
        Victoria, YB04.255–6
        Western Australia, YB04.256–7
    opportunities to buy, YB04.273–4
    overriding, YB04.248
    ownership, tracking, YB04.272
    payback, YB04.269
Petroleum Royalties Legislation Amendment Act 1994 (WA), B94.154
private, YB04.266
        definition, YB04.246
production-sharing, YB93.275
profit a prendre, as, B94.21–22
promises and warranties, YB04.263
proprietory interest, B94.27–28
protection of payee, YB93.253–254
caveats, YB93.253–254
mortgages/charges, YB93.254
registration, YB93.254
public, definition, YB04.246
rates, YB93.263
rationale for, YB95.518–519
registration, YB04.250–2
        cost, YB04.272
        failure to register, YB04.251
        writing, requirement for, YB04.250–1
“rent charge”, YB04.249
rent charge, as, B94.22
reservation, by, YB04.247
structure of, YB04.263
        structuring financing, YB04.269
taxation, YB93.256–257
timing of calculation, YB93.251–252
tricks and traps in negotiations, YB04.271–2
types, YB93.249–251
wellhead—see Wellhead value
    working interest, YB04.267
        valuation of, YB04.270–1, YB04.274
Royalties agreements
assignment and assumption, B94.24
caveats, provision for lodgment of, B94.25–27
considerations in drafting agreements, B94.20–21, B94.24
“grant, assignment or reservation”, B94.23
implied terms, B94.18–20
security, B94.25
    agreement, J02.68
    coal, J01.108
    methane gas exemption, J01.3
    new coal regime, J02.15-16
    overriding, J02.152-161
    Tasmania, J01.235-236
    variation of agreement, J03.8-9
Royalty rate
amended in South Australia, B95.13
Rubibi v Western Australia
    access rights, YB02.169
    determination of native title, YB02.168-170
        traditions, YB02.168
    exclusive possession, YB02.136, YB02.168-169
        ceremonial purposes, for, YB02.136
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.169
Rule against perpetuities, YB93.230–231, YB93.232, YB93.233, YB93.240
foreign investment in mining, YB94.281
law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.252

Consolidated Index: S

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Sacred sites
gas pipeline corridor, proposal for, YB95.239, YB95.276-277
federal and state legislation, protection under, YB95.276
registers, maintenance of, YB95.276–277
Safety,  see also Offshore petroleum
    Mine Health and Safety Act 2004 (NSW), J04.215-220
        application, J04.215-216
        obligations under, J04.216-219
    mining, J04.299-304
    National Standard for the Control of Major Hazard Facilities, J04.239-242
    occupational health and safety, J04.299-304
        breach of, J04.299-304
        ‘concerned in the management of corporations’, J04.299-304
        liability, of individuals and corporations, J04.299-304
Safety cases, see also Griffin Venture
common elements, YB96.543
conclusions, YB96.504
documentation, YB96.525-527
elements, YB96.536-537
facility description, YB96.481, YB96.483, YB96.486-488, YB96.538-539
formal safety assessment, YB96.482, YB96.484, YB96.485-486, YB96.491-504
hazards, YB96.501-504
legal requirement, YB96.478
NOGSAC, YB96.479
NSCWG, YB96.479
objectives, YB96.483, YB96.509-510
operator requirements, YB96.480, YB96.538
origins, YB96.509, YB96.535-536
“prescriptive” regulations, YB96.535-536
PSLA, YB96.513-516, YB96.533, YB96.537-538
rationale behind, YB96.535-536
regulator responsibilities, YB96.540-541
risks, YB96.501-504
role of inspector, YB96.541
safety management system, YB96.481-482, YB96.484, YB96.488-490, YB96.539-540
scope, YB96.483
structure and contents, YB96.483
Safety provisions, YB93.431, YB93.433
    coal assets, of, see Coal assets, sale and purchase
Sale of goods
    fair dealing, see Fair dealing
Sale of land
    mining tenement, disclosure in vendors’ statements (Vic), J00.112
Sales contract
arbitration, J97.85
variation, J97.88
    offshore units, J99.25
Cooper Basin, exploration of, YB95.329
gas industry in South Australia, participation in, YB95.308–310
Scheme(s) of arrangement
break fees, see Break fees
    commercial benefit of, YB02.321
    company and members, between, requirements for, YB01.41
    cross border regulation, YB02.331-332
    expert's report in relation to, YB99.473, YB99.479
    features, YB02.323-324
        compulsory acquisition, YB02.324
        conditionality, YB02.323
        co-operation, YB02.324
        disclosure, YB02.324
        documentation, YB02.324
    insolvency option, YB99.74-79
    takeovers by means of, YB01.40-41
        advantages, YB01.41
    use of, YB02.321
        acquire control, for, YB02.321
        compulsory acquisition, for, YB02.321
Sea and sea-bed
    fishing, hunting and gathering rights, J00.14-16
    minerals, right to, J00.14-17
    native title rights, J00.13-20
    oil rigs, see Offshore oil rigs
    radical title, J00.18-19
deep water fields, B95.2
International Seabed Authority, B95.1
polymetallic nodules, B95.1–2
Seas and Submerged Land Act 1973
    Commonwealth sovereignty under, YB00.93, YB00.95, YB00.176
    project financing, in, YB03.94, YB03.162
        personal covenants, YB03.94
        requirement by financiers for, YB03.108–114
Security of payment, see Payment
Securities, YB93.107—see also Futures, Gaming contract
coal assets, over, consideration in acquisition, YB01.142-143
consequences, YB93.116
definition, YB93.115–116
    regulators, YB02.338, YB02.346
        ASIC, see Australian Securities and Investment
        International Organisation of Securities Commission, YB02.346
Securities trading
    greenhouse gas emissions, see also Greenhouse gas emissions
        developing market, YB00.402-403
        establishing market, YB00.398-399
        jurisdiction, YB00.403-404
        legislation, YB00.404
        market access, YB00.404-405
        market rules, YB00.404-405
        regulation, YB00.405-406
        verification, YB00.406
    nature of securities, YB00.400-401
    restricted securities, YB00.513-515
        ASX Listing Rules, YB00.513-515
Security Deposit Scheme (NSW), B94.145
restructuring of monopoly, B95.14–15, B95.250–251
    privilege against, YB04.92
Sellars v Adelaide Petroleum NL; Poseidon Ltd v Adelaide Petroleum NL, YB94.591
appeals to High Court, YB94.594
background, YB94.592
damages for loss of commercial opportunity, YB94.595
facts, YB94.592
judgment at first instance, YB94.593
overview, YB94.591
Trade Practices Act, section 52, YB94.592
Sensitive information
    collection of, YB02.503
        consent for, YB02.503
Separation of powers
    doctrine of, YB04.89–90
    state level, at, YB04.89
SEPP No 45, B96.100–101
    access and extension of facilities, YB04.210–11
    definition, YB04.188–90
    legitimate business interests of service providers, YB04.196–7
    production process, as part of, YB04.189–90, YB04.193–4
Shadow directorship
    insolvent resource company
        determining existence of, YB99.139-140
        elements of, YB99.138-139
        financiers, application to, YB99.130-141
        risk of, YB99.138-141
    dual listed company structure, YB01.461
    proof of ownership, YB01.140-1441
shareholders agreement
    change in control, J01.213-215
    foreign investment decision, YB01.11-14, YB01.137
multi site franchising packages, YB96.358-360, YB96.368
    Collision Convention, YB00.86-87
    definition, YB00.85-86
    demurrage and dispatch, GST issues, YB00.455-456
    jet ski, whether includes, YB00.86-87
    offshore mobile craft, whether includes, YB00.85-86
    oil pollution, liability for, YB00.87-88
    allocation of, YB04.304
        force majeure clauses, under, YB04.304–7
        methods, YB04.307–9
carcinogenic effect, J00.140, J00.141
        Australia, in, J00.139-141
        carcinogen, as, J00.141
        hazardous substance, as, J00.138-141
        international position, J00.138
environmental claims, J97.159-161
health effects, J97.148
    health risk in workplace, J00.137-144
        adequate information, J00.143
        limits on exposure, J00.140-141
management strategies, J00.141-143
occupational health, J97.150-159
product liability, J97.161-162
punitive damages, J97.162
standards, J97.149
Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC), YB03.35
Single project company
    insolvency, options, YB99.155-157
        crucial employees, YB99.157
        government involvement, YB99.156
        project agreements and tenements, effect on, YB99.156-157
        public relations, YB99.156
        sponsor support, YB99.157
        trade unions, YB99.155
Solar energy, YB00.297-299, YB00.305, YB00.315-341
    air pollution, YB00.336
    Australian suburbs, advantages of nature of, YB00.333
    capital costs, YB00.298-299
    diffuse solar radiation, YB00.319
    direct exploitation, YB00.316
    direct solar radiation, YB00.319
    domestic hot water heaters, YB00.307
        greenhouse impact, YB00.308-309
    easements of light, YB00.325-331
    environmental incentive to use, YB00.291
    indirect exploitation, YB00.316
    meaning, YB00.315
    new technologies, YB00.297-299
    number of installations, increase, YB00.307
    passive systems, YB00.315
    predictions as to use of, YB00.288
    right to access, YB00.316-320
        airspace, rights in, YB00.316-317, YB00.322-324
        collector, operation in relation to, YB00.318-319
        easements of light, YB00.325-331
        express grant of, YB00.331-332
        general rights to passage of light and air, YB00.331
        horizontal access of light, YB00.318
        landowner's rights, YB00.316-318
        prior appropriation doctrine, YB00.320
        restrictive covenants, YB00.324-325, YB00.330-331
        riparian rights, comparison with, YB00.319-320
        wild animals, comparison with right to take, YB00.319-320
    solar collector
        design, impact of law on, YB00.332-333
        liability from operation of, YB00.337-338
        right of access in relation to, YB00.318-319
    solar photovoltaic systems, YB00.297-298
    solar thermal systems, YB00.298-299
    storage of, YB00.338
    strata titles, YB00.336-337
    summer and winter sun, differing effect, YB00.334
    trees, problems caused by, YB00.335
    weather modification, YB00.340-341
    zoning considerations, YB00.335-336
    duty and standard of care, J99.173-176
    definition, J00.218
South Australia
Aboriginal land in, YB94.18
early exploration of, YB95.329
future market development, YB95.351–352
gas, supply of, YB95.308–310
New South Wales, to—see Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline
South Australia, to, YB95.331
native title, response to Commonwealth Legislation, YB94.18
regulation of development, YB95.331–332
South Australian Cooper Basin Unit Producers (SACBUT), YB95.347–348
South Australian Exploration Initiative (SAEI)
announced by government, B94.11
exploration licence applications, B94.11
Sovereign risk, YB93.135–193
binding the legislature, YB93.159–165, YB93.176–182
Commonwealth agreements, YB93.142–145
contracts with the Crown, YB93.140–142
definition, YB93.136–140, YB93.166–169
    economic troubles, YB99.18
    environment/heritage issues, YB99.19-20
estoppel, YB93.150–154
executive necessity (doctrine), YB93.145–150, YB93.182–193
definition, YB93.182
government-owned corporations, YB93.184–193
expropriation, YB93.171
    foreign currency rating, YB99.17-18
    government incentives, YB99.18
legislative sanction of government agreements, YB93.154–158, YB93.176–182
decision to invest, effect on, YB95.46–48
Papua New Guinea, development in, YB95.177
    project rating, YB99.17-18
public interest, YB93.145–150
State Agreements, YB93.154–158, YB93.176–182
State versus federal powers, YB93.169–170
    tax issues, YB99.20-21
Special leases
    extinguishment of native title, J00.92-93 
Special prospecting licence
application for, land within exploration licence, B94.157
Split commodity arrangement
    heads of agreement (WA), J00.112-114
    illegality, J00.114
    uncertainty and incompleteness, J00.113-114
St Catherine's Milling Case
    estate in land, YB02.214
    interest in land, YB02.213
    land title, YB02.213
Stage 2 environmental legislation (NSW), B96.9–10
Stare decisis, YB04.79
state developer agreements
    mining agreements, J02.202-204
State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV)
    political power, YB01.155
Stamp duty—see also Taxation
    anti-avoidance provisions, YB02.687-688
certainty, YB02.671
conveyance duty, YB97.160, YB97.168
exemption, YB97.168
    corporate reconstruction exemption, YB02.685-688
    dutiable property, YB02.674-682
        definition of, YB02.675
        valuable right, whether, YB02.681
    Duties Act 2001 (Qld), YB02.671-687
    exemptions, YB02.685-686
fairness, YB02.671
information, communication of, YB97.160-170
land-rich provisions, YB97.161
land right, YB02.682-685
legislative developments (NT), J00.105-106
    liability for, YB02.674
    mining tenements, inclusion in land value (NT), J00.105-106
mortgage or loan security duty, YB97.169-170
mortgage, see Mortgage duty
Nischu case, YB97.161-162
Northern Territory, J01.104
Pancontinental case, YB97.163-165
pre-emptive rights, J01.218-220
property, significance of, YB97.160-170
schemes of arrangement, under, YB97.497
    transfer duty, see Transfer duty
    trust, on, YB02.682
    dealing in, YB02.682
valuation provisions, Western Australia, YB97.165-168
Standard form contracts
    duty of good faith, YB02.27, YB02.33, YB02.41-43
environmental, YB93.416, YB93.417
Standing to sue
    natural resource projects, objections to, YB00.264-265
        Jabiluka uranium mine, YB00.218-219
    public interest environmental litigation, YB00.264-265
Commonwealth native title legislation, responses to, YB94.14, YB94.40
constitutional doctrine of reserved State powers, YB94.66
governmental functions, interference by Commonwealth, YB94.65
limits of land, YB96.62
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
burdens on exercise of constitutional functions imposed by, YB94.70
legislative and executive functions, interference with, YB94.72
ownership of minerals, YB96.201-203
State agreements
access to water, YB96.340-341
agreement Acts table, YB96.325-327
approval process, YB96.343
Australian experience, YB96.348-349
benefits, YB96.320-322
definition, YB96.330
disadvantages, YB96.319
dispute resolution, YB96.343-344
enforcement, YB96.344-347
environmental requirements, YB96.338-340
fiscal arrangements, YB96.336-338
infrastructure obligations, YB96.341-343
iron ore agreements, YB96.316
native title, YB96.341
objectives, YB96.318
origins, YB96.315-316
project development process, YB96.324
proposals, YB96.317-318
repeal, YB96.332-333
royalty, YB96.337
security of tenure, YB96.317
security of title, YB96.330-331
stamp duty, YB96.337-338
State government requirements
termination, YB96.347-348
area, YB96.334
dealings, YB96.335-336
grant, YB96.333
rights, YB96.334-335
surrender, YB96.336
term, YB96.334
variation, YB96.347
State Energy Commission of Western Australia (SECWA)
role of, YB95.356
State Environmental Planning (Permissible Mining) Act 1996 (NSW), B96.126
State Environmental Planning Policy (SEPP) (NSW)
consent authority, YB95.23, YB95.25
Continued Mines and Extractive Industries Policy, YB95.55–58
existing mining operation, right to continue, YB95.23
Major Employment Generating Industrial Development Policy, YB95.25, YB95.54
mining legislation, conflict with, YB95.38–40
State Environmental Planning Policy (NSW) No 45, B95.238, B96.100–101
definition “mining”, B95.238
reduces requirements for obtaining development consent for mining in NSW, B95.238
State Environmental Planning Policy (NSW) No 46 for the Protection and Management of Native Vegetation
aim, B95.237
applications for consent likely to involve considerable time, B95.238
exemption from application of SEPP No 46 cl 10, B95.237
proposal to amend with respect to application to mining and quarrying projects, B95.237
State government
environmental responsibility, YB93.411
State mining agreements
    ratification of, YB02.466
    termination of, YB02.466, YB02.483-486
State Mining Codes
administration, YB96.221-222
compensation, YB96.231-232
dealings, YB96.228-230
definition of “minerals”, YB96.203, YB96.204
exploration licences, YB96.208-214
general provisions, YB96.232-233
historical concepts, YB96.199
land categorisation, YB96.205
mining leases, YB96.214-217
mining purposes easement, YB96.221
mining purposes lease, YB96.220
need for consistency, YB96.198
new legislation, YB96.199-200
objectives, YB96.200-201
policing, YB96.222-224
registration, YB96.228-230
retention lease, YB96.218-220
revenue, YB96.230-231
tenements, YB96.224-227
tenement structure, YB96.207-208
State Rail Authority (NSW) restructure, B96.126
Statutory corporation
    Crown immunity, YB02.689, YB02.692-695
        application of, YB02.692-705
        determination of, YB02.692-693, YB02.695-700
        entitlement to, YB02.692-695, YB02.697-700
        statutory, YB02.689-692, YB02.704-705
        test for determination, YB02.694-695
Step-in rights 
Corporations Law, insolvent trading under, YB97.125
definition, YB97.118
difficulties negotiating, YB97.114
legal ramifications, YB97.123-125
legislative basis for, YB97.115
reason for, YB97.119
protect bargain, to, YB97.120-123
project company involved, YB97.121
reason for bargain, YB97.120
value of bargain, YB97.123
protect plant, YB97.119
remote sites, YB97.123
Sithe Energies, YB97.117
supplier’s perspective, YB97.117-126
time, length of step-in, YB97.122
who needs, YB97.119
who steps in, YB97.122
Stone lease
labour covenant, B96.138
    force majeure clauses, YB04.297–8
    protection from harsh payment practices, YB04.157
Subpoenas,  J97.231-253
application to inspect documents, YB04.93
arbitration, J97.245-248
arbitration, use in, YB04.100 
challenge, J97.242-245
compliance, J97.239-241, J97.248-251
complying with, YB04.102
    conduct money, YB04.104
confidential documents, J97.241-242
issue, YB04.102
nature of, YB04.86, YB04.100
    non-party discovery, distinguished, YB04.108
    production of documents, for
        advantages and disadvantages, YB04.101
        content, YB04.101–2
        relevance, YB04.101
        when to use, YB04.101
relevance of documents, J97.233-237
    service, YB04.102
    setting aside, YB04.103–4
    undertakings, YB04.104
    actionable, YB03.122
    definition, YB03.119
    Howe decision, YB03.120
    non-actionable, YB03.122
    prohibited, YB03.120
    state and federal governments, from, YB03.119
    WTO’s Agreement on subsidies and Countervailing Measures, YB03.119–123
continuity of, YB97.109-116
establishing the right environment, YB97.111-112
existing legal concepts, YB97.113-115
contract, YB97.113
security, YB97.113
legislation, YB97.115
Melbourne City Link Project, YB97.112
step-in right—see Step-in rights
techniques for ensuring, YB97.111
outsourcing of, YB97.110
supply contract(s)
ACCC, power to demand disclosure, YB04.81    
misrepresentation, J01.78-81
Supply of goods
    allocation of shortfalls, YB04.304–9
    service, distinguished, YB04.188
    supplier failure 
        force majeure clauses, YB04.300–4
        liability, YB04.300
surface access
    compensation, J01.109, J01.110
    costs, J01.222-2 J01.23
    improvements and residence, J01.2, J01.4, J01.20, J01.186-189, J01.206-208, J01.243-244
    notice, J01.3
    reservation of rights, J01.220-221
application for exemption from, B95.20
extension of time to comply with requirements, B95.20
    objection, J01.246-247
    gravity, YB03.597
    Kirchhoff migration – Mars style, YB03.597–598
    magnetic, YB03.597
    3D gravity gradiometry, YB03.597
    3D seismic, YB03.595–596
Suspension of work
    breach of contract, YB04.170–1
Sustainable development
    overarching principle, YB04.71
Sustainable energy policy
white paper, J97.100
Sustainable management, YB93.54, YB93.424
Swaps, YB93.76, YB93.105–106, YB93.122—see also Derivatives
cross-currency, YB93.79–82
Swaptions, YB93.106—see also Options, Swaps
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.252

Consolidated Index: T

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Tailings, YB93.288–332
categories, YB93.321
compensation, YB93.329
definition, YB93.288, YB93.292, YB93.304, YB93.308, YB93.327
environmental liabilities, YB93.296–299
environmental requirements, YB93.331–332
gold, YB93.321–332
treatment, YB93.321–324, YB93.326–327
New South Wales, YB93.310–311
Northern Territory, YB93.305–307
Queensland, YB93.311–312
Victoria, YB93.307–310, YB93.324–326, YB93.327–332
ownership, YB93.293–295, YB93.307, YB93.311–312, YB93.328, YB93.329
planning, YB93.330–331
retreatment project, YB93.299–302
site rehabilitation, YB93.295–296
taxation, YB93.295–296
type of property, YB93.289–293, YB93.303, YB93.307, YB93.308–309, YB93.327–328
uranium, YB93.316–318, YB93.320
Takeovers—see also Mergers and acquisitions
advantages over schemes of arrangement, YB97.500-502
alternative structures for, YB01.40
    bidder’s statements
        content of, YB01.31-32
        supplementary, YB01.32-33
    bids, automatic extension of, YB01.30
    break fees, see Break fees
    capital reduction, by, see Reduction of capital
    CLERP, effect of, YB01.28-29
    commercial benefit of, YB02.321
    compulsory acquisition, YB01.33-36
        90 percent holder, by, YB01.34
        75 percent test, YB01.33
compulsory acquisition provisions, YB97.525-529
Homestake case, YB97.526-528
share-splitting and, YB97.525-529
contested bids, YB97.508-529
convertible securities, YB97.493-495
    cross border regulation, YB02.326
        concurrent, YB02.328-330
    foreign, YB02.327
disadvantages of, YB97.492-498
    disclosure standards, YB02.330-331
    forecasts, YB02.330-331
dual listed companies, see Dual listed companies (DLC)
earnings forecasts, disclosure of, YB97.517-525
Pancontinental case, YB97.521-524, YB97.525
Solomon Pacific Resources case, YB97.524-525
    features of, YB02.321-323
        compulsory acquisition, YB02.322-323
        conditionality, YB02.321-322
        co-operation, YB02.322
        disclosure, YB02.322
        documentation, YB02.322
foreign, YB02.326
foreign corporations, by, YB94.254
intentions, disclosure of, YB97.509-517
Ampolex case, YB97.514-517
Gantry case, YB97.511-514
    joint ventures
        defeating bids, unacceptable circumstances, YB01.71-72
        disclosure of change of control clauses, YB01.70-71
    JORC Code, see JORC Code
    no shop agreement, see No shop agreements
    offer period, automatic extension of, YB01.30
    poison pills, YB01.71-73
    pre-bid stake, building, YB01.29-30
Pt A statements
earnings forecasts in, YB97.517-525
offeror’s intentions, disclosure of, YB97.509-517
    purposes of Ch 6, YB01.37
    recent law reforms, YB01.28-29
    reduction of capital, by, see Reduction of capital
    scheme of arrangement, by, see Scheme of arrangement
    scrip for scrip rollover relief, YB01.39-40
shareholders, lost, YB97.492
share-splitting, YB97.525-529
    target’s statements
        content of, YB01.31-32
        supplementary, YB01.32-33
    use of, YB02.321
        acquire control, for, YB02.321
        compulsory acquisition, for, YB02.321
Takeovers Panel
    applications, YB01.61, YB01.63
    break fee arrangements, YB01.50
    confidentiality obligations, YB01.63-64
    constitution, YB01.55
    declaration of unacceptable circumstances, YB01.36-37, YB01.57-58
    disclosure, attitude to, YB01.67
    dispatch of offer documents, restraining, YB01.65
    effect, concentration on, YB01.66-67
    effectiveness, evidence of, YB01.54
    expeditious proceedings, YB01.62
    forecasts of revenue production, YB01.69-70
    forum, as, YB01.62-67
    functions, YB01.55-56
    innovative action by, YB01.66
    joint ventures, disclosure of, YB01.70-71
    JORC Code
        documents issued by mining company to comply with, YB01.38-39
        recommended terms, YB01.38
    jurisdiction, YB01.36, YB01.38, YB01.55
    legal issues, resolving, YB01.67
    lock-up devices, draft policy on, YB01.37-38, YB01.51, YB01.72
    membership, YB01.56-57
    no shop agreements, YB01.51
    orders, power to make, YB01.58-59
    poison pills, YB01.71-73
    pragmatic outcomes, YB01.65-66
    principal function, YB01.55-56
    proceedings before
        brief, YB01.62
        conduct of, YB01.63
        expeditious, YB01.62
        form of, YB01.62-63
        private, in, YB01.63-64
        representation in, YB01.60
        rules of evidence do not apply, YB01.63
    reconstitution of, YB01.36, YB01.54
    remedial function, YB01.64-65
    remedies, YB01.58-60
    representation in proceedings by, YB01.60
    resources available to, YB01.60
    resources sector, relevant themes for, YB01.67-73
    role of, YB01.36
    submissions, YB01.63
    tactical litigation, preventing, YB01.36, 54
    time limits, YB01.59
    undertaking from person affected, YB01.59
Target, see Takeovers
native title, response to Commonwealth legislation, YB94.18
Tasmanian Dams case, YB96.178-179, YB96.181
    arm's length rules, YB00.491-492
asset, YB97.181
    blackhole expenditure, YB00.475-476, YB00.489
    business tax reform, YB00.462-492
    capital expenditure provisions, YB00.468-469
capital gains, YB97.181-184
farm-out agreements, YB97.207
considerations in resource ventures, YB97.186-189
    consolidations, YB00.476-481
        due diligence issues, YB00.482-483
        mergers and acquisitions, YB00.481-482
    corporate reconstruction, YB00.470-472
    depreciation rates, YB00.465, YB00.467, YB00.491
    directors’ liability
        Australian Capital Territory, YB03.516–517
        Commonwealth, YB03.514–516
        New South Wales, YB03.516–517
        Northern Territory, YB03.518
        Queensland, YB03.517
        South Australia, YB03.518
        Tasmania, YB03.516–517
        Victoria, YB03.516–517
        Western Australia, YB03.518
    distributions to shareholders, YB00.472-473
    due diligence issues, YB00.482-483
    effective life of assets, assessment of, YB00.466
    employees on foreign payrolls, PAYG tax, YB00.473-474
    farm-ins and farm-outs, YB00.474
farm-out agreements
capital gains tax, YB97.207
income tax, YB97.206
types of, YB97.205
    feasibility studies, YB00.490
    foreign source income, YB00.486
    funding, YB00.486-488
    goods and services tax, see Goods and services tax (GST)
    goodwill, YB00.489
    grandfathering rules, YB00.487
    group CGT rollover, YB00.470-471
    GST, see Goods and services tax (GST)
    hedging, YB00.490
Income Tax Assessment Act
balancing charge provisions, YB97.171-173
capital gains, YB97.181-184
Div 10, YB97.171-181
Div 10AA, YB97.171-181
Div 330, YB97.171-181
application to withholding tax, YB97.193
Spotless Services case, YB97.209
s 160M, YB97.181-183
    income tax consolidation regime, J04.246-263
        eligibility, J04.248-250
        group liability, J04.255-257
        joint and several liability, J04.253
        project finance industry, J04.246-263
        security, exercising, J04.258-260
        special purpose vehicles, J04.246-263
        tax sharing agreements, J04. 253-255
    incorporated joint ventures, YB00.472
    information, expenditure on, YB00.474-475
information, sale of, YB97.172-177
    interest withholding tax provisions, YB03.133
    joint ventures, YB00.483-486
        dividends from, YB00.472
        fractional interest approach, YB00.484-485
        joint approach, YB00.485
roll-over relief, YB97.187
tax losses, YB97.186
        transfer of plant, YB00.484
    junior miners, YB00.490-491
    loss transfer rules, YB03.132
    mergers and acquisitions, YB00.481-482
mining—see Mining taxation
    New Zealand, YB93.431–432, YB93.433
oil and gas projects in India, J99.227-228
    overburden removal, YB00.464, YB00.490
    partnerships, YB00.490
    PAYG tax, YB00.473-474
    petroleum resource rent tax, YB00.117-118
    physical assets, treatment of, YB00.465-468
property, YB97.173-181
expenditure and, YB97.177-181
prospectors, exemption removed, YB97.203-205
    Ralph Committee Report, YB00.462, YB00.463
reforms (WA), J03.430-432
research and development concession, YB97.200-202
deductibility of expenses, YB97.201-202
resource ventures
debt funding
deductibility, YB97.187-189
from overseas, YB97.189
equity funding, YB97.189
 funding, YB97.190
    resources industry, reforms relevant to, YB00.462-492
royalties, YB93.256–257
    sole traders, YB00.490
Spotless Services case, YB97.209
stamp duty—see Stamp duty
tax indemnity deeds, YB03.132
tax losses, YB00.469-470
    tax risk, YB03.131–133
    tax subvention deeds, YB03.132
    tax value method (TVM), YB00.488-490
thin capitalisation, YB97.195-200
anti-avoidance measures, YB97.197
changes to provisions, YB97.195-200
foreign debt, extension of definition, YB97.196
gearing ratio, reduction of, YB97.195
partnerships and trusts, YB97.196
planning, YB97.198
    thin capitalisation rules, YB00.487
    Timor Treaty taxation code, YB00.179
    trusts, of, YB03.103
withholding tax, YB97.190-195
assignment of debt, YB97.193
changes to regime, YB97.190-195
defeasance arrangements, YB97.192
interest, extended definition, YB97.191-194
Tax Law Improvement Project
consultative committee, role of, YB95.397
establishment of, YB95.396–397
judiciary, interpretation by, YB95.404–405
layperson, accessibility by, YB95.403
mining, petroleum and quarrying, changes in relation to—see Mining
objectives of, YB95.396
proposals for improvements
commencing framework for new Act, YB95.400
conceptual structure of Act, YB95.397–399
language and layout, YB95.399–400
new numbering system, YB95.399
users, effect on, revised, ss 25, YB95.51(1), YB95.400–402
tax law, criticism of, YB95.394–395
tax professionals, benefits for, YB95.403–404
gas industry, role in, YB95.323–324
    legislation evolving with, YB03.594
    risk, YB03.116–117
    surveys, YB03.595–598
Telecom Corp of NZ Ltd v Clear Communications Ltd
Australian access regimes, YB96.573-574
background to case, YB96.567-568
Commerce Act (NZ), s 36, YB96.566, YB96.567, YB96.570, YB96.572-573
lower courts, YB96.568
Privy Council decision, YB96.568-570
Trade Practices Act
Pt IIIA, YB96.576-578
s 46, YB96.566-567, YB96.570-573
    access arrangements, YB04.183
        application procedure, YB04.207–8
        essential facilities doctrine, application of, YB04.203
        provider has no excess capacity, YB04.208–11
        vertical integration, YB04.206
    privatisation and deregulation, YB04.182
Telecommunications, access to—see Access

    People’s Republic of China, in, see People’s Republic of China

    preliminary contract, J04.6
    procedures, J04.6
Tenement applications
ballots, B96.13, B96.110–111
objections, B96.133–135
powers of mining registrar, B96.11–12
Tenement ballot
applications for exploration licences received at the same time, B95.15
quashing decision that applicants take part in, B95.15
Tenements, YB96.207-208, YB96.224-227
Termination of contract
    breach, for, YB02.464
    court, by, YB02.4
    default, for, YB02.464, YB02.466
    employment contract, of, YB02.4
    indenture, of, YB02.496-497
        effect of, YB02.497-498
    limitation of, YB02.467-495
        ad hoc implications, YB02.467-468
        express terms, by, YB02.467
        implied terms, by, YB02.467-495
    method of, YB02.462-463
    notice of, YB02.12-13
    power of, YB02.463
        exercise of, YB02.464
        limitation of, YB02.467-495
    restrictions, YB02.462
        construed, YB02.462
        express, YB02.462
        implied, YB02.462, YB02.467-495
    right of, YB02.4, YB02.13, YB02.462, YB02.463
        exercise of, YB02.464, YB02.467
        express, YB02.13
        limitation of, YB02.467-495
        unconditional, YB02.13
    standard contract clauses, YB02.464-466, YB02.474-483
    state mining agreements, of, YB02.466, YB02.483-486
Terms of contract
    enforcement of, YB02.18
    express terms, see Express terms
    implied, see Implied terms
    lease agreement, of, YB02.15
    modification of, YB02.18
exclusions, YB03.123–124
    international cooperation against, YB04.52
    maritime, see Maritime terrorism
    oil rigs, against, protocol for prevention, J00.38-40
risk, YB03.123–124    
Terrorism Insurance Act 2003, YB03.124
Third party access regulation, see Access regimes
Third parties

contracts with, risk allocation in—see Risk allocation
Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW), B96.9
Tidal power, YB00.309-311
    statutory regulation, YB00.310-311
Timor Gap, YB00.173-174
agreement, J01.1, J01.133-136
Area A
activities regulated, YB97.95
contract areas, YB97.85-86
wells drilled in, YB97.87
background, YB97.92-93
Bayu-Undan field, YB97.106
compensation for cancellation of part of exploration permit by government, B94.69–70
    conflicting international claims, YB00.174
costs, liability for, YB97.99
discovery, notification of, YB97.103
Elang Kakatua field, YB97.104
employment, YB97.88, YB97.102
gas reserves ownership, J01.1
ICJ ruling, B95.161–163
implementation, YB97.84-86
issues emerging under, YB97.107
joint authority, YB97.78-90, YB97.98
establishment of, YB97.81
organisation chart, YB97.82
production sharing with, YB97.98
joint development zone, B95.3
jurisdiction under, YB97.81, YB97.83, YB97.94
ministerial council, YB97.80, YB97.97
    offshore petroleum operations prior to Treaty, YB00.174-177
outline of, YB97.93-95
petroleum exploration activities, YB97.99-100
Petroleum Mining Code, YB97.83, YB97.95-96
petroleum operations, definition, YB97.95
Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Legislation Amendment Act 1994 (Cth)
inconsistency in territorial sea boundary rectified, B94.97
Production Sharing Contract, YB97.83, YB97.96-97
arbitration, YB97.97
awarding of, YB97.100
minimum requirements, YB97.96
multiple companies entering, YB97.97
sharing formula, YB97.84
subcontracts, tendering for, YB97.101
termination of, YB97.96
retention lease, YB97.105
sharing of work
contracts, YB97.89, YB97.90, YB97.101
employment, YB97.88, YB97.102
subcontracts, tendering for, YB97.101
taxation, YB97.84
    Treaty, see Timor Gap Treaty
unitisation, YB97.106
Zone of Cooperation, see Timor Gap Zone of Cooperation, B94.69, B95.162–163, YB97.79-80
BHP Petroleum’s role in, YB97.91
Timor Gap Treaty, YB02.609-610
    background, YB00.139-140, YB00.151-152
    code of conduct for petroleum operations, YB00.179
    continental shelf, concerned with, YB00.153
        delimitation under UNCLOS, YB00.168
        overlapping EEZ rights, YB00.166-168
    continuation of terms, YB00.156
    crude oil sales, fiscal regime, YB00.148
    East Timor's transition to, YB00.143-150, YB00.156-161, YB00.183-185
        customs and immigration laws, YB00.162
        decision-making bodies, cohesion, YB00.165
        exchange of notes, YB00.156-157, YB00.184-185
        fulfilment of treaty obligations, YB00.163-164
        impediments to succession, YB00.183
        interim arrangements, legal regime governing, YB00.161-162
        law of treaties, YB00.160-161, YB00.172
        memorandum of understanding, YB00.157-159, YB00.161, YB00.162, YB00.180-181
        re-evaluation of commercial estimates, YB00.164
        rights of PSC contractors, YB00.146, YB00.147, YB00.164-165
        succession of states, law on, YB00.159-160, YB00.172, YB00.180-183
        Transitional Arrangements Act 2000, YB00.185
        UNTAET role, YB00.145-146, YB00.147, YB00.156-158, YB00.161-164, YB00.172-173
    effect of East Timor’s independence on, J99.1, J99.201-202
    effect on petroleum industry, YB00.126
    employment provisions, YB00.162-163, YB00.179-180
    evaluation, YB00.140-141
    future of, YB00.161-171, YB00.186-193
    independence of East Timor, effect, YB00.138-193
        bargaining power, YB00.186
        media, influence of, YB00.188-189
        political instability, YB00.188
        renegotiation of Treaty, YB00.187, YB00.189
        termination of Treaty, YB00.189-190
        uncertainties, YB00.188-189
    International Court of Justice proceedings, YB00.169, YB00.180
    Joint Authority, YB00.139-140, YB00.154-155, YB00.165, YB00.178
    legislative support, YB00.180
    Ministerial Council, YB00.178
    offshore petroleum operations prior to, YB00.174-177
    opportunities created by, YB00.141-143
    overlapping continental shelf and EEZ rights, YB00.166-168
    overview, YB00.152-154
    Petroleum (Australia-Indonesia Zone of Cooperation) Act 1990, YB00.180
        termination of Treaty, effect, YB00.190-191
    production sharing contracts (PSC), YB00.140, YB00.147, YB00.179
        approval, YB00.165
        model contract, YB00.165, YB00.179
        rights of contractors, YB00.146, YB00.147, YB00.150, YB00.164-165, YB00.179, YB00.191-193
    purpose, YB00.177-178
    renegotiation, J00.187, YB00.187, YB00.189
    revocation of petroleum titles to allow, YB00.96
    stated positions of East Timor and Australia, YB00.188
    taxation code, YB00.179
    termination, YB00.189-191
    terms, YB00.178
    unitisation issues, YB00.166
    zone of co-operation, YB02.609-610
Timor Gap Zone of Cooperation, YB00.139, YB00.152, YB00.178
    Area A (ZOCA), YB00.139, YB00.140-141, YB00.154, YB00.155, YB00.170, YB00.178
    Bayu-Undan project, YB00.138, YB00.140, YB00.141-150
    Elang-Kakatua project, YB00.141, YB00.148
    Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), YB00.154
        overlapping continental shelf and EEZ rights, YB00.166-168
        renegotiation, YB00.187
    Greater Sunrise field, YB00.140, YB00.142
    independence of East Timor, effect, YB00.138-193
    investments within, YB00.141
    Joint Authority to administer, YB00.139-140, YB00.154-155, YB00.178
    level of proven reserves, YB00.140-141
    resource development, YB00.147-148
    sovereignty of continental shelf, YB00.154
    three Areas constituting, YB00.154, 178
    Treaty, see Timor Gap Treaty
UNTAET role, YB00.138, YB00.146, YB00.147, YB00.149, YB00.155, YB00.156-158, YB00.172-173
Timor Sea
    concession over oil-rich area, grant of, J04.3
    negotiations, Australia-East Timor, J04.214
    oil and gas resources, ownership of, J04.1-4
    seabed claims, J03. 107-11
    treaty done, J02.198-200
Timor Sea arrangements
    commercial exploitation, YB02.607
    continuation of, YB02.613
    endorsement of, YB02.613
    exchange of notes, YB02.613-614
    memorandum of understanding, YB02.613
    objectives of, YB02.613
    post independence, YB02.613-621
    seabed boundary agreement, YB02.607
        Australian response, YB02.619-621
        East Timorese position, YB02.618-619
    `Timor Gap', YB02.607-608
        negotiations, YB02.610
    Timor Sea Treaty, see Timor Sea Treaty
Timor Sea Treaty, YB02.611-618
background, YB03.365–368
    commencement of, YB02.613
    entry into force, YB03.367
    fiscal arrangements, YB02.615-616
    joint petroleum development area, see Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA)
    legal effect, YB03.368–369
    signature of, YB02.613, YB02.621
    terms, YB03.369–380    
    Timor Gap Treaty, replacement of, YB02.614
    unitisation, YB02.616-618
    without prejudice clause, YB02.614-615
Titles Validation Bill 1995 (WA)
introduction, B95.102
    Alien Tort Claims Act (US), J03.211-230, J04.4-6, J04.264-275
    cause of action, J04.269-272
    human rights abuses, use in, J04.5
    judicial cautions, J04.273-274
    motion to dismiss, J04.63-80
    non-justiciability, J04.63-80
    norm of customary international law, J04.266-268
    misapplied property, YB04.124
    environment and, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.58-61, YB02.63, YB02.66
    free trade agreements, see Free trade agreements    
    international, see International trade
    World Trade Organisation, see World Trade Organisation
Trade and Environment Committee (CTE), YB02.54-58
    aim of, YB02.55-56
    creation of, YB02.55
    objectives, YB02.56-58
Trade practices,  see Restrictive trade practices
    authorisations, YB03.64–65
    exclusionary provisions, YB03.58–60
    exclusive dealing, YB03.62–63
    export exemption and notification, YB03.63–64
    joint ventures, issues for, YB03.56–65
    price fixing, YB03.60–62
restrictive trade practices agreements, YB93.234–236, YB93.240
Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth)
    access regimes, see Access regimes
Competition Policy Reform Bill 1995 (Cth), amendments inserted by, YB95.254
    contravention by regulators, YB01.229
directors and companies
defences of, YB95.228
duties of, YB95.182
gas industry, issues for, YB01.366-372
gas supply arrangements, anti- competitive conduct in, YB95.268–271
long-term sales agreements, effect, YB95.272
market, identification of relevant, YB95.271–272
good faith, concept of, YB95.117
joint ventures exception in s 45A, B95.83
    legal relationship, under, YB02.451
mining contracts, claims or disputes in, use of s 52, YB95.95-96
misrepresentation under section 52
mere silence, whether constituting, YB94.345, YB94.378
remedies available, YB94.345, YB94.347
Sellars v Adelaide Petroleum NL; Poseidon Ltd v Adelaide Petroleum NL—see Sellars v Adelaide Petroleum NL; Poseidon Ltd v Adelaide Petroleum NL
Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline, in relation to, YB95.334-338, YB95.346-347
multi site franchising, YB96.371-376
national access regime, introduction of, YB95.254
    prohibited conduct, YB02.451-452
Pt IIIA, B96.62–84, YB96.576-578
access declarations, B96.75–79
access undertakings to the ACCC, B96.81–83
accreditation of “effective” access regimes, B96.79–81
application of access regime to joint ventures, B96.71–72
arbitral role of ACCC, B96.71
pricing issues, B96.68
protections for pipeline owner and existing users, B96.70–71
system extensions and capacity enhancements, B96.69–70
s 46, YB96.566-567, YB96.570-573
s 52, claim for damages for breach of, YB95.558–560
unconscionability, YB02.459-460
unconscionable conduct, prohibition of, YB94.174
Trade Practices Commission (TPC)
Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline, review in respect of, YB95.336–338
Moomba-Sydney Pipeline System Sale Act 1994 (Cth), settlement of access disputes under, YB95.344–346
Transfer duty, YB02.674-681
    dutiable transactions, YB02.674-681
        business assets, YB02.679-680
        dutiable property, YB02.674-681
        dutiable property, defined, YB02.675
        existing rights, YB02.677-679
        land, YB02.675-677
        new rights, YB02.680-681
        valuable rights, whether, YB02.681
Transfer of title
    mining lease, breach of alleged agreement to transfer (WA), J00.9-10
    Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth), under, J00.54-59
        becoming registered holder, J00.56-58
        co-holder, rights, J00.59
        mortgage, by, J00.57-58
        notice, J00.68-69
        registered holder, importance of being, J00.54-55
        rights of holders inter-se, J00.58-59
        unregistered transfer, J00.58
Transferable water entitlements (TWEs)
    access to information, YB01.483-484
    benchmarks for evaluating regime, YB01.481-484
    by-laws, YB01.495-496
    characteristics, YB01.478-479
    CoAG strategic framework, YB01.479
    impetus for implementation, YB01.479
    implementation mechanisms, YB01.493
        application, YB01.485
        cancellation, YB01.490-492
        conditions, YB01.489
        duration, YB01.489-490
        eligibility, YB01.485-486
        grant of, YB01.487-488
        new amendments, YB01.484
        objections to applications, YB01.488-489
        power to issue directions affecting, YB01.492
        register, YB01.497-498
        renewal, YB01.489-490
        restrictions, YB01.489
        security over, YB01.497-498
        statutory system, YB01.476
        suspension, YB01.490-492
        terms, YB01.489
        transfer of, YB01.492
        undertakings to grant, YB01.486-487
    local management plans, YB01.494-495
    local rules, YB01.495-496
    management plans, YB01.494-495
    market information, YB01.483-484, YB01.496-497
    property rights, YB01.481-482
    purpose, YB01.479
    regional management plans, YB01.494-495
    subregional management plans, YB01.494-495
    third party interests, YB01.482-483
    trading water entitlements, YB01.492-493
    transaction costs, YB01.482-483
    transfer of licences, YB01.492
        assessment of effect, YB01.493, YB01.502
    transitional period, YB01.498-499
    water resource information, YB01.483-484, YB01.496-497
Transnational disputes
    international standards, relevance to, YB04.47–54
    mediation, YB04.49
    recent examples, YB04.50–4
    corporations, YB04.73–4
Transparency International, YB00.1, YB00.8-11
    Australian member companies, YB00.12
    Corruption Perception Index, YB00.9, 23
    strategies against corruption, YB00.9-11
Transport industries
    access arrangements, YB04.183
        application procedure, YB04.207–8
        essential facilities doctrine, application of, YB04.203
        provider has no excess capacity, YB04.208–11
        vertical integration, YB04.206
    privatisation and deregulation, YB04.182
Treaty on the Zone of Co-operation
Australia and Indonesia, between, YB94.235
Agreement Establishing the South Pacific Regional Environment Program, YB97.58-59
objectives, YB97.58
    arbitration of disputes, YB00.68
        `clean slate' principle, YB00.181-182
        law on, YB00.159-160, YB00.172
        localised treaties, YB00.182
    Basel Convention for the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, YB97.59-62
main provisions, YB97.60
objectives, YB97.59
Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region, YB97.56-58
main provisions, YB97.57
objectives, YB97.56
protocols of 1986, YB97.58
    common law, influence on development of, YB00.65
    compliance monitoring mechanisms, YB00.68-69
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, YB97.65-67
implementation in Australia, YB97.66
main provisions, YB97.65
objective, YB97.65
    dispositive, YB00.181
    enforcement mechanisms, YB00.67-69, YB00.76-79
Framework Convention on Climate Change, YB97.62-65
main provisions, YB97.63
objectives, YB97.62
proposed protocol, YB97.64
Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, YB97.56
impact of on resources industry, YB97.49-77
    International Court of Justice, enforcement by, YB00.67-68
    international law of, YB00.160-161, YB00.181-183
    legislation implementing, YB00.64
Noumea Convention, YB97.56-58
    personal, YB00.181
    status in Australia, YB00.63-67
    succession of states, YB00.159-160, YB00.172, YB00.180-183
    Timor Gap, see Timor Gap Treaty
Timor Gap Treaty - see Timor Gap Treaty
treaty-making process, YB97.68-73
concerns about, YB97.69
recommendations of Senate Committee, YB97.69
reforms, YB97.70-76
appraisal of, YB97.73-76
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, YB97.51-56
amendments to, YB97.54
main provisions, YB97.52-56
objectives, YB97.51
    Vienna Convention on Succession of States 1978, YB00.159, YB00.160
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, YB00.160-161
Crown land, entitlement of holder to sue, YB94.325
damages, J01.194
deemed, YB94.330
definition, YB94.324, YB94.384
exploration, in course of
aerial activities, YB94.332, YB94.364
subsurface activities, YB94.335
surface activities, YB94.331
freehold and leasehold interests, entitlement of holder to sue, YB94.325
interests protected, YB94.324
international environmental harm, domestic claim, YB00.38
mining lease, J01.190-195
offshore mining and petroleum tenements, application to, YB94.325
profit a prendre, right of holder to sue, YB94.325
satellite, remote sensing by, YB94.365, YB94.384
statutory licence, right of holder to sue, YB94.328
tenant, suit by, YB94.325
waters, extension to, YB94.324
special purpose, club atmosphere, YB94.20
Trust, YB93.238, YB93.239, YB93.240
    dealing in, duty on, YB02.682
    mining tenement held in, J00.115-118
    stamp duty on, see Stamp duty
    fiduciary duty, see Fiduciary duty
    sale or partition, property on statutory trust for, YB01.121
    native title agreements, established by, YB00.543-546
        advantages, YB00.543
        beneficiaries, YB00.545
        categories of distribution, YB00.545
        charitable purposes, YB00.544
        custodian trustee, YB00.545-546
        transparency, YB00.546
        trust deed, YB00.543
        trustees, YB00.544-545
    taxation of, YB03.103

Consolidated Index: U


Contains Ampla

Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004

Bulletins (B) 1994-1996

Journals (J) 1997-2004





contract law, YB01.415 international, YB01.419

Underground gas storage

acquifer storage, YB99.537 acquisition of rights, YB01.514

artificial caverns, YB99.537

authority to own and operate facility, YB99.530-531 benefits, YB99.526

cessation of rights, YB01.512 coal seam methane, YB99.527 Crown ownership, YB99.529-532 definition, YB01.504

depleted reservoirs, YB99.521, YB99.536-537 duration of rights, YB01.516

environmental obligations, YB01.520 exclusivity of rights, YB01.517 government view, YB99.525-527

industry view, YB99.523-525 issues, YB01.507-510

landowner interaction, YB01.521 legal issues, YB99.527-535

approvals and authorisations, YB99.530-534 ownership, YB99.529-530

royalties, YB99.534

legislation, YB99.522, YB99.527-528 interaction with other laws, YB99.535

legislative reform, YB01.510-511 methods, YB99.536-538

natural or man-made facilities, YB01.505 obligations regarding, YB01.509, YB01.520-521 occupiers’ liability, YB01.520-521

operator standards and responsibility, YB01.521 ownership of stored gas, YB01.507-508, YB01.511-512

private ownership of reservoirs, YB01.513-514 reasons for, YB99.523-525, YB01.506-507

recent developments in Australia, YB99.522-523 reservoir storage, YB99.537-538

rights to reservoirs, YB01.508, YB01.512-516 royalties, YB99.534, YB01.509, YB01.518-520

security of rights, YB01.508, YB01.516-517 special exploration tenures, YB99.532-533 surface rights holders, YB99.534-535

termination of rights, YB01.512

third party access, YB99.533, YB01.509-510, YB01.516, YB01.522-524

types of storage facilities, YB01.505

Unconscionable conduct

arm's length, YB02.456-459 commercial context, in, YB02.453-456 good faith, lack of, YB02.41-42


legislation, YB02.459-460

prohibition by Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), YB94.174 unconscionability, doctrine of, YB02.452-453

underground gas storage authorisation, J01.70-73, J01.75-77 ownership, J01.68-70, J01.74-75 Western Australia, J01.65-77


subpoenaed documents, use of, YB04.104

UNIDROIT’s Principles of International Commercial Contract, YB01.417

Uniform Capital Allowance

acquisition and disposition of mining interests, J02.62-76 immediate deduction, J01.101

Unincorporated joint venture

access to upstream facilities, YB99.183-184 insolvency of participant in, YB99.157-160

joint venture agreement, YB99.157-158 management agreement, YB99.158-159 security over equity in company, YB99.160 single purpose vehicle, YB99.157-159

substantial company with other assets, YB99.159-160

Unit trust

project vehicle, as, YB03.103–104, YB03.161

United Kingdom

petroleum exploration permit bidding, YB01.454

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, YB00.78-79, B95.1–3 abandoned or disused oil or gas platforms to be removed for safety, B95.229 amendments to Pt XI, B95.1

commencement in force, B95.1 “continental shelf”, B94.5 delimitation between states, B95.3

dispute settlement provisions, YB00.68,79 enforcement, YB00.78-79

mining companies, benefits to, YB94.237 not yet ratified by Australia, B94.5 obligations of parties, YB00.76

UN Declaration Against Corruption and Bribery in International

Commercial Transactions, YB00.8

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992, YB00.76-77 enforcement, YB00.76

Kyoto Protocol, YB00.77 nations, YB02.72 obligations

binding, YB02.72 enforcement of, YB02.72

obligations of parties, YB00.76 ratification of, YB02.72

UN Global Compact

nature of, YB04.45

US mining companies, YB04.45

United States of America

Californian electricity market, see Californian electricity market

Climate Change Policy, YB03.306–307 global mergers

Alcoa Inc and Reynolds Metal Company, YB01.5-7

Antitrust Section of Department of Justice, approach of, YB01.5-7 control regulation, YB01.3-4

native title in—see Native title: the North American experience petroleum exploration permit bidding, YB01.454

Renewable Energy Policy, YB03.305–306


Unjust enrichment

concept of, YB94.367

exploration activities, restitution for, J99.117-118 information obtained by reprehensible means, YB94.366

Upstream facilities

access to, see Access to upstream facilities Uranium, YB93.312–318, YB93.320—see also Tailings

exploration, foreign investments, YB94.231 mines, current operation, YB94.231


Access, see Access to upstream facilities

Electricity, see Electricity

failure to supply claims, YB99.294-323 gas, see Gas

misleading and deceptive conduct

Esso (gas), YB99.304, YB99.306-309

Mercury Energy (NZ), YB99.316-317 representative proceedings, YB99.296 Sydney Water, YB99.300-302

representative proceedings against, see Representative proceedings

statutory liability

ESAA, YB99.318-323 Esso (gas), YB99.303-314

Mercury Energy (NZ), YB99.314-317, YB99.372-373

Sydney Water, YB99.300-302

Utility failure

Auckland blackout, J99.42, J99.43, J99.47-48 categories of loss, J99.44-45

direct damage or injury, J99.44, J99.45-46 legal and insurance implications, J99.42-53 liability considerations, J99.49

liability insurance of defendant, J99.50-53 Melbourne gas cuts, J99.42, J99.43, J99.49, J99.90 purely economic loss, J99.45, J99.46-48 representative actions, J99.49

Sydney water, J99.42, J99.43 Y2K compliance, J99.43

Utility service providers competition, YB02.407-411 monopoly, YB02.407

regulation of, YB02.407



Consolidated Index: V

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

constitutional—see Constitutional validity
Valmin Code, YB99.443-454, J99.96
    breaches, YB99.446
    checklist, YB99.448-450
    compliance adjudication criteria, YB99.452-454
    compliance of reports, YB99.447-448
    cornerstone protection, YB99.446-447
    development, YB99.443-444
    disciplinary control over AusIMM members, YB99.447
    structure, YB99.444-446
    mining valuation techniques, J99.95-96
    native title compensation, property valuation, J99.260-265
        coase theorem, J99.262
        contingent valuation, J99.261-262
        just terms, J99.264-265
        methodologies, J99.260-263
        recruiting outside help, J99.263-264
Valuation of mineral assets, YB93.334–357
assessment of value, YB93.342–344, YB93.347, YB93.354, YB93.356–357
director’s obligations, YB93.354–356
proposed code, YB93.334–336, YB93.344, YB93.345–346, YB93.349–353
regulation, YB93.347
“expert”, YB93.341–342, YB93.346–347
reasons, YB93.336–337
reports, YB93.338–341
Valuers’reports, see Experts’reports
    natural gas, take-up of, YB01.286
environmental matters—see Risk sharing
special conditions, YB93.44–52
liability for environmental damage, YB93.11–12
warranties, YB93.47–48
    law establishing safety zones around offshore oil rigs, J99.249, J99.252
Vicarious liability
environmental damage, YB93.11
    energy industry reform, see Energy industry reform (Victoria)
Vienna Convention on International Sale of Goods
    Australian, application in, YB03.205
    cross-border contracts, YB03.206
    declarations by Australia and China, YB03.207
    ‘‘goods’’, contracts involving, YB03.206
    incompleteness of, YB03.207
    overview, YB03.205
    People’s Republic of China, in, see People’s Republic of China (PRC)
    scope of application, YB03.206–207
Voidable transactions
    exceptions to voidability, YB99.143-144
    risk of, YB99.142-144
    uncommercial transactions, YB99.143
    unfair preference, YB99.143
    void dispositions, YB99.144
Voluntary administration
    administration period, YB99.147-149
    creditors, effect on, YB99.59-68
        proceedings, commencing, YB99.59-60
        secured creditors, YB99.64-68
        services, supply of, YB99.60-61
    creditors' meeting
        first, YB99.146
        second, YB99.149-150
    deed of company arrangement, YB99.149
        enforcement after execution of, YB99.150-153
    directors and officers, effect on, YB99.58-59
        dealings with company property, YB99.58-59
        delivery of books and records, YB99.59
        remaining in office, YB99.58
        report as to companies affairs, YB99.59
    enforcement of charge by financier, YB99.146-149
    introduction of regime, YB99.43
    investigation of company's affairs, YB99.147
    property owners and lessors, effect on, YB99.70-72
        administrator's liability for rent, YB99.71
        possession during moratorium period, YB99.70-71
        regulation of rights, YB99.78-79
    resource companies, YB99.80-126
    secured creditors, effect on, YB99.64-68
        administrator's control of property, YB99.67-68
        enforcement of charge, YB99.64-68
        floating charge, YB99.67
        perishable property, YB99.66
        regulation of rights, YB99.78
    usefulness of remedy, YB99.153
Voluntary administrator
    agent of company, as, YB99.49-50
    appointment, YB99.45-46
        holder of security, by, YB99.44
        multiple appointments, YB99.49
        receiver and manager, YB99.46-48
        security holder, by, YB99.45-46
    assuming control of property, YB99.67-68
    deed of company arrangement proposed by, YB99.75, YB99.77
    liability, YB99.51-55
        post-appointment contracts, YB99.53
        pre-appointment contracts, YB99.51
        pre-appointment leases, YB99.51-53
    powers, YB99.48-49
        directors' powers, YB99.58
    qualifications, YB99.50-51
    registered liquidator, YB99.50
    reorganisation options, opinion as to, YB99.72-79
    report, YB99.72-73
    scheme of arrangement proposed by, YB99.74-79

Consolidated Index: W

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Waanyi Peoples’ Native Title Application—see also Native Title, B96.1, B96.91, B96.108
pastoral leases, grant of
constitutional background in Queensland, YB95.489–490
extinguishment, legislative intent in relation to, YB95.492–493
Pastoral Leases Act 1869 (Qld), licences issued under, YB95.494–495
judgment on, YB95.506–507
legislative power, limitation on, YB95.487-489, YB95.495-496
“promise, contract or engagement”
alleged effect of, YB95.490–492
origins of terms, YB95.489–490
reservation in
Crown’s interest on settlement, YB95.497–498
effect of, YB95.497–499
extinguishment by reversion, YB95.498
legislative requirement, where, YB95.498–499
Wadi Wadi Peoples’ Native Title Application
fiduciary duty of Crown to native title holders, YB95.499–501
Waitangi Tribunal
    Maori claims to petroleum, see Maori claims to petroleum
see Gaming contract
Wandarang v Northern Territory
    Crown lease, YB02.164, YB02.167
    determination of native title, YB02.163-170
        traditions, YB02.163
    exclusive possession, YB02.164-167
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.135, YB02.164-167
    non-exclusive possession, YB02.135
    pastoral lease, YB02.135, YB02.165, YB02.167
Wandoo Alliance, B96.202–214
    determination of native title, YB02.127, YB02.142-152, YB02.191-192
        claimant group, YB02.144
        customs, YB02.144, YB02.148, YB02.149, YB02.152
        proof, YB02.143-145, YB02.147
        revocation of, YB02.152
        traditions, YB02.144, YB02.148, YB02.149, YB02.152
        validation of, YB02.148
        variation of, YB02.152
    exclusive possession, YB02.134, YB02.149, YB02.150, YB02.152
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.110, YB02.134, YB02.144-150, YB02.152, YB02.190, YB02.191, YB02.241
        partial, YB02.190
    grants, rights under, YB02.142-143, YB02.147, YB02.150-152
    mining lease, rights under, YB02.110, YB02.191
    pastoral lease, rights under, YB02.142, YB02.143, YB02.147, YB02.150, YB02.152, YB02.190, YB02.191
    recognition of native title rights, YB02.115
Warden, YB93.381–390
    administrative function (WA), J99.13
        discovery, availability when exercising, J99.125-126
certiorari against decision of, J00.75, J00.77
        error of law, J00.79
        jurisdictional error, J00.77-79
discretion, YB93.387, YB93.389–390
judicial function, exercise of (WA), J99.13
mineral lease application, role, J00.3
power in relation to late objections (Qld), J99.267-273
power to consider objections to mining lease (WA), J99.15-20, J99.28-41
public interest concerns, YB93.383, YB93.384, YB93.390
referees in Land and Resources Tribunal (Qld), J99.71
role, J99.31-32, YB93.382–388
Warden’s Court
    appeal from decision, J99.122-125
        District Court, to, J99.272
        right of, J99.272
        stay of execution pending, J99.124-125
        Supreme Court, to, J99.123-124
    bias, J04.143-144
    compensation determination, J99.83
    costs, J02.139-140
    decisions, online, J04.143    
    decoration that entry in register contrary to law, J02.142-144
    discovery, availability (WA), J99.125-126
    expert evidence, J03.203-204
    functions and powers 
    Mining Act 1978 (WA), under, J04.48-55    
    certificate of exemption, J04.135-139
    intervention by District Court (Qld), J99.269
jurisdiction, J98.373-374
jurisdiction increased (SA), J02.31- 33
jurisdiction in relation to Defence Practice Area, J99.102
limited jurisdiction in partnership, J01.17
no case submission, J04.34-35
powers, J01.28-30
    powers and functions, J03. 189-210
    practice and procedure,  J03.193-194, J03.425-427
compensation proceedings, B96.122, B96.167–168
powers and procedures, B96.122
replacement by Land and Resources Tribunal (Qld), J99.71
replacement of, J98.366
review, whether decision final or interlocutory, J99.122-125
reviewability of decisions, J03. 90-92
subpoena, J01.28-30
warden of mines (WA), J03.189-210
type of option, YB93.107
environmental matters, YB93.19–33, YB93.59
Waste—see also Tailings
defined, YB93.46, YB93.305
    export of hazardous waste, J03.119-121
rock, YB93.318
Northern Territory, YB93.320
Water, YB96.340-341, J97.166-180, see also Natural resources
access arrangements, YB04.183, 424–5
        Minerals Council recommendations, YB04.426–7
        Productivity Commission Review, YB04.198–9
allocation, J01.232-233
Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites (ANZECC), YB04.444–5
    COAG Agreement (2004), YB04.422–3    
    COAG strategic framework of, YB00.516, YB00.517-521, YB01.479-480
COAG Water Reform Framework, YB04.423
    contamination, YB04.439
        best practice contamination assessment principles, YB04.445–6
        groundwater standards, YB04.445
        investigation level guidelines, YB04.441–2
        risk assessment, YB04.442–3
    determination of native title, YB02.134-142, YB02.206
    exclusive rights, YB02.134, YB02.136, YB02.138, YB02.139, YB02.141, YB02.166
“fit for purpose” standards, YB04.427–8
    Great Artesian Basin projects, YB00.534-535
    Groundwater, see Groundwater
Groundwater Investigation Levels (GILs), YB04.441–2
        law reform, YB00.516-536, YB01.480
        Australian Capital Territory, YB00.533
        mining industry, implications for, YB00.534-535
        New South Wales, YB00.526-528
        Northern, YB00.531-532
        Queensland, YB00.528-529
        South Australia, YB00.528
        Tasmania, YB00.532-533
        Victoria, YB00.530-531
        Western Australia, YB00.524-526
licensing, J97.169-171
licensing provisions, J01.30-31
management, framework for, YB04.423–5, YB04.437
        resources sector, implications, for, YB04.425–7
        State responses, YB04.424–5
    mine dewatering, YB01.484-485
    mining industry, use in, YB01.475-476
        deficiencies in statutory framework, YB01.476-478
        proclamation of groundwater areas, YB01.485
        statutory licensing systems, YB01.476
    mining tenements, J97.167, J97.171-175
miscellaneous licence, to J01.47-J01.248, J01.249-250, J01.250-253
    Murray Darling Basin Commission, YB00.522-524
        cap on diversions, YB00.523-524
    National Competition Policy, YB00.516, YB00.517-521
        allocations and entitlements, YB00.518-519
        assessment of implementation, YB00.521-522
        environmental issues, YB00.520-521
        institutional reform, YB00.519
        pricing, YB00.517-518
        public consultation, YB00.520
        public education, YB00.520
        trading, YB00.519
National Water Initiative, YB04.423
    national water policy, YB01.480
    permit invalid, J01.206-209
privatisation and deregulation, YB04.182
    property rights, YB01.481-482
    public ownership, YB00.249
    resource, YB02.134, YB02.139-140
    right to exploit water power, YB00.320-322
        Aboriginal land rights, YB00.322
        common law rights, YB00.321-322
    riparian disputes, YB00.249
    sea, determination of native title, YB02.134-142
        exclusive rights, YB02.136, YB02.138, YB02.138, YB02.141
        fishing, YB02.139-141
        low water mark, YB02.136-137, YB02.139, YB02.141
        offshore place, YB02.137-138
        territorial limits, YB02.137, YB02.139
        traditional connection, YB02.139, YB02..141
    State and Territory legislation, YB00.524-533, YB00.536
    tradable water rights, J01.31
    transferable entitlements, J97.179
    transferable water entitlements, see Transferable water entitlements (TWEs)
use, approval procedure, YB04.427–8
        integration of, YB04.428–9
        New South Wales, YB04.432–4
        Queensland, YB04.430–2
        Victoria, YB04.434–7
    wastewater, YB04.427
        Water Act (Qld), J01.231-234
Water Act (WA)
        amendments to, YB01.484
        definitions in, YB01.484-485
    Water Resources Act 1997 (SA), J04.227-229
        existing user, J04.227-229    
water trading markets
        mining industry, NSW, YB01.499-500
            recommendations for mining industry, YB01.500
    waterways, rights to
        compensation for, YB02.120
        confirmation of, YB02.117
        grant of, YB02.120
    Western Australia’s resources, audit of, YB01.475
    Western Mining Corporation water projects, YB00.534-535
Water contamination
    misleading or deceptive conduct, YB99.300-302
    representative proceedings, YB99.295, YB99.298
        statement of claim, YB99.299-302
    statutory liability, YB99.299-302
Water law, J00.279-281
Water reform (NSW), B96.10
water resource management
    conservation and management, J03.67-80, J03.496-502
    government agreements, J03.69-72
    legislative reform (Qld), J03.496-502
    principle of comity, J03.72-73
    role of Commonwealth Government, J03. 75-78
Water supply
    damages for contamination, liability of statutory  corporation, J99.205
    failure, legal and insurance implications, J99.42-53
    Sydney crisis, J99.42, J99.43
Wellhead value
continuity of royalty interests, YB93.279
cost allocation, YB93.284–285
cost of capital, YB93.280–282
costs upstream, YB93.283–284
depreciation of capital, YB93.279–280
forward sales, YB93.282–283
government taxes, YB93.282
head office overheads, YB93.284
leasing costs, YB93.282
non-arm’s length sales, YB93.285
project financing, YB93.280–282
take-or-pay provisions, YB93.282–283
unrecouped deductions, YB93.283
Western Australia
gas industry in
Energy Board of Review, review and report by, YB95.356–357
Dampier to Bunbury pipeline—see Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline Scheme
Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement—see Goldfields Gas Pipeline Agreement
historical development of, YB95.356–357
Petroleum Pipelines Act 1969 (WA), access regime under, YB95.391–392
State Energy Commission of Western Australia (SECWA)
original role of, YB95.356
separate utilities, division into, YB95.357, YB95.358
structural reform, introduction of, YB95.358–360
contracts, disaggregation of, YB95.358
Coordinator of Energy, establishment of, YB95.359
Director of Energy Safety, establishment of, YB95.359
gas and electrical utilities, separation of, YB95.358
open access, development of, YB95.359–360
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993—see Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA)
native title
effect of Commonwealth legislation on, YB94.66
inconsistency of State and federal Acts, YB94.83
pending action with Commonwealth on validity of sections, YB94.73
response to Commonwealth legislation, YB94.17, YB94.41
Western Australia v Commonwealth, B95.102–105
Commonwealth and state law, inconsistency between, YB95.538–539
compulsory acquisition of land, YB95.546–547
Constitution, powers conferred by, YB95.539
background to case, YB95.536–537
decision, YB95.554
establishment of colony, survival of native title after, YB95.540–542
extinguishment, liability to, YB95.543–547
Land Act 1933 (WA), limitation to public purposes under, YB95.544–545
Mining Act 1978 (WA), under, YB95.545–546
Petroleum Act 1967 (WA), under, YB95.546
impermissible discrimination, YB95.550–552
Land (Titles and Traditional Usage) Act 1993 (WA)
extinguishment of native title under, YB95.537
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), inconsistency with, YB95.542-543, YB95.547
s 5, validity of, YB95.547
s 7, rights of traditional usage, creation of, YB95.542–543
legislative powers of state, control of, YB95.549–550
Mabo (No 2), reference to decision, YB95.537
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), challenge to validity of
amendments by Senate, introduction of, YB95.552
constitutional powers to enforce, YB95.548–549
impugned provisions, validity of, YB95.549–552
judiciary, invalid delegation of powers to, YB95.553
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), consistency with, YB95.552–553
principle submissions, YB95.537–539
questions in proceedings, answers to, YB95.554–557
terra nullius, concept of, YB95.541
Western Lands Lease
    native title and pastoral leases, J00.190-191
Western Mining Corporation Ltd v Commonwealth, YB94.543
acquisition of property, YB94.553
just terms, on, YB94.555
action, YB94.546
appeal by Commonwealth, YB94.566
case structure, YB94.548
facts, YB94.544
findings, YB94.547
just terms, acquisition of property on, YB94.555
petroleum industry, implications for, YB94.563
exploration permit as, YB94.550
what is, YB94.548
statement of claim, critical aspects of, YB94.547
Western Power Corporation (WA)
accountability, B95.14
establishment of, B95.14
Wik case, J00.86-87, J00.190-191
    effect of decision, YB02.109
    native title
        common law, at, YB02.109
        extinguishment, whether, YB02.109
    pastoral lease, grant of, YB02.109
    significance of decision, YB02.109
Wik people’s claim, B96.1, B96.91, B96.162—see also Native title
activities of lessees, YB97.400
fiduciary relationship of Crown, YB97.404
implications, YB97.397-405, J97.27-68
history of native title, necessity of, YB97.401-402
intention of grant, YB97.402-403, YB97.404
issues, YB97.387
legislative responses, J97.40, J97.52-53
Mabo v Queensland (No 2), YB97.385-387
majority views, YB97.394-397
Gaudron J, YB97.398-399
Gummow J, YB97.399
Toohey J, YB97.394-396
postscript, YB97.396, YB97.399-400
minority view, YB97.388-394
common law doctrines, YB97.391-392
Native Title Amendment Bill, YB97.407—see also Native Title
pastoral leases, grant of
constitutional background in Queensland, YB95.489–490
draft Code of Practice, issue of, YB95.506
extinguishment, legislative intent in relation to, YB95.492–493
legislative power, limitation on, YB95.487–489
“promise, contract or engagement”
alleged effect of, YB95.490–492
origins of terms, YB95.489–490
Racial Discrimination Act, YB97.400
rights, inconsistency between, YB97.389, YB97.397, YB97.400
State ownership of minerals, YB97.404
summation, J97.38
suspension of native title, YB97.404
10 Point Plan, YB97.407
Wilful misconduct
exemption clauses in joint operating agreements for, YB94.165, YB94.187
meaning of, YB94.165
Windarra nickel project, YB96.436-438
wind energy resources guidelines for development (Vic), J03.35-36
wind farms
    planning conditions, J01.122-124
Wind power, YB00.299-300, YB00.305
    capital costs, YB00.299
    commercial performance, YB00.300
    disadvantages, YB00.300
    environmental incentive to use, YB00.291
    predictions as to use of, YB00.288
Woodward Report
    Aboriginal Land Councils, see Land Councils; Prescribed Body Corporate
    recommendations, YB02.112
    investigative powers, YB04.86
workman’s lien
    mining lease, J01.217
Workplace agreements
    freedom of association, whether breach of, YB00.579
        BHP Iron Ore case, YB00.582-589
        Cth legislation, YB00.580-581, YB00.582
        international conventions, YB00.581-582
        WA legislation, YB00.580
    industrial matters between parties, YB00.580
    inspection, YB00.580
    overriding award, YB00.579
    parties, binding on, YB00.580
    relief, parties seeking, YB00.580
    trade union as party, YB00.580
Workplace health and safety
    directors’ liability
        Australian Capital Territory, YB03.514
        Commonwealth, YB03.514
        New South Wales, YB03.511
        Queensland, YB03.512
        South Australia, YB03.512–512
        Tasmania, YB03.513
        Victoria, YB03.511–512
        Western Australia, YB03.513
Workplace relations
coal industry, in the, YB97.211-230, YB97.345
Coal Industry Tribunal, YB97.213-215
need for change, YB97.212
drugs and alcohol—see Drugs in the workplace
Workplace Relations Act
AIRC, role of, YB97.226-228
benefits of, YB97.216
employment arrangements, YB97.216-220
award, YB97.216
certified agreements, YB97.217-218
registered individual contracts, YB97.218-219
freedom of association, YB97.225
industrial action, regulation of, YB97.220-25
bans clause, YB97.222-225
permitted, YB97.221
prohibited, YB97.220
types of, other, YB97.222-225
unfair dismissal, changes to, YB97.228
Work programs
    waiver of, J99.1, J99.99
World Bank
    corruption, measures against, YB00.8, YB00.9, YB00.10
poverty eradication, goal of, YB04.72
        Prototype Carbon Fund, YB00.388-389, YB00.392
    social-engineering mandate, YB04.60
World Bank Extractive Industry Review (EIR)
    focus of, YB04.66–7
    practical perspective, YB04.70
    recommendations, YB04.68
World Bank Guidelines, YB03.167
World Heritage Committee, YB00.69, YB00.74
    establishment, YB00.74
    functions, YB00.74
    Kakadu National Park, consideration of status of, YB00.69, YB00.74-76, YB00.205-206
    List of World Heritage in Danger, YB00.74
    members, YB00.74
    World Heritage List, YB00.74
World Heritage Convention
    committee to monitor compliance see World Heritage Committee
    Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act implementing, YB00.217
    legislation implementing, YB00.64-65, YB00.217
    obligations of member states, YB00.217-218
World Heritage List, B96.38–40, B96.119
areas recorded on, YB94.235
World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983, YB94.235
World Trade Organisation (WTO)
    Agreement on subsidies and Countervailing Measures, YB03.119–123
    Appellate Body, YB02.59-61, YB02.63-65
        appeals to, YB02.59, YB02.60, YB02.63-65
        human health, YB02.61, YB02.63
        natural resources, YB02.63
        violation of, YB02.63
    China’s accession to, YB03.207
    dispute resolution, see Dispute resolution
    Dispute Settlement Body, see Dispute Settlement Body
    environmental objectives, enforcement of, YB02.49, YB02.57
    GATT/WTO rules, YB02.49-50, YB02.55, YB02.59, YB02.61, YB02.64, YB02.66
        challenge to, YB02.59
        compliance, YB02.64
        conflicts, YB02.66-68
        conformity of, YB02.59
        interpretation of, YB02.62
    members, YB02.54, YB02.59
        rights of, YB02.54
    nation status, YB02.65
        consumer protection, YB02.64
        fair competition, YB02.64
        market transparency, YB02.64
    panel, YB02.59-61
    role of, YB02.50
    rules see GATT/WTO rules above
    sanctions, YB02.59
    standards, YB02.60-61, YB02.64
    Trade and Environment Committee, see Trade and
        Environment Committee

    trade and environment relationships, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.57-59
        principles of, YB02.56
    trade measures, use of, YB02.49, YB02.50, YB02.58-61
World Trade Organisation Agreement
    reforms under, YB02.59
Writ of certiorari
necessary elements for grant, B95.16–17
recommendation affected legal rights of applicant, B95.18


Consolidated Index: Y

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Yanner v Eaton
    determination on native title, YB02.176-178
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.176-178
    ownership, YB02.177-178
    airspace, determination of native title, YB02.136
    exclusive possession, right of, YB02.125-126
    sea, determination of native title, YB02.134-142
        common law, at, YB02.136-138, YB02.141
        exclusive rights, YB02.136, YB02.138, YB02.139, YB02.141
        fishing, YB02.139-141
        low water mark, YB02.136-137, YB02.139, YB02.141
        offshore place, YB02.137-138
        resources, YB02.134, YB02.139-140
        territorial limits, YB02.137, YB02.139
        traditional connection, YB02.139, YB02.141
Yorta Yorta
    aboriginal law, YB02.154
    determination of native title, YB02.153-158
        abandonment, YB02.153
        common law, at, YB02.155, YB02.158
        connection, YB02.135, YB02.158
        continuity of use, YB02.158
        customs, YB02.154, YB02.156-157
        loss of connection, YB02.135
        occupation, YB02.154
        proof, YB02.154
        revival, YB02.153
        traditions, YB02.154, YB02.156-157
    environment, protection of, YB02.154
    establishment of native title, YB02.156-157
    exclusive possession, YB02.153
    extinguishment of native title, YB02.155
    heritage, protection of, YB02.154

Consolidated Index: Z

Contains Ampla
Yearbooks (YB) 1993-2004
Bulletins (B) 1994-1996
Journals (J) 1997-2004

Zone of Cooperation, see Timor Gap Zone of Cooperation